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Full text of "Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society"

TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



Staacjpisrite ||0rticitItaraI Sflrietg, 



FOR THE YEAR 1881. 



PART I. 




BOSTON : 
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY 
1881. 



The Committee on Publication and Discussion, take this oppor- 
tunity to repeat what the}* have heretofore stated, that the Society 
is not to be held responsible for the certainty of the statements, 
the correctness of the opinions, or the accuracy of the nomenclature 
in the papers and discussions now or before published, all of 
which must rest on the credit or judgment of the respective writers 
or speakers, the Societ\' undertaking only to present these papers 
and discussions, or the substance of them, correctly. The 
award of a prize or gratuit} T for an Essa}' is not to be understood 
as implying that the Committee approve it in ever}' particular, 
but only that the}* believe it calculated, on the whole, to promote 
the science or art of Horticulture. 

Benjamin G. Smith, Chairman. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



^mmliwtitx giortic ttlttttal Jfowtg* 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 1, 1881. 

A duly notified stated meeting was holden at 11 o'clock, the 
President, Hon. Francis B. Hayes, in the chair. 

The President delivered his annual address, as follows : — 
Ladies and Gentlemen of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society : 

In accordance with the usages of the Society we have assembled 
at the opening of the year to review the doings of the past, to 
rejoice together in what has been accomplished, — to regret our 
shortcomings, with determined resolves of amendment in the 
future, — to renew our pledges of devotion to the interests of the 
Society, — and, with united will, to proceed to do in our day what is 
rightfully expected of us, as successors of the good men, who in 
wisdom and liberality founded, established, and carried on to 
success this institution as a means for the material and moral 
improvement of mankind. 

Acknowledging with profound gratitude what has been done by 
the departed, as well as by those who now live to receive our 
thanks, and to counsel and cheer us in the performance of duty, 
let us see what our situation is at the present time, and consider 
what is incumbent upon us to do, that we may perpetuate and 
enlarge the usefulness of this Society for the advantage of our 
own as well as of future generations. 

By the Treasurer's report, submitted a year since, it appeared 
that the Society then possessed property of the estimated value of 
$277,045.23, and it owed $84,500. The debt consisted of $60,000, 



6 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

secured by a mortgage of our real estate ; a loan of $12,000, not 
bearing interest, payable to Harvard College in 1899, this being 
the amount we have the use of, by the gift of the late Josiah 
Stickney, for the purchase of books ; a note of $12,000, which we 
borrowed originally of the Market National Bank, and have paid 
within a few months by borrowing the same amount for that pur- 
pose of another bank ; and the sum of $500 due the Committee 
on Publication. 

We depend mainly upon the real estate belonging to the 'Society, 
and upon what we annually receive from Mount Auburn to meet 
our expenses. It will be seen by the above report that we received 
in 1879 from rents $14,950.80, and from Mount Auburn $2,212.41. 
Our Treasurer stated that our finances were not self-sustaining at 
the date of his report last year. 

I am happy to inform you that I learn from the Treasurer our 
financial situation is now somewhat better than it was a year ago. 
That the income from our real estate for the year 1880 was about 
$4,000 more than it was the previous year, and that Mount Auburn 
will give us also a small increase of revenue. The Treasurer esti- 
mates that our expenses have increased about $1,300, for the year 
1880, over those of the previous year. This would show an im- 
provement in net income of about $3,000 for the past year. We 
cannot rely upon the accuracy of the statement, as it necessarih' 
is but an approximate one, the Treasurer being obliged to wait to 
receive the accounts from Mount Auburn before he submits his 
annual report. So favorable a statement as this could not have 
been presented, if proper repairs had been made upon our build- 
ing, which are imperatively demanded. 

Our exhibitions are not so important and beautiful as they 
might be made ; and to secure an improvement of them, larger 
sums than we have lately been able to afford, should be appro- 
priated for prizes to stimulate exhibitors, and to induce them to 
display their products in our halls. 

Moreover, our exhibitions should be made better known to the 
public than they have been. During the past year they have been 
excellent, and worthy of greater attention than they have com- 
manded. The community do not understand how beautiful and 
interesting they are, and it seems to me desirable that measures 
should be taken through the public prints, by advertisements and 
otherwise, to call attention to them, and tHus not only the public 
but this Society would be much benefited. 



ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT HAYES. 7 

The chief part of the revenue of foreign horticultural societies 
is derived from entrance fees paid by visitors, and the exhibitions 
of most of the societies of this country are sustained by the visi- 
tors. At Worcester, in our own State, the sums derived from 
annual exhibitions have been very considerable, far exceeding 
the receipts of our Society from the same source, and this result 
has been obtained not only by the personal efforts of committees 
having the matter in charge, but by judiciously advertising the 
exhibitions in various ways by which many visitors have been 
attracted to them. It certainly is strange that though our Society 
has its home in the largest city of New England, with a building 
containing all the conveniences which man could desire for the 
display of horticultural products, and situated in the most eligible 
locality for access by visitors, and its exhibitors and patrons 
those who possess the most extensive and beautiful gardens and 
conservatories in Massachusetts, many of these gentlemen being 
distinguished throughout the world as proficients in the science 
and art of horticulture ; yet its exhibitions are poorly attended, 
and its receipts from visitors are less than those derived from the 
show of many a county society in the country. I call attention to 
this subject believing that some means should be adopted to bring 
our exhibitions more into public notice, by which the pleasure and 
improvement of the people at large would be much increased, and 
the Society benefited from the increase of admission fees, so as 
to enable it to enhance the beauty and increase the usefulness of 
its exhibitions. 

As I have before stated our building requires repairs. It needs 
them both outside and inside. I think it would be desirable to 
expend from three to live thousand dollars very soon to preserve 
and judiciously improve our estate. It is most unwise to allow 
our elegant structure to deteriorate for want of proper care. Un- 
less important repairs are made forthwith, a ver} r great expenditure 
will soon be wanted to put the estate in a tenantable condition. 

We have a debt of $12,000 incurred by spending in past years 
more than our income. Upon assuming the duties of the office to 
which you elected me, my attention was particularly directed to 
the financial situation of the Society, and though, bj r the rules 
governing us, it does not belong to } T our President to attend to the 
management of the finances of the Society, yet it is expected of him 
to have a general acquaintance with and supervision of its affairs 



8 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

to qualify him for the duty imposed upon him by the Constitution 
and By-Laws, " to report from time to time what measures, in his 
judgment, are necessary to promote its objects and extend its use- 
fulness." The necessities of the times, and the pressing wante 
of the Society, as I have been informed, occasioned the debt ; but 
now, in the improved financial condition of the country, in which 
this Society and its members generally participate, it seems to me 
we should take measures to discharge this incumbrance as soon as 
possible, and resolve that in the future the Society shall not expend 
more than its income. We must insist upon it that in no event 
shall we allow the Society's fixed investments to be lessened or 
incumbered under our management. I, therefore, call upon all 
members of our association, whether they are responsible or not 
in any manner for the creation of the debt, to unite as friends of 
the Society in discharging this debt. It must not be fixed per- 
manently upon the Society. We ought not to borrow money to 
renew indefinite^ the obligation. We must not place any mortgage 
on our estate to provide for its payment. It should In- met and 
paid as early as possible during the present year, and if you will 
all aid, according to your means, the debt will soon be paid. 

I again call your attention to the importance of making ai-ran-. 
ments so that the library shall be used as a place of quiet study, 
for the accommodation of our members. It is degraded by its 
present use as an office where the business of the superintendent 
and of the transient tenants of the halls, in their multifarious 
occupations, is carried on so as to disturb and seriously annoy 
those who desire to make a legitimate use of the room . It wholly 
subverts the proper use of the library as a reading-room and for 
literary labor, and makes it a noisy business office, thus almost 
entirely setting aside and disregarding the intentions of those who 
have contributed liberally to provide a quiet resort, well furnished 
with books, for students in the science and art of horticulture, and 
a place which members can. frequent to inform themselves, through 
the periodicals of the day, of the progress of the world in those 
matters in which they are especially interested. It is also the 
room where we should come together on stated days to listen to, 
and participate in, the discussions wJiich you have instituted, un- 
disturbed by the interruptions of business. 

It seems to me not necessary to wait until additional buildings 
are obtained before we accomplish the desired object, as by some 



ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT HAYES. 9 

inexpensive alterations we can better provide for the tenants of 
the halls, and allow sufficient accommodation for the business 
wants of our officers. 

In this connection I would inform you that the Executive Com- 
mitter unanimously recommend to you amendments of the Socie- 
( (institution and By-Laws, so as to allow the duties of treas- 
urer, superintendent, and librarian to be performed by more than 
one person, instead of its being required, as it is now, that one 
person shall discharge all those different duties. It will, if you 
approve of the recommendation, be left to the Executive Commit- 
tee to select, from time to time, such person or persons as they 
think best, for the interests of the Society, to fill those offices. 

It gives me pleasure to bear witness to the able and faithful 
manner in which your different committees have discharged, during 
the past year, the duties respectively committed to them. By 
leading their reports you will observe that, in many respects, the 
exhibitions of 1880 have shown marked improvement over those 
of previous years. The Society has never had, I understand, so 
large and beautiful displays of fruits and flow r ers as have been 
exhibited the past year. Our collection of books has been ren- 
dered more valuable by the judicious action of the Library Com- 
mittee in making additions to it. Your Committee of Arrange- 
ments have been diligent in the performance of their duties, and 
discharged them in such a manner as to give great satisfaction to 
the members of the Society. 

I call your attention to the admrrable manner in which your 
Secretary has edited the History of the Society, and reported its 
doings. I regret that he has not been able, from lack of time, to 
cause the publication of the Transactions of the Society beyond 
the year 1879, but trust that we shall soon see the other parts in 
print, and that-circumstances will never again prevent the publi- 
cation of the Society's Transactions in the early part of the year 
after they have taken place. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — It must never be forgotten by us that 
we owe a duty to those who, by their wisdom, liberality, and labors, 
founded and established this Society for the public good. Their 
work was not done for themselves and for us alone, but for all 
future generations. It devolves upon us, in accepting their legacy, 
to transmit it to our children not only unimpaired, but improved 
and strengthened by our work and contributions. While grate- 



10 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

fully remembering what has been done, it is not for us to rest sat- 
isfied with what has been accomplished, but, stimulated by the 
example of our predecessors, we must do our work as they did 
theirs, in a generous 'spirit, for posterity as well as for our own 
generation, or we shall not be worthy successors of those who 
have done so much for us. Our Society is yet in its infancy, and 
I believe there is a great future for it. There are those with us, 
and I hope there are many, who do not believe that nothing more 
need to be done, or will be done, by the members of this Society 
to increase its usefulness and add to its glory. We have inherited 
much, but we should not allow our inheritance to impair our energy 
or make us slothful in the performance of our duties. Let us 
always bear in mind that there is much before us to do. To the 
development of horticultural knowledge throughout the world this 
Society should make a liberal contribution. It has done something 
already, and we can look with great pleasure upon what has been 
accomplished under its auspices in introducing new varieties of 
plants and improved fruits, in the embellishment of gardens and 
grounds throughout the country, and in the dissemination of hor- 
ticultural information. Yet we must not stop here. We are still 
but on the threshold in our investigations of the beauties and 
resources of nature, which will employ eternity to disclose. We 
have, I trust, but made a beginning of the great work this Society 
is destined to accomplish. We must not wait for others, or rely 
upon a few persons to bear the burden attending this work ; but 
we must all do what our hands find to do, to build still higher and 
on deeper and more solid foundations the institution entrusted to 
our care, that it may ever be a blessing not only to ourselves and 
this community, but to all mankind. 

On motion of Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, the thanks of the 
Society were voted to the President for his address, and a copy 
was requested for publication. 

The President presented the following amendments to the Con- 
stitution and By-Laws, recommended by the Executive Committee : 

Voted, That the thirteenth and sixteenth sections of the Consti- 
tution and By-Laws of this Society be amended by striking out in 
the thirteenth section the words, "He shall also act as Superin- 
tendent of the Building, subject to the orders of the Finance Com- 
mittee, and shall attend to the care and letting of the same, and 



INVITATION TO THE POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 11 

the collection of rents, and other income of the Society." And, 
also, in the same section, strike out the words, " He shall also act 
as Librarian under the direction of the Library Committee." And 
strike out in the sixteenth section, after the word " appoint," in 
the sixth line of the printed copy of the By-Laws, the words, " A 
Treasurer and a Secretary of the Society," and insert, after the 
words in the seventh and eighth lines of said copy, " Whenever a 
vacancy shall occur," the words, "A Treasurer, a Secretary, a 
Superintendent of the Building, and a Librarian of the Society, and 
define their respective duties, except where these are determined 
by the By-Laws." 

The proposed amendment was read once and passed to a second 
reading by a unanimous vote ; and, having been read a second 
time, was laid over until the stated meeting in April. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder presented a recommendation from the 
Executive Committee that the Society invite the American Pomo- 
logical Society to meet in Boston, in September next, and on 
motion of William C. Strong, the following vote was unanimously 
passed : 

Voted, That the Massachusetts Horticultural Society hereby 
extends to the American Pomological Society, a most cordial 
invitation to hold its Eighteenth "Session, on September 14th, and 
succeeding days, with the usual courtesies for their accommodation. 

Mr. Wilder, as President of the American Pomological Society, 
accepted the invitation with hearty thanks, and stated that the 
invitation would involve no expense to the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society. 

On motion of John B. Moore, it was Voted, That the Executive 
Committee, in connection with the Finance Committee, be directed 
to carry out the recommendations in the President's address, con- 
cerning alterations in the building. 

The Annual Report of the Committee on Vegetables was read 
by Charles N. Brackett, Chairman, and the Annual Report of the 
Committee of Arrangements, by John B. Moore. These reports 
were severally accepted and referred to the Committee on Publica- 
tion. 

William H. Spooner moved to take up the vote offered by him 



12 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

at the meeting on the 11th of December, 1880, and then laid on 
the table. The motion was carried, and it was 

Voted, That the Prospective Prize of $40 for the best Seedling- 
Flowering, or Foliage Plant (other than Eose, Camellia, Azalea 
Indica, Tree Pseony, Hardy Rhododendron, or Hardy Azalea), be 
awarded to Joseph Tailby for his Seedling Carnation, Grace 
Wilder, as recommended in the Report of the Committee on Plants 
and Flowers. 

The following named persons were proposed for membership in 
the Society : J. Montgomery Sears, of Boston, and William 
Power Wilson, of Boston, by the President ; John E. Russell, of 
Leicester, and John H. Moore, of Concord, by John B. Moore ; and 
Edward Baker Wilder, of Dorchester, by Hon. Marshall P. 
Wilder. The President urged upon the members the importance 
of zealous efforts in adding to the membership of the Society. 

Charles M. Hovey moved the appointment of a Committee of 
three, to procure a portrait of the President to be added to the 
series in the hall of the Society. The motion was unanimously 
passed, the question being put by Vice-President John B. Moore, 
who appointed, as the Committee, Charles M. Hovey, Robert 
Manning, and Joseph H. Woodford. 

Benjamin G. Smith, Chairman of the Committee on Publication 
and Discussion, announced that the meetings for discussion the 
present season, would commence on the next Saturday, with the 
reading of a paper by William H. Spooner, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Plants and Flowers, on the " Cultivation of the Rose," 
to be followed by a discussion. 

Adjourned to Saturday, January 8. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 8, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
President Hayes in the chair. 

The President announced the appointment, by the Executive 



HARDY ROSE CULTURE. 13 

Committee, of Edwin W. Buswell as Treasurer, and Robert Man- 
ning as Secretary, of the Society. 

David Allan, of Belmont, was proposed by Charles M. Hovey, 
as a member of the Society, and Edwin Faxon, of Boston, by E. 
H. Hitchings. 

Further time was granted to the Treasurer, to make his Report. 

Adjourned to Saturday, January 15. 



MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

Immediately after the adjournment of the business meeting, a 
meeting for discussion was held, at which the following paper by 
William H. Spooner, Chairman of the Committee on Plants and 
Flowers, was read by the author : 

Some Experience in Hardy Rose Culture. 

In looking at a subject so extensive as Rose Culture, from the 
little spot which limits my own efforts in that direction, I can only 
offer hints which may be useful to the inexperienced, but can sug- 
gest nothing of special value to the professional grower. 

It is generally supposed that to attain even a moderate measure 
of success in the rose garden, all advantages of soil, scientific 
appliances, etc., are essential, but the amateur will find very satis- 
factory results even when these conditions are not carried to great 
perfection. The soil of my garden is not particularly adapted for 
the growth of roses, being a light loam with a gravelly subsoil, 
yet from this apparently uncongenial source I succeed in grow- 
ing a great many very good roses. I am not an advocate of the 
deep trenching or subsoiling s}^stem in the preparation of the 
ground, considering it entirely unnecessary. 

My system of planting was very simple at the outset, the land 
being already in, a good state of cultivation. First, preparing 
myself with a sufficient heap of well-rotted horse manure, the space 
assigned for the plants was covered with a portion of the compost, 
spread broadcast, and then thoroughly ploughed in. I may men- 
tion here that I have at other times made use of hen manure, mixed 
with about one-third soil, and consider it a good fertilizer for the 
rose. The ground was then laid out in rows three feet apart, and 



14 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the same distance between the plants ; the holes for their reception 
were prepared by throwing out the soil to the depth of one spade 
from each, and then throwing in two or three forkfuls of manure, 
thoroughly incorporating it with the soil to the depth of the spade, 
when all was ready for the plants. 

My plants are all the so-called dwarfs, worked low upon the 
Manetti stock, which I prefer to the Prince's or seedling brier, as 
it seems better adapted to my light soil. I judge the latter stock 
may be better suited to a stronger or clayey soil ; at any rate, all 
the plants I had worked upon it have died. My plants were im- 
ported, and not received until about the 10th of December, when 
the ground was closed, so that I was obliged to keep them in snug- 
winter quarters, bedding them carefully into a frame, protecting 
them very closely with leaves, and covering the frame with boards. 
They came out in splendid condition in the spring, and were planted 
with hardly an exception to successful growth, which result has 
led me to prefer the spring for planting in our uncertain climate, 
and I have continued to make small experiments of the same kind 
yearly since my first venture. Having cut back the plant to two 
or three buds, the stock should be planted with the collar about 
two inches under the surface, and the soil pressed veiy firmly about 
it. Through the summer I apply guano to the surface occasionally — 
a handful or two to each plant, sometimes in a dry state, and 
sometimes in water. I use frequently, in summer, a top dressing 
of brewers' spent hops, strewn broadcast, not digging it in ; it 
helps to keep down weeds, and has many advantages. 

The rose, in a healthful, growing state, is a great absorber of 
water, and the free use of the hose morning and evening has been 
my most reliable assistant in promoting its health and in freeing 
the plants from insects. Every fluttering leaf of the plants seems 
to rejoice, as the cool water showers down upon it, and the clean, 
fresh foliage greatly enhances the beauty of the blossoms which it 
surrounds. But insects are ready to invade every domain of hor- 
ticulture, and are especially destructive to the perfection of the 
Queen of Flowers; some of them may be overcome, but as 
regards the rose-bug or rose-beetle, I am in despair. The only 
remedy for this persistent plague that I have found has been the 
continuous application of the thumb and forefinger, and that with 
some severity. 

It may be urged by some that the budded rose has entailed upon 



HARDY ROSE CULTURE. 15 

it the disadvantage of suckers, and endless care to prevent them ; 
but actual experience proves this to be very slight. It is presumed 
that a lover of the rose is with his pets as often as possible, and 
these persistent thieves are easily detected and quickly destroyed. 
I cannot agree with those who claim that the maiden bloom is the 
best effort with the budded rose, as I am now growing plants on 
the Manetti stock which have been out eight years, and are pro- 
ducing as fine blooms as ever. The amateur wants results in the 
shortest time, and therefore must take the budded plant ; if sunk 
deeply enough it soon becomes fixed on its own roots. Few of us 
can hope to rival the Madame Lacharme and Paul Neron of a 
Ha} 7 es, the Pierre Notting of a Graj^, or the Horace Vernet and 
Charles Lefebvre of a Moore, but I am sure that the Manetti stock 
will give us an approximation to their high standards. 

There is evidently a great difference in the constitution of hardy 
hybrid roses, as has been proved by success or failure under the 
varying influences of climate, soil, or stock, and as some results of 
my individual experience may prove suggestive, I append a list of 
a few which have been successful under my system of culture. 

Abel Carrtere. — Moderately vigorous ; hardy ; beautiful. 

Alfred Colomb. — This superb rose is quite hardy and vigorous ; 
its brilliant crimson flowers are unrivalled. 

Beauty of Waltham. 

Bessie Johnson. 

Charles Lefebvre. — A very strong and hardy rose ; flower large, 
and beautifully formed. 

Comtesse d* Oxford. — Hardy, vigorous, with fine large flowers. 

Coquette des Blanches. — A white rose, and a truly perpetual bloom- 
er until late in the autumn ; a remarkably vigorous grower, and 
has proved hardy with me until last winter, when it was killed to 
the ground. 

Dr. Andry. — Hardy, vigorous, and a free bloomer. 

Duke of Edinburgh. — One of the strongest and most hardy. 

Dupuy Jamain. 

Eliza Boelle. — Moderately vigorous ; hardy, with a verj T delicate 
white bloom, shading to flesh color. 

Emily Laxton. — Vigorous ; of a climbing tendency ; hardy, and 
very desirable. 

Fisher Holmes. 

Jean Ooujon. 



16 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

John Hopper. An old favorite ; hardy, and a very fine bloomer. 
Jules Margottin.— Of vigorous habit ; very hardy, and still one 
of the best. 

Lord Clyde.— A remarkably strong grower, hardy, and a very 
good rose. 

Mabel Morrison, 

Marie Beauman.— One of the very best ; moderately vigorous, 
quite hardy, with large and perfect flowers. 

Miss Hassard.— Vigorous, hardy; delicate flesh color, very 
sweet, and a free bloomer. 

Mme. Boll.— Perfectly hardy and vigorous ; a free bloomer, and 
early ; flower not the most perfect in form or color. 

Mme. Gabriel Luizet.— Vigorous ; hardy ; a free bloomer, and I 
think may prove one of the best. 

Mme. Georges Schwartz. 

Mme. Rivers.— A fine rose ; moderately vigorous and hardy. 

Mme. Scipion Cochet. 

Mme. Victor Verdier. 

Mme. Vidot.-Modemtely vigorous ; hardy ; flower beautiful, 
and perfect in form. 

Mons. Boncenne.—A plant of good habit, very hardy and vigor- 
ous ; the best of its class with me. 

Paul iVercm.— Vigorous and hardy. 

Pierre Notting. Very hardy ; of good habit, and a strong grower, 
but, alas! how seldom do we find a fully developed and perfect 
flower ; a bright sun apparently scorches the petals in the bud. 

Princess Louise Victoria. 

Senateur Va'isse. 

Sir Garnet Woheley. A thick, bushy plant, rather short-jointed, 

TroW hf V ' g0r0US a0d har<Jy: itS ^ vermilion fl <™rs and 
profuse bloom are very attractive. 

Souvenir de Charles Montault. 
of ™T MUS - VerJ hardy ' a weI1 -f<>™ea Plant, of great vigor 

iC^uT ProMc bl °° mer; *""» ~* ^- °-of 

Triomplie de Caen. 

Victor Verdier. Always good and reliable. 

1 will now name a few varieties that have not proved hardv or 



HARDY ROSE CULTURE. 17 

Cranston's Crimson Bedder. — This seems hardy enough, but is a 
very poor grower. 

La France. — Almost invariably killed. 

Louis Van Houtte. — Almost always killed. I only saved it one 
year. 

Mile. Bonnaire. — Very beautiful, and free in flower, but a poor 
grower. 

Mile. Eugenie Verdier. — A weak grower, although a beautiful 
rose. 

Mme. la Baronne de Rothschild. — Usually winter killed nearly 
to the ground, and is never a vigorous grower. 

Mme. Lacharme. — Very tender. 

Prince Camille de Mohan. — Is not very hardy. I know this is 
not the general experience, but I have lost all my plants. 

Mile. Marie Rady, Vicomte Vigier, Andre Dunand and Captain 
Christy have proved tender. 

The Moss Rose. — Turning now to the fairest of the Rose family, 
we are reminded of the poetic allegory which accounts for its added 
beauty, by supposing an angel to have found repose beneath its 
branches, and to have wished to bestow some gift in recompense, 
but to have been scarcely able to devise any addition to its charms : 

" The angel paused in silent thought : — 
What grace was there the flower had not? 
'Twas but a moment : — o'er the rose 
A veil of moss the angel throws ; 
And, robed in Nature's simplest weed, 
Could there a flower that rose exceed? " 

I must confess to a great love for this fascinating class, partly for 
the reason that my light, well-enriched soil, with its natural subsoil 
drain of gravel, tends to bring it to full perfection, and partly be- 
cause the delicate fragrance of the foliage is peculiar and unique. 
The ground for Moss roses should be prepared in the same way as 
for the hardy perpetuals, with a larger application of manure ; and 
I also apply a more liberal annual summer dressing during the 
blooming season. I have always found the Moss rose more diffi- 
cult to successfully transplant than any other, and it starts very 
slowly on its own roots. 

All my Moss roses are worked upon the Manetti stock except 
2 



18 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the Common ; these I prefer on their own roots. The varieties 
that have proved best with me are : — 

Baronne de Wassenaer. —Perhaps the strongest grower of all; 
wood very dark and spin}-, blooming in large clusters of buds ; not 
as mossy as some other kinds. 

Celine. — Hardy, moderately vigorous, spreading; foliage dark 
colored, leaves rather small ; a profuse bloomer, bud rather soft, 
and not very double. It would probably force well. 

Common. — The best of all; fine double flower. 

Crested. — The next best ; very double. 

Gracilis, or Prolific— This resembles the Common, but has a 
longer bud. 

Laneii. — A vigorous, upright grower, and moderately free 
bloomer. 

Perpetual White. — Moderately vigorous ; color pure white ; buds 
small and short stemmed, in rigid clusters of from four to six ; 
foliage pale green, leaves crisped. Not very hardy. 

White Bath. — With me the best white. 

The so-called Perpetual Mosses seem to me a myth as Moss 
roses ; they may be perpetual, but the} 7 possess very little moss, 
and the only variety that I have been able to save is Mme. Moreau, 
which is a perpetual free bloomer. 

The few suggestions I have endeavored to present to you have 
been gleaned from personal observation in planting, tending, 
nourishing, and comparing, with results as here briefly stated. 



Discussion. 

Hon. Marshall. P. Wilder, said that he came in specially to hear 
the essay by Mr. Spooner, who is a practical cultivator, as his 
ancestors were. Different soils suit different varieties of roses. 
He agreed with the essayist in regard to the beauty of the Moss 
rose, but thought Laneii the best of all. It roots freely, while 
Moss roses generally have few roots. Mr. Wilder stated that Mr. 
Thorburn, the New York nurseryman and seedsman, once 
returned an invoice of Moss roses because they had no roots. 
Mr. Spooner's soil may have been less favorable to the Laneii 
than the speaker's. The latter desired lists of the best roses, 
selected from the thousands on the catalogues, to save cultivating 



HARDY ROSE CULTURE. 19 

so many kinds ; the lists to be composed of such proved varieties 
as Baron Prevost, John Hopper, Marechal Niel, and Bon Seline, 
which hold on perpetually, and Safrano, which is the very thing 
wanted by the florists and connoisseurs. We are arriving at 
selections in other flowers, such as the chrysanthemum. In 
tomatoes, instead of the twenty kinds in cultivation, we want no 
more than four of the best. The first effort of the American 
Pomological Society brought down the list of fruits from thousands, 
to a selection desirable for every garden. 

John G. Barker said that his experience in rose culture had 
differed somewhat from 'Mr. Spooner's. Six years ago he made 
two beds of Hybrid Perpetuals, for which he dug out the soil to 
the depth of eighteen inches, and replaced with a compost of equal 
parts of well decomposed sods, horse manure, and cow manure. 
The varieties were selected from the roses exhibited in 1872 and 
1873. There were thirty plants in each bed, on Manetti stocks. 
The soil was naturally moist, and they were planted so as to root 
from the grafts. They made a most astonishing growth the first 
year, and the next spring were pruned severely, and the small 
wood was thinned out in summer. They made shoots higher than 
his head, which, when signs of growth appeared in spring, were 
pegged down to the soil. These two beds were solid masses of 
flowers ; though not of the largest size, there were legions of them. 
He thought this the most satisfactory result, when, as in the 
present case, they were for the benefit of the public. Afterwards, 
he made two more beds in the same way, first making diagrams 
and marking all the varieties on them, for the instruction of the 
visitors to Pine Grove Cemetery, Lynn, of which he is superin- 
tendent. He has never had a rose-bug on his roses, though they 
destroyed a pelargonium bed not forty feet away from the rose 
beds. High culture and vigorous growth may have kept them 
away. He has never been troubled with the rose-slug. He goes 
over the bed with a scuffle hoe every two or three days ; this keeps 
the ground moist and the surface does not bake after rain, as it 
does when raked. He adopted this method of culture because he 
is obliged to choose the cheapest way. He pegs down the shoots 
after pruning off twelve or fifteen inches of the end, and never 
covers them. Madame Plantier is one of the white June roses, but 
needs a little covering, which is a good investment, for it forms a 
mass of flowers. He has two bushes of the old-fashioned Red 



20 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Moss rose in soil which has not been enriched for eight years, 
but they form masses of flowers. 

Charles M. Hove} 7 , said that for sixteen consecutive 3 T ears, he 
took prizes for the best thirty hardy June roses. Many of the old 
roses of twenty j^ears ago still take the prizes. Bon Seline, 
Marechal Niel, Gen. Jacqueminot, and John Hopper, are all good, 
but have their defects. The best part of Mr. Spooner's paper is 
that in which he points out what have not succeeded with him. 
The speaker was the first to import the Madame Plantier, and had 
found it perfectly hardy, though it may be well to cover it in very 
exposed situations. The two things which the rose requires are 
the pump and the manure heap. Mr. Hovey thought the best 
English cultivators preferred roses on their own roots. All things, 
with rare exceptions, grow best on their own bottoms ; grapes do 
best on their own roots. We must resort to stocks to rapidly in- 
crease the plants of varieties. There are some bad results from 
grafted roses — among others, suckers from the stock, which gain 
the ascendancy over the graft. He has a row of Hybrid Per- 
petuate, six or seven feet high, on their own roots. In selecting 
roses, we should choose kinds which will stand our hot suns. Mr. 
Hovey spoke in favor of the class of roses known in England as 
" decorative roses," — hardy, vigorous, and abundant flowering 
kinds ; just what everybody wants, and not simply roses for 
exhibition. 

William C. Strong had enjoyed Mr. Spooner's essay. He was 
surprised to hear such a young and progressive member of the 
Society as Mr. Hovey, opposing the introduction of new varieties, 
particularly since the wonderful progress of the past few years. In 
the English prize lists, there are few varieties of more than ten or 
twelve years' standing. It is a laborious process to weed out the 
inferior varieties. He dissented from the views of those who 
thought it needful to keep fertilizers to rot down ; much ammonia 
is lost during this process. The rose is a gross feeder and will 
take fresh manure ; moreover, it wants a heavy soil, and old com- 
post is light and makes the soil light. In making a rose border in 
his house, he used green cow manure ; the mixture laid two or 
three days and was turned over, and Manetti stocks were planted 
in the border in March and budded in June, and ripened eight or 
ten feet of wood. He had seen young roots of the Manetti stock 
strike into fresh cow manure. He would prefer fresh manure to 



HARDY ROSE CULTURE. 21 

old, but if he had had time when he made his border, would 
perhaps have turned it over a little more. He dissented from Mr. 
Hovey's views in regard to stocks ; weak growers are vastly bene- 
fited by grafting. Tea roses are benefited by being grafted on 
vigorous stocks. Such stocks impart a vigor to weak growing 
kinds, which they can never get on their own roots, as the Mag- 
nolia acuminata imparts vigor to the smaller growing kinds grafted 
on it. 

Mr. "Wilder said that no one is more anxious than he for the 
production of new varieties. He carries all the time two camel's 
hair pencils in his pocket, to be always ready to transfer the 
pollen from one plant to another. He has repeatedly exhorted to 
sow perpetualty to obtain new varieties, and if he could go back 
fifty or sixty years, he would practise this more than he ever has 
done. The world moves, and he wants to move with it ; and no 
one admires the enterprise of the President and others, in intro- 
ducing new roses and plants more than he ; but he desires a con- 
solidated list of such standard varieties as he had mentioned. 

Rev. A. B. Muzzey said that he could not compete with practical 
cultivators, but he thought that the comparative value of old com- 
post and fresh manure ought to be ascertained and settled in our 
discussions. Farmers used to let manure be exposed to the air, at 
an immense waste of ammonia, but they do otherwise now. He 
suggested experimenting with fresh manure, but would cover it 
with soil to save its fertilizing qualities. He remembered the two 
old roses, white and red, and questioned whether we had improved 
on them in beauty and fragrance. We should not throw away 
good things because they are old. 

Mr. Hovey said that the best twelve Tea roses would include the 
Marechal Niel and Niphetos. No white Tea rose comes up to 
Niphetos. Souvenir de Malmaison has never been excelled. It 
is the same with some of the old Hybrid Perpetuals. The old 
Moss roses are the best. Princess Adelaide is a good grower and 
a wonderful bloomer. He would adhere to the good old varieties, 
and while he would test all the new ones, he would not rel} r on 
them as garden varieties until they have been proved. He visited 
M. Laffay in 1844, and purchased the first Princess Adelaide Moss 
that came to America, and the first La Reines. 

John B. Moore said that he could find no fault with the direc- 
tions given in Mr. Spooner's paper. People find in books, direc- 



22 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tions to make rose borders four feet deep, of half manure, like Mr. 
Gray's, but the speaker thought we could do better by following 
Mr. Spooner's method. When he (Mr. Moore) began cultivating 
roses, it was in a light soil which absorbed too much water. He 
objected to clay to make it more retentive, and preferred the strata 
of ver} T fine consolidated quicksand found in sand pits. They are so 
hard as to require a pick-axe to break them up, but if spread on the 
ground they dry and crumble, and when worked into light soils 
make them permanently more retentive. He agreed with Mr. 
Strong that roses are gross feeders ; they cannot have too much 
manure. In answer to Mr. Hovey, Mr. Moore said that it was 
not necessary to have the same things over and over again. Mr. 
Hovey thinks that roses are best on their own roots, but a large pro- 
portion will grow stronger on Manetti stocks. The suckers are so 
unlike the grafts that an}- but the most stupid person can distin- 
guish them, and fifteen minutes will suffice to remove them from a 
large bed. He plants his roses in rows four feet apart ; walking 
between the rows compacts the earth so that it will not absorb rain, 
and instead of a rake or scufHe he uses a French cultivator, drawn 
by a horse, to stir it. He earths up the plants in autumn. Baroness 
Rothschild kills down to the earth line. Madame Lachanne is 
worthless except to collect rose-bugs ; they must be shaded ; the 
bush will grow, but fails to give good flowers. In answer to an 
inquiry how new roses differ from the old, Mr. Moore said that 
many are more beautiful, and while few of the old roses bloom 
later than June, with the new ones we can have flowers from June 
to October, and a few roses in August, when they are scarce, are 
more desirable than many in June. He has three hundred varie- 
ties, but does not propagate above seventy-five. One will mildew ; 
another may be beautiful but fail to grow ; another may do both. 
Coarse strawy manure will lighten the soil more than old compost, 
and therefore should not be used. It is also objectionable as a 
covering, for if the wood is not well ripened it is apt to kill it, but 
after heaping up the earth ten inches high around the bushes in 
autumn, he covers it with manure, to prevent it from freezing and 
thawing, and throws coarse meadow hay between the rows. Cold 
weather will not hurt them. There are two sides to the question 
of ammonia escaping from the manure heap ; it is not always 
ammonia that we smell there. He did not approve of rotting down 
manure generally, but did not believe in any great loss in doing it. 



HARDY ROSE CULTURE. 23 

Mr. Wilder said that our fathers did not appreciate the value of 
manure, as was shown In- their laying it by the roadside to run to 
waste iii the gutter. 

President Hayes said that he had not so much experience in rose 
culture afl many others, but he was satisfied that there is opportunity 
for i ss. There is a future before us for the Society — for the 

rose, and for the rhododendron. Mr. Wilder and Mr. Hovey, in 
spite of loving old things, know there is a future of progress before 
us. We have all looked with great interest on the new varieties of 
roses exhibited, and he had ordered all the new kinds, because he 
desired to have the future of the rose fully illustrated. Mam* of 
the very new varieties have succeeded with him ; few have been 
in comparison with the whole. Madame Lacharme stood at the 
bead of those with which he took the silver cup for the best three 
varieties, and though he had to pick rose-bugs from the plants, he 
produced what was said to be the most beautiful rose exhibited in 
the hall. He mentioned his success with this variety to show what 
can be done with a delicate kind. In one place the soil produces 
perfection in one kind and refuses to give another, and this won- 
derful adaptation exists so that eveiy one can bring forth some- 
thing beautiful. The rose is a gross feeder, and will bear fresh 
manure, and perhaps cow manure is best of all. 

Joseph II. Woodford sad that though he had had but little 
experience he had carefully observed the methods of others. He 
thought Mr. Moore's method of protection best. The soil should 
lie hauled away from the plants, and the manure in the trenches 
should be forked in in the spring. Most of the tender varieties 
may be preserved in this way. The speaker had seen a similar 
method used l>y John C. Chaffin, one of the best rose growers. 
He silted long straw among the bushes, so as to afford partial shade 
in March and April, having found that the hot sun at that time 
spoiled the buds on the sunny side. Mr. Woodford read the 
following list of thirty roses, noted by him as the best in the exhi- 
bition of 1880: 

Alfred Colomb, Due de Montpensier, 

Caroline de Sansal, Duke of Connaught, 

Charles Lefebvre, Dupuy Jamain, 

Comtesse d' Oxford, fetienne Dupuy, 

Dr. de Chains, Exposition de Brie, 

Dr. Sewell, Ferdinand de Lesseps, 



24 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Fisher Holmes, Mme. Lacharme, 

Gen. Washington, Mme. Prosper Laugier, 

Horace Vernet, Mons. Boncenne, 

Jean Soupert, Mons. E. Y. Teas, 

La Rosiere, Mrs. Baker, 

Mabel Morrison, Pierre Notting, 

Magna Charta, Sir Garnet Wolseley, 

Mile. Marie Rady, Thomas Mills, 
Mme. la Baronne de Rothschild, Vicomte Vigier. 

The above list comprises both old and new kinds, and one 
American variety. Any one can grow the good old varieties, but 
not one in a hundred can grow Caroline de Sanaa] <>r Madame 
Lacharme. We should grow both old and new, and select the 
best. Roses should not be pruned in autumn, for they are then 
more liable to be killed down, but the wood should be left on. 

Benjamin G. Smith, Chairman of the Committee on Publication 
and Discussion, announced that the Schedules of Prizes for the 
year were ready, and also that the discussion of the subject of 
today would be continued on the next Saturday, after the adjourn- 
ment of the Business Meeting. On behalf of the Committee he 
desired that members would hand in lists of what they deemed the 
best twelve, twenty-four, thirty-six, and forty-eight roses. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 15, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 1 1 o'clock, 
President Hayes in the chair. 

The following named persons were appointed a committee on 
the meeting of the American Pomological Society in Boston in 
September next, to act in connection with the Committee of 
Arrangements of the Horticultural Society : President Hayes, Hon. 
Marshall P. Wilder, William C. Strong, E. W. Buswell, and 
Robert Manning. 

E. W. Buswell, Treasurer, read his Annual Report, including 



HARDY ROSE CULTURE. 25 

tlic Report of the Finance Committee, which was accepted and 
rred to the Committee on Publication. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee, were on ballot duly elected members of the 

Ivlx : 

J. AfONTGOMERT Si.aks, of Boston. 
William Poweb Wilson, of Boston. 
John K. Russeix, of Leicester. 

1) LVID Aii \n. of Belmont. 
JOHN II. BfooSB, of Concord. 

Edwakd Bajleb Wilder, of Dorchester. 

Ki'uiN Faxon, of Jamaica Plain. 

Adjourned t«> Saturday, January 22, 



MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The subject assigned was the "Cultivation of the Rose," being 
mtinuation of that of last week. 

Charles M. Hovey quoted a statement by the editor of the 
Gardener's Monthly, in support of his objections to the Manetti 
stock for roses, and said that Jean Sislew one of the largest French 
growers' uses only seedling briers and La GrifTeraie as stocks. 
But for general purposes the speaker preferred them on their own 
roots. He presented the list of roses referred to by him last week 
as taking prizes in England, viz., Tea roses — Mareehal Niel, Sol- 
faterre, Souvenir d' tin Ami, Souvenir de Malmaison, and Niphe- 
tos. Hybrid IVrpetuals — Pierre Notting, John Hopper, Paul Neron, 
Karon Prevost, La Reine, Gen. Jacqueminot, Beaut}' of Waltham, 
Charles Lefebvre, Marie Beauman, and Eugene Verdier. 

John B. Moore said that he knows roses do better on his light 
soil, worked on Manetti stocks, than on briers or on their own 
roots. Any one who loves a rose can easity distinguish the suck- 
ers from the grafts, and remove them. Mr. Hovey left the impres- 
sion on the minds of those present last week that he considered 
the old roses superior to the new ; but the speaker thought there 
had been a vast improvement, and that if we made a list today, in 
three years we should be obliged to strike off many kinds. Mr. 
Hovey classed as new roses any introduced since 1860, but of those 



26 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

on his list of old kinds, the John Hopper was sent out in 1862, 
Pierre Notting in 1863, and Paul Neron in 1869. Good as the 
John Hopper is, it is more than equalled by many new ones. Mr. 
Barker's object in planting roses on Manetti stocks, with a view 
to their afterwards rooting from the graft, is to give them a start ; 
but the speaker doubted whether they root much from the graft. 
He has plants on Manetti stocks, of eight or ten 3'ears' standing, 
and though his soil is not naturally adapted to roses, they make 
shoots of eight or ten feet in length. His remark, last week, that 
six roses in August are worth ten bushels in June had been criti- 
cised, but he did not intend it to be taken literally, but only to say 
that, while in June they are very abundant, in July, August, and 
September they are scarce and valuable. Some of the so-called 
Hybrid Perpetuals are perpetual, and some are not. Mme. Charles 
Wood will bloom itself to death. As the new growth comes out, 
it gives a new crop of roses. The Hybrid Perpetuals give as many 
roses in June as those which bloom only in June, and all the later 
blooms are so much advantage over the June roses. 

In answer to a question, Mr. Moore said that the clay-like strata 
referred to by him last week as found in sand pits, are probably 
dried quicksand, though some farmers call it marl. Clay, when 
spread on land remains in lumps, but this falls to pieces. One of 
the first necessities of the rose is moisture ; and the finer the 
particles of soil, the more retentive it is. His soil is naturally so 
light that all the water from an inch pipe would be absorbed before 
running a rod, but after being dressed with the substance which he 
described, the same quantity of water would stand in puddles or 
run ten rods. After getting a good soil and a supply of water, the 
next thing is plenty of manure, for the rose is a gross feeder. He 
could not afford such a border as Mr. Gray's, four feet deep and 
half manure, and did not think it necessary, and what the plants 
cannot take up is lost. 

Mr. Hovey said that the subject under discussion was never 
tiresome to him. Those who grow roses for exhibition must pro- 
ceed differently from those who grow them for their general effect. 
We do not want a few scattering plants of rhododendrons or 
paeonies — we want masses of them, and we want a feast of roses, 
even if every bloom is not up to the standard of perfection. Two 
or three plants of annual roses in his grounds, full of flowers, 
attracted more attention than any others. These are the kinds 



HARDY ROSE CULTURE. 27 

for those who wish to cut bouquets of roses. With the progress 
of improvement we shall get better roses, and many of the old 
ones will be discarded. Mr. Hovey said that instead of opposing 
the introduction of new things he had been one of the few to pur- 
chase every novelty of any merit, and had very clearly bought many 
worthless things. In planting two thousand pear trees he included 
among them only six Bartletts. La Heine is not excelled by any 
other rose of its color. Niphetos is in all the stands of twelve 
Tea roses. With one shoot of ten buds of a new rose we can 
make ten plants by budding, but the stocks will sucker and rob 
the grafts, and when we can get them on their own roots we should 
endeavor to do so. In Europe standard roses, grafted high, have 
gone out of fashion. 

Mr. Moore said that Messrs. Cranston, Turner, and Paul, three 
of the largest English rose growers, prefer plants on the Manetti 
stock for all purposes. The Hybrid Perpetuals make as great a 
show in the garden in June as any, and we get the later flowers in 
addition. 

Mr. Hovey said that M. Sisley does not use the Manetti stock. 
The speaker thought that such roses as the immense Paul Nerons, 
exhibited by the President, were rarely produced without heading 
down the plants so early that the first crop of flowers was sacrificed. 
He knew a gentleman at Newport, who has a large plot of Gen. 
Jacqueminot, which he thus heads down for the sake of getting 
fine late flowers. 

William Gray, Jr., being called on by the President as the 
" champion rose grower," said that he understood the objectof the 
meeting to be to get lists of the best roses, but this was impossible 
at so short notice. We must grow many kinds for many years 
before we can decide on the best. In 1874 he thought Mile. Marie 
Rady the best rose of the year, but he has not had one in a prize 
stand since. Pierre Notting was fine, but he has not had one in his 
prize boxes for years. The only object in testing the new roses sent 
out. from 3'ear to year is to ascertain those worthy of cultivation here, 
which are but a small proportion of the whole. Those of 1877 have 
not been tried long enough, but are more promising than those of 
several previous } r ears. If we make lists of roses which can be 
relied on we must include many of twenty years' standing. Nine 
out of ten of the new French roses are scarcely heard of after a 
few years. He would have his roses on Manetti stocks, to give 



28 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

them a start, and plant the stocks two inches under ground, when 
they would root from the graft. 

Mr. Hovey said that Mr. Gray had presented actual facts which 
confirmed his views. We want kinds, both of fruits and flowers, 
whose characters are fixed and known. If any variety gives us 
roses only once in six or eight years, it is of little value. He 
agreed with Mr. Gray, that roses get started sooner on Manetti 
stocks. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder commended the spirit in which the 
discussion had been carried on today. He agreed exactly with 
what Mr. Hovey and Mr. Gray had said. The Manetti stock is a 
wretched thief, owing to its profuse suckering. He desired to 
correct the impression which some appeared to have received, that 
he is not a progressive man. He wanted to put his hand on every 
new thing he saw mentioned in the newspapers, and obey the 
maxim to prove all things and hold fast that which is good. Few 
rose growers have Mr. Moore's peculiar soil, but he admits that 
manure is the great thing. The speaker expressed surprise that 
so few new roses had been raised in this country, where, under our 
bright sun, everything perfects its seed with ease ; but we shall do 
it in the future. Ellwanger & Barry have crossed Hybrid Per- 
petuate with Tea roses, and he was glad to hear that Mr. Hovey 
had done the same. He exhorted all to go on and raise new roses, 
and then their names would go down to posterity fragrant with the 
results of their labors. 

Mr. Hovey said that more had been done in this country in the 
way of raising new roses than Mr. Wilder's remarks would imply. 
He had lately been over the history of rose culture in this country 
for the last forty years, and had prepared an article on the subject 
for "The (London) Garden," beginning with a variety raised by 
Mrs. Herbemont, from the Musk Cluster, which has been one of 
the parents of all the improved Prairie roses. The latter were 
originated by Samuel Feast, of Baltimore, and Joshua Pierce, at 
a time which Mr. Wilder would recollect, when the Boursault was 
the only climbing rose. Joshua Pierce, of Washington, raised 
fifteen varieties. The Isabella Sprunt is a sport of Safrano, dis- 
covered by the Rev. James Sprunt, of Kenansville, N. C, some 
years previous to 1865. Mr. Pentland, of Baltimore, raised the 
George Peabody, a Bourbon rose. Prof. Charles G. Page, of 
Washington, raised the Cinderella, and others. William Boll, of 



HARDY ROSE CULTURE. 29 

New York, raised hundreds, if not thousands of kinds, most of 
which he sent to France. Among his seedlings were the Washing- 
ton and Madame Boll. In 1877, came the American Banner, a 
sport from the Bon Silene. Mr. Hovey said he had thought lately 
of attempting to raise seedling roses, but the French are so far in 
advance of us, that he had done little for the last twenty or thirty 
years. 

President Hayes remarked that the veteran horticulturist, Mr. 
Wilder, was himself a perpetual blooming rose. 

F. L. Harris said that they do not grow a great many roses at 
Wellesley. The soil there is similar to Mr. Moore's, but they have 
not the fertilizers for rose growing. The speaker questioned 
whether Mr. Gray, and other rose growers, had not committed an 
error in forcing such luxuriant growth on their plants. He would 
concentrate the growth in the production of hard wood ; and, with 
this view, he used when they started away from the bud, to rub off 
the strong shoots. This late, excessively vigorous growth does 
not ripen. Last ye"ar was the w r orst for roses that he ever knew, 
which was owing to the failure to ripen the wood the previous 
autumn. His experience led him to advise thinning out the wood. 

William H. Spooner said that, a year and a half ago, President 
Gra} T exhibited very fine specimens of the Pierre Notting rose, and 
the onl} T difficulty with this variety is that it is apt to burn. 

Mr. Hovey thought it would have been well to speak of this dis- 
cussion as of " roses for exhibition purposes." As long as we 
seek to grow roses for exhibition as big as a plate, we shall get 
only two or three from a strong shoot. We want plenty of roses, 
and the secret is in well ripened wood. These excessively strong 
shoots come " blind," and should be taken away when young. It 
is hard to divert the current of sap after it has got into one of 
them. 

Mr. Wilder said that we want to preserve for all time, those 
roses which have proved their title to a permanent place, such as 
the old Yellow Tea, which has been known for nearly two hundred 
years, Bon Silene, Safrano, Dr. Andry, Baron Prevost, Mareehal 
Niel, and similar varieties, the last named of which, he said, 
would endure for generations. The Gen. Jacqueminot is not a 
rose of high character when opened, but for certain purposes it 
has a high value. A hundred thousand flowers of this variety are 
sold in a }*ear. This rose has taken its place. 



30 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The President gave notice that on the next Saturday, John E. 
Kussell, Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, would speak 
on " Tropical Fruits and Flowers," and expressed a desire that the 
community might be better informed of what the Society is doing 
to disseminate horticultural information by means of these discus- 
sions, believing that if the interest of the meetings were under- 
stood the room would be crowded. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 22, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
President Hayes in the chair. 

The President announced the list of Special Prizes for Essays, 
offered by the Committee on Publication an4 Discussion for the 
current year, with the approval of the Executive Committee. 

Adjourned to Saturday, January 29. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

Agreeably to the announcement on the previous Saturday, John 
E. Russell, Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, spoke on 
Tropical Fruits and Flowers. A severe snow storm prevented as 
large an attendance as usual, and Mr. Russell remarked that while 
he would have been pleased to see the room filled, he was 
surprised that so many persons were present. He feared that he 
should be unable to dispel the cold and gloom of the storm by 
stories of tropical warmth. "Who can hold a fire in his hand by 
thinking of the frosty Caucasus?" 

Some time ago he spent several years on the isthmus which has 
no special name, extending seven hundred miles from Yucatan to 
Darien. This differs from any other part of the tropics. We speak 
of Southern Georgia and Florida as sub-tropical, and of the lee- 
ward and windward islands of the West Indies as thoroughly 
tropical, but all these are exposed to cold blasts from the north, 
which carry such a chill that in Cuba, where there was no fire 
except in the kitchen, and no means of keeping warm, he went to 



TROPICAL FRUITS AND FLOWERS. 31 

bed to escape the effects of a "norther." During the present 
winter, orange trees have cracked with the frost in Florida, and he 
had noticed the same thing in Louisiana — a damage, however, 
which is easily repaired. But Central America, south of Cape San 
Antonio, is beyond danger of cold blasts from the north. The 
waters of the Carribbean Sea are never chilled, and the climate of 
Central America does not vary more than five or six degrees ; the 
lowest the speaker had noticed was 75°, and the highest in the 
shade, 82°. Here, we consider such a temperature agreeable and 
equable, and the speaker, when sweating on the hills of Worcester 
county, under a higher temperature, had longed for the tropical 
sun of Central America to cool off in. There, there is never a 
blast that can destroy vegetation. 

Though the isthmus is only one hundred and seventy-five miles 
wide, it possesses a great diversity of climate. On the Atlantic 
coast it rains every day, while fifteen miles inland, the rainy 
season begins in April and ends in November. The rain does 
not fall incessantly, but so regularly every day that the hour can 
almost be fixed, and arrangements can be made for picnics or 
horticultural exhibitions without fear of interruption from the 
weather. These table lands are the inhabited lands of Central 
America. The speaker was much interested in the remains of 
ancient races found in these countries — cities, palaces, and hiero- 
glyphics which could have been made only by a highly civilized 
people. In 'the depths of the forest the explorer meets the 
images of forgotten gods, and almost expects their worshippers 
to reappear. 

The temperature of this region is about that of a conservatory 
here ; and the luxuriance of the tropical vegetation language 
utterly fails to describe. A single plant will present the appear- 
ance of an enormous lilac or rhododendron, with gay bulbous and 
other flowers beneath, and vines over all, and orchids interspersed. 
The climate and soil produce indigenous plants of the greatest 
value to mankind, among which are maize and the castor-oil plant, 
which grow in the greatest profusion. 

Mr. Russell next gave a description of particular plants, beginning 
with the pineapple. Few people are aware of the manner of 
growth of this so-called fruit, which is not a fruit in the common 
acceptation of the term, and botanically is described as a multiple 
or collective fruit, the constituent flowers having become sterile 



32 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and seedless, and all their parts, along with the bracts and the 
axis of the stem, blending into a fleshy and juicy mass. The 
pineapples sold here, which are necessarily plucked before they are 
ripe, will not compare with those ripened and eaten in the tropics. 
They can be grown of equally good qualfty in hothouses here, and 
the speaker had seen in Covent Garden Market, London, as fine 
pineapples as ever were grown in the tropics — large, fleshy, thin- 
skinned and juicy. In the tropics every one can raise them, and 
they are exceedingly useful fruits. They may be said to be drunk 
rather than eaten. They are chopped in small pieces, and sugar, 
oranges, and lemons added, and some add cane rum or French 
brandy. As there is no ice there, the mixture is cooled by swath- 
ing the jar in which it is placed in wet woollen cloths and hanging 
it in a draft. The spirit extracts the juice of the fruit, and when 
it is sufficiently cooled, champagne is added, and then is the time 
to drink it. 

The most prominent feature of tropical vegetation is the palm- 
tree. No trees are more valuable ; none are more beautiful, 
romantic, and dreamy. The comparatively small plants seen in 
conservatories here can give but little idea of their beauty and 
grandeur. The cocoa palm is at once the most beautiful and valu- 
able of all. When the seed is placed in the ground it springs up 
in the form of a long narrow leaf, the type of the monocotyledon- 
ous plants, and ultimately rises to a great height ; the speaker had 
seen them a hundred and twenty-five feet or more in height. 
They have no branches, but blossom forever. A single tree will 
yield fifteen or twenty quarts of juice, from which palm wine is 
made. Besides the use of the fruit for food and other purposes, 
the leaves are used for thatching roofs, and the outer shells of the 
nuts afford fibre for cordage. Altogether, it is the most glorious 
and valuable production of the tropics. 

The cocoanut palm is not indigenous in Central America. The 
most valuable indigenous production is the cacao tree, from the 
fruit of which chocolate is prepared. The description given by the 
Spanish discoverers, of the drinks used by the natives, indicate 
that this was early known to them. The cacao tree grows about 
as large as a moderate sized plum tree, and is exceedingly beauti- 
ful. They are raised in nurseries, and afterwards planted in 
orchards, and by the side of each a banana is set to shade the 
young cacao tree, until it is five or six feet high. Most tropical 



TROPICAL FRUITS AND FLOWERS. 33 

plants when growing wild, must spring up in the shade, and, con- 
sequently, when raised by art, they must have shade afforded them 
artificial^. At intervals in the orchards is planted a tree called 
" madre de cacao," (mother of cocoa), a species of Erythrina, or 
coral tree. It sheds its leaves towards the end of the dry season, 
and during the wet season flames out into crimson flowers, resem- 
bling those of the gladiolus, and in such numbers as to completely 
cover the tree. It thus affords abundant shade during the whole 
year ; and to give this shade to the cacao trees is the object in 
planting it. On the plantation of the Lacayo family, " Las 
Malaccas," the " mother trees " are old, and more than seventy 
feet high, and in May, the first rainy month, are all in gorgeous 
blossom. When these trees are seen from an elevated position, 
mixed with the green of the banana, a cacao orchard affords a 
sight, not merely of beauty, but of wealth. The flowers of the 
cacao tree itself are borne in bunches, and are of a delicate pinkish 
white. The trees are very infertile, producing only from twenty- 
five to thirty ounces of seed in a year. The seeds are borne in a 
pod shaped very much like a cucumber, and are embedded in a 
pulpy substance which is very pleasant to eat, and this is known 
to the monkeys, which give the proprietor of an orchard a great deal 
of trouble to protect his trees from them. No one here has ever 
tasted pure chocolate. No substance in the world bears so much 
extension ; a very small quantity will impregnate with its flavor a 
great deal of arrowroot, or similar harmless substances ; or fats, 
such as oleomargarine. The Nicaragua cacao is the best in the 
world. The French chocolate manufacturing firm of " Menier," 
acquired a large tract of land in that country for the purpose of 
producing it. The native method of preparing the cocoa, is by 
putting it in gourds six or seven inches deep, with some fine corn 
meal, and stirring it with a stick, when it rises above the mouth of 
the gourd in a foam stiff er than that of strong ale. It is almost 
always drunk cold. The word "chocolate," is derived from two 
native words, choco and latl, the former of which resembles the 
noise made by stirring the chocolate in the gourd — a very pleasant 
sound to hear when riding up to a house on a hot day — and the 
latter signifies " drink." 

Coffee was introduced very early in the time of the Spanish 
occupation. It is cultivated in orchards, like the cacao, and the 
blossoms, which are always on the tree, have an indescribably 
3 



34 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

delicious fragrance, so that a walk in a coffee plantation in a 
moonlight evening, is most delightful. It requires seven years 
from the planting of the orchard to get a crop. The seed is 
enclosed in a pulp like that of a cherry. Formerly this pulp was 
separated from the seed by hand after drying, but machines have 
been invented for doing the work, which have much reduced the 
price of coffee. Each berry has two seeds, which, as is well 
known, are flattened on the sides where the}' come together, like 
half a cherry stone. The so-called " male berry," is produced 
when one of the two embryos is abortive, and is raised on com- 
paratively arid soils, at higher levels. 

The cactus is always present in Central America — sometimes 
inconveniently so. It forms a positive fence, fulfilling the require- 
ments of the western man who wanted a fence, " horse high, bull 
strong, and pig tight." No animal ever bites a cactus ; sometimes 
the} 7 bloom magnificently, and some of the species bloom at night. 
A species of upright, columnar growth, is used to make corrals for 
cattle, and in an incredibly short time the stems crowd together, 
forming a solid wall a foot or two in thickness. If it is too high, 
the tops are cut off and then the plants bloom all over with gor- 
geous scarlet flowers. 

In the great forests, under the shade of the trees, is the most 
wonderful display of air plants. They grow in every place where 
they can possibly fasten their roots on the trees. The speaker 
saw in a conservatory a short time previous, a plant valued at 
hundreds of dollars, which the owner told him had been in bloom 
for seven months ; but, in that climate without a season, they grow 
with a vigor and luxuriance which cannot be equalled in conserva- 
tories. The vigor of the cactus is such that you can set bounds to 
the forest with it, and along the pathway between cactus hedges 
grow begonias and abutilons in the greatest variety and profusion. 
The portulaca, jasmine, and tuberose are common weeds. The 
fragrance is indescribably delicious. The vanilla of commerce is 
an orchid which is cultivated, and likes a cooler climate, but there 
are other species of that genus which grow wild, and when their 
seeds ripen they fall and decay, and add their fragrance to that of 
the flowers. But there is one tree whose fragrance overpowers 
that of the tuberose and jasmine ; it is known as the " bedbug 
tree," and has an odor like that of ten thousand tavern bedsteads. 
Fuchsias hang from the trees in great strings, and the speaker in 
passing under them had cut down thousands with his riding whip. 



TROPICAL FRUITS AND FLOWERS. 35 

But the most striking scene is when the convolvulus gets its 
opportunity. Some enormous mahogany, or other tree, becomes a 
prey to gigantic vines, which climb up and strangle it, and the 
tree dies but cannot fall, and becomes covered with great broad- 
leaved plants which root in its substance. But at length a tropic 
gale takes it over, and the ruins form a vast mound, covering 
perhaps an acre, among which birds drop convolvulus and other 
seeds, and if you walk out early in the morning you find it all 
alive and ablaze with blossoms, but in an hour the gorgeous show 
has faded. 

Mr. Russell's lecture was warmly applauded at the close, and 
the President said that all had listened with the greatest interest to 
his description of tropical vegetation, which had carried us in 
imagination to those gorgeous scenes. He wished the audience 
had been larger, but said that all present would feel rewarded for 
braving the storm. 

O. B. Hadwen moved a vote of thanks to Mr. Russell, for his 
able and interesting address, which was unanimously carried by a 
rising vote. 

Benjamin G-. Smith, Chairman of the Committee on Discussion, 
announced for the next Saturday, a discussion on the "Fruits 
best adapted for Market Purposes," to be opened by E. W". Wood, 
Chairman of the Fruit Committee. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 29, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Societj 7 was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Hon. Francis B. Hayes, in the chair. There being 
no business before the meeting, it 

Adjourned to Saturday, February 5. 



36 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The subject assigned for today, was the "Fruits best adapted 
for Market Purposes." It was opened by E. W. Wood, Chairman 
of the Fruit Committee, who said it was unfortunate that the fruits 
of our cold climate should follow the glowing description given of 
tropical fruits and flowers last week. In assigning the 
subject of today, the Committee had in view its practical bearings, 
and no subject is more practical than this. A few years ago, the 
fruit grower here was sure of a market without competition, but 
now things have so changed that the cultivator must change his 
methods. The business of growing and marketing fruits requires 
as much brains as the business of a manufacturer or a merchant. 

In considering the question what can be grown profitably, the 
advantages of location must be taken into account, not merely 
with respect to the character of the soil, but to the demand and 
supply, the nearness to market, and the facilities for transportation. 

The apple is the leading market fruit, and though many farmers 
felt almost disgusted at the abundance of the last crop, the speaker 
believed that an outlet would be found for the superabundance by 
exportation to foreign countries. Two years ago, as Chairman of 
a Committee on Apple Culture and Exportation, he reported that 
exportation seemed to solve the problem of the disposal of our 
surplus apples, and the experience of the last year had confirmed 
this view. Mr. Wood here referred to the statement in the address 
before the American Pomological Society by President Wilder in 
1877, that the foreign market for American fruits is now as well 
established as that for our wheat. Since the month of October last, 
there have been shipped to foreign ports, 396,000 barrels of apples, 
though few farmers will believe it. 

Mr. Wood read the following paragraph from a late number of 
the Boston Herald: "There are plenty of apples in the market, 
and shipments are made every week for Liverpool or Glasgow. 
One of the latest circulars from Liverpool speaks of the apple as 
'by far the most important article of green fruit this season.' 
The receipts at Liverpool in four months were 584,476, or more 
than half a million, barrels — nearly double the amount of any former 
exportation. The fact of the English crop being a very small one 
"has, of course, materially assisted the consumption, and it is an 



FRUITS BEST ADAPTED FOR MARKET PURPOSES. 37 

undoubted fact that this season American apples have been used 
in several districts of England that have never before taken them. 
The satisfaction they have universally given will lead to a very 
large demand in future years, no matter what the English crop 
may be.' " He thought this most conclusive evidence that the 
prediction of the Committee had been verified. Farmers planting 
orchards should carefully consider the best varieties for exportation. 
The Newtown Pippin is the best known American apple in England, 
but it does not succeed in New England, and in the last six years 
other kinds have become known in England. The kinds which the 
speaker recommended most highly for exportation, were the 
Gravenstein, Hubbardston Nonsuch, Rhode Island Greening, 
Baldwin, and Roxbury Russet, and these five kinds are also the 
best for our own market. Mr. Wood referred to a statement 
made by him in a discussion two years ago* in regard to a gentle- 
man who shipped to England 750 barrels of Baldwins and Hubbard- 
stons, which returned a net price, after deducting freight, of $1.50 
a barrel, the Hubbardstons bringing most, and who intended to 
graft a hundred more trees of the latter variety. This last year 
the same gentleman exported 2000 barrels, of which the first ship- 
ment, during the second week in September, brought $2.50 net, 
and the second shipment, $2.40. The second quality brought 
$1.25. Mr. Wood asked: What can be grown more profitably 
than apples at these prices ? 

The apple must be a farm crop. Those whose land is taxed for 
its prospective value cannot afford to grow apples. Large cities 
must depend on farms for their supply. The apple is the easiest 
of all fruits to grow. Most apples are grown in mowing fields, but 
the best can only be grown in grass under peculiarly favorable 
circumstances — by roadsides for instance. The roots of the grass 
intercept any top-dressing that may be applied. An orchard does 
not require the best land ; rough and springy hillsides make the best 
sites. An orchard on a southerly hillside gets more air, light, and 
sun than one on level ground. The trees should be planted when 
four years from the bud, and the ground should be cultivated with 
root crops for six or eight years, and should afterwards receive 
frequent light dressings of manure, and should be kept light. The 
trees recuperate in alternate years. The best fruit in an orchard 
is found on the outside rows. 

* Transactions for 1879, Part I, page 67. 



38 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The pear is next in importance to the apple. It is impossible to 
add anything new in regard to the best varieties, but new culti- 
vators appear every year who ask what varieties are most desirable. 
To such the Society furnishes much valuable information by its 
exhibitions, and it can do no more important work. Novices 
should look over the published 'Transactions, and see what varieties 
are most highly recommended. Many varieties growing under 
particular circumstances become favorites with amateurs, but the 
list of varieties desirable for market may be reduced to a very 
small number. From his own experience in growing pears, and 
from observation of the exhibitions of the Society for fourteen 
years, the speaker recommended the Clapp's Favorite, Bartlett, 
Sheldon, Beurre Bosc, Beurre Clairgeau. Duchesse d'Angouleme, 
and Beurre d'Anjou. The Clapp's Favorite is the earliest kind 
which can be considered a market variety, for though there are 
earlier kinds they are too small for market. Within the last five 
years it has suffered, from blight. The Bartlett is too well known 
to require anything said of it. It does not suffer from blight. 
The Sheldon is comparatively new, of excellent quality, a strong, 
vigorous grower, and, though formerly subject to cracking, has 
latelv been free from it. The Beurre Bosc is growing in favor for 
market. It is a free grower, and bears large, fine, handsome 
fruit. The Beurre Clairgeau meets many objections. No one 
would think of putting it on a list for amateurs, but it is a strong 
grower, and one of the largest and handsomest of all pears, and 
meets a specific market among the first-class hotels and res- 
taurants, bringing there as high a price as the Beurre d'Anjou, 
but the hotel keepers prefer it to that variety, because it lasts 
longer on the tables. It is largely planted by the Revere growers. 
The Duchesse d'Angouleme, Mr. Wood said, he would discard 
sooner than any other on the list. The best specimens are from 
trees on the quince stock, and it requires a moist, strong soil, such 
as is suited to the quince. It must have higher cultivation, and 
more food than any of the others named. Of the Beurre d'Anjou 
he said it was unnecessary to speak in the presence of Mr. Wilder, 
who introduced it into this country. 

If greater variety is desired, the Beurre Hardy, Seckel, Doyenne 
du Cornice, Dana's Hovey. and Vicar of Winkfield may be added. 
Beurre Hardy is a good grower, and the fruit is fair and handsome, 
and of good quality. The Seckel is the standard of quality. To 



FRUITS BEST ADAPTED FOR MARKET PURPOSES. 39 

get good sized specimens the fruit must be thinned thoroughly ; 
and if a man has twenty Seckel trees in full bearing, he will have 
twenty days' work thinning them. The Doyenne du Cornice is not 
excelled for size, beaut} 7 , or quality ; the only question is in regard 
to its productiveness. Some growers have found it one of the 
most productive varieties. It is grown more largety at Worcester 
than here, and the speaker had never seen trees more handsomely 
loaded than some of this variety there. Like the Bartlett it forms 
its flower buds at the extremity of the shoots. To Dana's Hovey 
there is the same objection as to the Seckel. The fruit grows in 
clusters, but when thinned they become, in the words of Charles 
Downing, "Winter Seckels." The Vicar of Winkfield sometimes 
brings three dollars per bushel, but not often. The fruit needs 
thinning, but this does not take so long as with smaller varieties. 
It is a vigorous grower, and makes an excellent stock for grafting 
other varieties on. The Beurre Clairgeau was mentioned particu- 
larly, as doing well when thus double-worked. One large grower 
lately set out five hundred trees of the Vicar, most of which he 
intended to graft, as the farmers in Sherborn set out Baldwin 
apple trees and graft with the Roxbury Russet, finding they can 
get a tree in half the time it takes, to rear one from the nursery. 

In the last two years many peaches have been exhibited here, 
and the crops have been remunerative, and it is probable that an 
unusually large number of trees will be planted the coming spring. 
It is difficult to name the best varieties, and the speaker suggested 
whether we might not produce improved varieties by planting the 
seeds of the best kinds. A large proportion of the trees are 
affected with the } T ellows, the first indication of which is the high 
color and premature ripening of the fruit, before the disease is 
shown in the leaves. The buds and seeds carry the contagion, 
and hence in propagating by either, care should be taken that they 
are from perfectly healthy trees. 

We live on the extreme northern boundary of the grape region, 
and should aim to lengthen the season by choosing the most favor- 
able situations for the growth of this fruit. Dr. Fisher, the lead- 
ing grower for market, says that by means of a southern aspect, 
we can gain the advantage of a climate two hundred miles further 
south. The varieties eligible for market culture are very few. At 
the head stands the Concord, of which Dr. Fisher says that if it 
were wiped out, grape culture for market would cease here. 



40 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Moore's Early, though not tested in all soils, has been sufficiently 
cultivated to come next. The speaker had seen it for the last six 
years, though not under particularly favorable circumstances, 
ripening two or three weeks earlier than the Concord, and equally 
as good in quality. The only question in regard to it is whether 
it will do as well under all conditions. The Worden is not tested 
here so much as west of us ; at Worcester it is grown more than 
any other kind, and is large and handsome, and said to be as early 
as Moore's Early, and not to mildew. Other new varieties are 
being introduced, and the speaker thought we must look for im- 
provement in pure native seedlings, and not in hybrids. The 
latter will do for amateurs, but not for market. There is not a 
single hybrid that does not suffer more or less from mildew. 
Many persons will be deceived by the favorable season last year, 
and plant them, but they will be disappointed three years out of 
four. 

In strawberries also, the amateur may indulge his bent, while 
the grower by acres will select carefully. The Charles Downing 
stands at the head of the list for market ; the plants are vigorous 
and prolific, and the fruit is of good size, and the second and third 
pickings hold out in size. The Wilson, which for the last ten 
years, or more, has been most reliable for money, has lately failed 
in some localities, and now stands second. Few persons who 
buy their strawberries have ever eaten a ripe Wilson. When fully 
ripe, it is of a very dark crimson color, and of fair quality ; before 
it is ripe, it is bright scarlet, and it is picked then. It has size, 
color, and form, and bears transportation well, and will grow 
anywhere, and produce more on light soils than any other variety. 
The Seth Boyden (Boyden's No. 30), may be placed next, though 
it has not been so generally grown as the two preceding. After 
the first picking, the best berries are gone ; there will be good 
ones in the second and third pickings, but not as many as with the 
Charles Downing or Wilson. The only new variety named by 
Mr. Wood was the Sharpless, which as yet has been shown here 
only by the Arlington and other cultivators, who grow everything 
well ; but all indications point to it as the most promising new 
kind. It is said to be among the most prolific. The Crescent 
Seedling is recommended as growing anywhere, and as a weed- 
killer, which is undoubtedly true, but in quality it is inferior to the 
Wilson, and that of the Wilson is as low as the Fruit Committee 
dared to go. 



FRUITS BEST ADAPTED FOR MARKET PURPOSES. 41 

Blackberries always command a ready sale at good prices. The 
greatest difficulty in their cultivation is in carrying the canes 
through the winter. The Dorchester and Kittatinny are two of 
the best. The latter is the hardier ; though it winter-kills some, 
there are generally plenty of canes left. 

Of raspberries, as seen here, Mr. Wood recommended the 
Franconia, Clarke, and Herstine. The first is well known. Some 
might take exception to the Clarke, but he had seen the best 
success with this variety. A neighbor sold six hundred dollars' 
worth from a third of an acre. The Herstine is new and prolific, 
and commands the best price. 

In looking back over the list of fruits recommended, Mr. Wood 
noticed the suggestive fact that four out of the five apples recom- 
mended, are natives of New England, and that three of these 
originated in Massachusetts. Of the twelve pears named, four are 
of American origin, and two of these are from our own vicinity. 
This points out that we should look for improvement in native 
seedlings, rather than in foreign varieties. 

The discussion and practice of fruit growing afford a great deal 
of pleasure as well as profit. All who have engaged in it will 
agree with A. J. Downing, that, "fine fruit is the flower of com- 
modities ; it is the most perfect union of the useful and the beauti- 
ful that the earth knows. Trees full of soft foliage ; blossoms 
fresh with spring beauty ; and, finally, fruit — rich, bloom-dusted, 
melting, and luscious — such are the treasures of the orchard and 
the garden, temptingly offered to every landholder in this bright 
and sunny, though temperate climate." 

Discussion. 
Hon. Marshall P. Wilder said that he had been exceedingly in- 
terested in the able and practical remarks by the Chairman of the 
Fruit Committee, and agreed generally with his views. The sub- 
ject is so broad that he hardly knew where to begin. Thirty years 
ago he began to preach to fruit growers to raise native seedlings, 
adapted to their own locations, quoting the advice of Van Mons 
to " sow perpetually. " For thirty years the Newtown Pippin com- 
manded the highest price for exportation, but now there are a hun- 
dred Baldwins planted to one Newtown Pippin. Everywhere, 
except in the South, the Baldwin receives the highest marking, 
and we shall raise others as good. 



42 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Wilder said that he had had more experience with pears 
than with apples. As we progress, the list of the best varieties 
will change. He thought he had had more experience than any 
other person with Clapp's Favorite. It was said by some to rot 
at the core, and it made him indignant to hear it. If it did it was 
caused only by the want of care and skill on the part of those who 
make the complaint. They do not realize how early it is, and do 
not pick it early enough. Here, it should be picked by the 15th 
of August. All early pears must be picked before they are ripe. 
The Sheldon, Merriam, and Buffum are valuable market pears, but 
not one of all the thousands of varieties imported has come up to the 
Beurre d'Anjou. It had been his most profitable variety the last 
season, bringing $2.50, $2.75, and $3 per bushel, with the last 
sales at $6. After the Bartlett, in value as a market pear, comes 
the Doyenne Boussock. It is a vigorous grower, and makes an 
amazingly large tree. He picks one half early — before they are 
fully grown — and ripens them off for market, and those left attain 
a fine, large size. The Buffum also should be picked early ; he 
picks half his crop the first of September. When thus treated it 
yellows finely, and is just the size for market, and was pronounced 
by A. J. Downing nearly as good as the Seckel. He has trees of this 
variety that produce an average crop of not less than five barrels, 
and one tree has borne twenty-two bushels. He has had the same 
experience with the Merriam ; and Mr. Hove}', who formerly dif- 
fered from him in regard to the value of these fruits, has come 
round to his ideas. Merriams, picked early, are luscious ; if not 
picked early they become yellow, with a red cheek, and hang on 
the tree ; and though they grow larger, the}' get a little mealy. 
This and the Buffum are both natives. Mr. Wilder said he could 
do nothing with the Duchesse d'Angouleme, but Patrick Quinn, of 
New Jersey, raised two thousand bushels last year, for which he 
expected to get five dollars per bushel ; and a gentleman at Brigh- 
ton had four hundred bushels. Taking the country through, it is 
the largest market pear, and one of the most popular. 

Mr. Wilder said he had often been called to account for saying 
that if he could have but one pear, he would plant a Vicar of Wink- 
field ; but this was many years ago, when we had fewer varieties 
than we have now. All agree that it makes one of the most beau- 
tiful trees. He had one tree that produced five bushels, which were 
in eating from October to April. The late Samuel Walker, who 



FRUITS BEST ADAPTED FOR MARKET PURPOSES. 43 

was for seven years Chairman of the Fruit Committee of this 
Society, expressed the same views, and Mr. Hovey considered the 
large specimens very valuable. They had sold for ten dollars per 
barrel, and the finest brought three dollars per dozen ; but the tree 
must have age to produce such. This was thirty } r ears ago. Dana's 
Hovey, another American variety, and the Seckel, are preeminent 
for quality throughout the world. We may get larger varieties of 
equally fine quality, by sowing seed. The Doyenne du Cornice has 
done tolerably well with the speaker, but when it has once fruited 
it will not soon bring a fruit bud again on the same spur, and the 
terminal wood is liable to be killed. 

Mr. Wilder differed from Mr. Wood in regard to foreign blood 
in grapes. He remembered when Irybridization was first practised 
on grapes, and some of the persons who then laughed at it now 
admit its happy influence. We do not want too much foreign 
blood mixed with the native. He had never seen a grape — not 
even the Concord — absolutely untouched by mildew, but he had 
seen none to do any injury on the Wilder, Lindley, or Massasoit. 
The Brighton, which has one-quarter foreign blood, has never mil- 
dewed with him in six years. There is nothing but is subject to 
disease in some seasons, and we must have regard to these facts. 
The Concord is the grape for the million ; Moore's Early is two 
weeks earlier, and the vine is of great vigor, and the speaker 
hoped it would prove of better quality than the Concord, and 
adapted to as wide a range. Half a million barrels of apples have 
been exported from Boston the past season, and we shall soon send 
native grapes as well as apples. The early varieties may be grown 
in England. The Hervey Davis is one of the most promising 
strawberries. The Crescent Seedling is pretty good to eat when 
you can. get nothing else, and it is a pistillate variety which may 
become the mother of a valuable race, possessing the same hardi- 
ness, vigor, and productiveness, with better quality. The speaker 
had seventy plants in pots of Crescent Seedling, Hovey's Seedling, 
and other pistillate varieties, which he intended to fertilize with the 
best kinds. The art of hybridization can be practised by every one, 
and we are raising thousands of new fruits by its agency. 

John B. Moore thought the list of apples presented by Mr. Wood 
a very valuable one. The Roxbury Russet is peculiar in its wants, 
and does not do well on his own grounds ; the fruit is apt to be 
wormy. It wants a stiff soil. The Gravenstein is universally 



44 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

popular. The Hubbarclston Nonsuch is also peculiar ; but, unlike 
the Baldwin, it will grow anywhere. The original tree, which the 
speaker had visited, stood in an orchard of natural trees, on a 
west slope in cold, wet, springy land, and it will succeed in such 
land, while the Baldwin and Hunt Russet will not, and on warm 
soils also. It is not adapted for exportation, because it is in use 
only a short season. The Hunt Russet originated in a warm soil. 
Fruits originating on such soils require warm soils to grow in, 
while those originating on cold soils will grow anywhere. The 
Hunt Russet is one of the hardiest varieties. The Rhode Island 
Greening has something the same traits as the Roxbury Rus- 
set, and wants a clay soil. Mr. Moore thought Mr. Wood's list 
of pears a good one, except the Vicar of Winkfield, which is only 
a cooking pear. The tree is beautiful and vigorous, and the fruit 
looks well in the box or barrel, but does not taste well and does 
not sell well. 

Mr. Wilder remarked that the Massachusetts Agricultural Club 
had a plateful of Vicars placed before them, which they thought 
as good as any variety. 

Mr. Moore replied, that Mr. Wilder, in speaking of the Vicar, 
put in a qualification which he did not. He had had a crop of fifty 
bushels. You may sell them to a man once, but you cannot a 
second time. The Buffum is the same ; the tree is beautiful and 
productive, and the fruit is not the worst that ever was. Dana's 
Hovey has only one fault — it is not large enough. The tree makes 
stout, stubbed shoots, but does not extend rapidly. If planting 
only six pear trees, he would have one of them a Dana's Hovey. 

Mr. Moore agreed with all that had been said of the value of 
native fruits. He had seen the Wilder, Massasoit, and Barry 
grapes mildew to such an extent that the crop was spoiled. The 
solid, substantial improvements in grapes have all got to come 
from pure natives. He did not know much about the habit of the 
Worden, but thought it promising. 

Miner's Great Prolific is one of the most promising new straw- 
berries ; one-third of Mr. Moore's planting last year was of this 
variety. It is not as soft as the Charles Downing. He has a far 
better opinion of it than of the Sharpless ; the first berries of the 
latter are large but homely and tasteless. The Wilson is grown 
largely at Concord, but it is going out of favor. Mr. Moore can- 
not grow them on his low land, but can on the hill. They bear 



FRUITS BEST ADAPTED FOR MARKET PURPOSES. 45 

transportation better than any other variety. The fruit is picked 
when it is red, before it is ripe. Some people think it is one of 
the finest strawberries, but it requires two boxes of sugar to one 
of fruit. Though the Seth Boyden has been in cultivation many 
years, it has not much hold on market growers. The Crescent 
Seedling is soft and of poor quality. 

The Wachusett Thornless blackberry has been planted by grow- 
ers in Mr. Moore's neighborhood, and is succeeding. It is pretty 
free from thorns. The Kittatinny is more hardy than the Dor- 
chester, and the Wachusett more hardy than the Kittatinny. He 
had known the Wachusett to be winter-killed, though Mr. Hadwen 
had not. It does not come up in size, but there may be a hardy 
race, with larger fruit grown from it, as the parent. Mr. Moore 
asked why no one had improved the blueberry and huckleberry. 
One variety of blueberry has long racemes of flowers, as beautiful 
as those of the lily of the valley, and is more beautiful as an orna- 
mental shrub than many that are planted for ornament. He had 
sown the seed, but never succeeded in making it vegetate. 

Mr. Wilder suggested scalding the seed. 

O. B. Hadwen, wished to stand up and commend Mr. Wood's 
opening address. He had never heard one that he could take so 
few exceptions to, and so concisely expressed. He thought the 
Sutton Beauty combined more good properties as a market apple, 
than any mentioned by Mr. Wood. It is of fine quality, keeps 
well, bears as well as the Baldwin, and outsells the Baldwin in 
Worcester by a dollar per barrel. It originated in the town of 
Sutton, ten miles south of Worcester. The Palmer Greening or 
Washington Royal resembles the Newtown Pippin, and is the 
peer of that famous variety. It is in good eating condition from 
December to May. Mr. Hadwen commended the Wachusett 
blackberry ; it has taken the highest prizes in his section ; is per- 
fectly hardy, wonderfully productive — more so than any other 
variety — and, though not so large as some, is large enough, and the 
quality is good enough. 

Charles M. Hovey said that he had never made a business of 
cultivating market fruits. He did not want it to go out from the 
Chairman of the Fruit Committee of this Society that the Wilson 
strawberry is fit to eat at all. He supplies his neighbors with a 
few strawberries, perhaps two or three hundred boxes, and in two 
or three instances, a few Wilsons were sent, and nobody wanted them 



46 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

a second time. It is only valuable for cooking. One of the Fruit 
Committee thinks the Merriam pear is not worth eating, but Mr. 
Hovey could not agree with him. About twenty-five years ago, 
the late William B. Kingsbury brought him the first specimens he 
had ever seen, which were not good ; the next year they were 
nearly first-rate, and he grafted twentj^-five or thirty trees, and 
wishes now that he had grafted more. It will sell better than the 
Beurre d'Anjou. The first time he saw the Sheldon it was brought 
to the meeting of the North American Pomological Convention, at 
Buffalo, N. Y., in 1848. It was pronounced by Patrick Barry, and 
others, the Gray Doyenne, but he ascertained the history of the 
tree, and was satisfied that it was new. He procured some scions, 
with which he grafted three hundred trees. He then thought it the 
finest pear he ever ate in his life , and there are few that equal it 
today. The Vicar of Winkfield will bring two or three dollars per 
bushel, in a scarce year, if the specimens are good. 

Mr. Wood replied to Mr. Hovey's criticism on his recommenda- 
tion of the Wilson strawbeny for market, that we could not ignore 
a variety sold to a larger extent than any other. 

Benjamin G. Smith remarked that the King of Tompkins 
County apple is highly esteemed in London. 

Mr. Wilder alluded to the Pocklington grape as a new variety, 
giving promise of value for market. It sprang from a seed of the 
Concord, saved and carried home by a lad}'. The vines in Mr. 
Pocklington's grounds ripened their wood and shed their leaves so 
early that he pruned them on the loth of September. 

President Hayes said that George S. Curtis, one of the largest 
dealers in fruit in Boston, when his advice as to the best apples 
for a market orchard was sought, recommended half Baldwins, and 
Gravensteins next ; but on second thought advised three-quarters 
Baldwins, and then went on discussing until he concluded that it 
would be best to plant all Baldwins. The Baldwin is the best stock 
to graft other varieties on, and it is easier to cultivate the ground 
under the trees than under most kinds. Large orchards in Western 
New York have been planted wholly with the Baldwin, on Mr. 
Curtis's recommendation. 

It was announced that on the next Saturday the question, " How 
shall Southern Competition in the Small Fruit Market be met"? 
would be discussed, and the desire was expressed that it should be 



SOUTHEKN COMPETITION IN SMALL FRUITS. 47 

understood that these meetings are open to all, and that all inter- 
ested in the subjects discussed are cordially invited to attend. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 5, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Hon. Francis B. Hayes, in the chair. No business 
coming before the meeting it 

Adjourned to Saturday, February 12. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The subject assigned for today was " How shall Southern Com- 
petition in the Small Fruit Market be met." The President called 
first on William C. Strong, who said that he was wholly unprepared, 
and, therefore, spoke with hesitation, but expressed the view that 
competition should be met in a determined spirit. We can grow 
small fruits here as well as the Southern cultivators, and though 
they employ a very cheap class of labor, we can also produce 
fruit very cheap. It has been said that apples do not pay, and if 
the time of all persons were as valuable as that of some, they 
would not, but if we select the right locations, away from cities, 
where land is not taxed for a prospective value, and with suitable 
soil, we can produce apples at a fair profit, at a dollar and a half 
per barrel. So with small fruits, — if we set about their cultiva- 
tion in the right way we can produce them at a profit. But it 
must be done systematically, and too large profits must not be 
expected. Raspberries have a local value, for they cannot be sent 
even from New Jersey. No other small fruit bears so high a 
price, or will pay as well here. If we put brains into our work, 
the twenty-five or thirty cents per quart which raspberries bring, 
will afford a good profit. Cultivators must put as much thought 
into their work as merchants and manufacturers do into theirs. 

William H. Hunt said that the subject of discussion was one in 
which he had taken much interest. He agreed with Mr. Strong 
with regard to the profit. He had cultivated strawberries, rasp- 
berries, and blackberries, at Concord, and had found them all 



48 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

profitable. He had discovered some points in the cultivation of 
raspberries, which if he had found them out sooner would have 
been of great value to him. He had them planted on a hillside 
where they succeeded well, and afterwards set them on a flat at 
the foot of the hill, where the soil was better, but was much dis- 
appointed to find the result very poor there. He thought they 
should never be planted on low, flat land. This land was not wet ; 
water would not stand there. In raspberry culture we are free 
from the competition of a Southern crop, but the liability to rain- 
storms, at the time of picking, is a drawback. The storms are 
particularly injurious when they occur the last of the week. Mr. 
Hunt thought raspberries must be still more profitable nearer 
Boston. The land where he raises them at Concord is worth 
about one hundred dollars per acre. He covers all his in winter, 
and does not believe there is a red raspberry in existence that will 
stand severe winters without covering. The Franconia is the best 
variety ; it possesses the firmness which is necessary to a market 
berry. He had tried other kinds but discontinued them soon. 
Some raspberries will endure some winters, but none will stand 
hard winters. He thought some winters would kill the wild 
raspberry. 

The growth of his raspberries was not more luxuriant on his flat 
land than on the hillside ; the latter was moist, but well drained. 
The canes in both fields were killed if not covered. On the low 
grounds the buds were killed when they were uncovered, and the 
tops were mostty killed. The crop never more than paid for the 
year's cultivation. On the hillside he never failed to get a crop. 
Although his raspberries failed on the flat land, one of his neigh- 
bors has always been successful on similar land. The frost may 
have taken his before the wood was ripe ; they retained their leaves 
longer than elsewhere. It is not so much labor to cover raspber- 
ries as people suppose. 

Strawberries raised here come in competition with those grown 
at the South ; still, Mr. Hunt thought they could be raised here at 
a profit. He thought farmers near railroad depots could cultivate 
them to advantage. For two years he kept an account of the 
expenses and income of his strawberry patch of seven-eighths of 
an acre. One of these years, which was the best he ever had, it 
produced a trifle over nine hundred dollars' worth, while all the 
expenses were included in four hundred dollars. The variety was 



SOUTHERN COMPETITION IN SMALL FRUITS. 49 

the Wilson, and he was glad to hear a good word spoken for it last 
week. Eight years ago it was the onty variety from which he got 
any profit. He has no doubt there are many better ones now, — it 
is far from perfect, but it is hard, so as to carry well. The berries 
do not waste in long rains. Growers are obliged to pick them 
before they are ripe. The Charles Downing, under the same cul- 
ture as the Wilson, produced only one dollar's worth where the 
Wilson produced three. The Wilson has gone out of favor at 
Concord, but one of the largest growers still adheres to it. Last 
year he set out Wilsons, but the plants were weak, and made few 
runners. He could not say whether it had run out, but he meant 
to get some good plants and see. 

He has always cultivated the Kittatinny blackberry, and had a 
fine crop last year. Once in from two to four 3-ears the canes are 
winter-killed. Some seasons it bears a moderate crop at the usual 
time, and afterwards a second crop ; it is not profitable then. He 
has not fruited the Wachusett, but has seen it ; and though the 
fruit is smaller he thinks it will bear more quarts than the Kitta- 
tinny. He thinks Massachusetts farmers can grow blackberries 
profitably if they can get a hardy one. It is impossible to cover 
the canes. If we are to meet Southern competition, it must be by 
the best varieties and improved culture. The most serious diffi- 
culty is that we have to pay the highest prices for labor — ten cents 
an hour for women and children — and it is difficult to get at that 
price. We cannot drive out Southern competition, but we can 
meet it. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder wished to inquire what the Southern 
competition is that we have to meet. 

Charles F. Curtis said that it was mostly in strawberries and 
blackberries, and but little in raspberries. Few of the last arrive 
in good condition, while the Southern blackberries furnish almost 
the whole supply. He thought that from one-half to three-quar- 
ters of the strawberries sold in Boston market came from south of 
New York. The greater part of these are Wilsons, and this 
variety is also grown by those in this State who have to send 
them some distance to market. Florida berries should be here 
now ; a few have been sent to New York. The price depends on 
the condition ; they may come in good order for three or four 
days, and then there will be a bad spell, and they will average 
from twenty-five to thirty-three and a third per cent, less for 
4 



50 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Southern and New Jersey fruit. The " native" berries ripen rap- 
idly in warm weather, and sometimes Connecticut berries come in 
bad condition. 

Mr. Wilder thought the Southern competition was not injurious, 
but beneficial. "We get strawberries from the South a month or 
six weeks before they are ripe here, and though the Wilson and 
Nunan are not much esteemed, they are acceptable in the absence 
of better. They do not command as high a price as those grown 
here. The speaker thought it a great advantage that we could 
have these early fruits, and they create an appetite for our own 
when they are ripe. The prolonging the season is very desirable, 
not only with respect to the strawberry, but other fruits. The 
new strain of peaches lately introduced has lengthened the season 
of that fruit, and it is desirable by scientific means to raise varie- 
ties of that and other fruit which will prolong the season still 
further. Peaches are sold for a cent each here which would cost 
sixpence each in England. The case is the same with blackber- 
ries as with strawberries ; we can get them from the South a month 
earlier than we can raise them here. We can compete with the 
South in this fruit also if we plant them, but no one here has 
planted them by the fifty acres, as is done at the South. The 
Snyder blackberry is very hardy, — the speaker had never heard of 
its needing protection, — and it is an enormous bearer. The 
Wachusett Thornless is very nearly hardy. All can be made to 
stand the winter better by nipping the canes when three or four 
feet high, and, if the laterals grow too strong, nipping again. 
The Dorchester and Lawton never fail with the speaker ; they 
grow by a fence without cultivation. We cannot change the order 
of nature ; we cannot get a grape ripe here by the first of August, 
but we can have them from the South at a very moderate price. 

The Franconia is the best of the red raspberries. Mr. Wilder 
related the history of the introduction of this variety as follows : 
Two plants were sent to the late Samuel G. Perkins, by Vilmorin 
& Co., of Paris, forty or fifty years ago, and from these all the 
stock in this country and Europe has been derived. In the same 
way the Knevett's Giant was received by Mr. Wilder from 
Chandler & Co., of Vauxhall, England, and neither of these 
varieties is known in Europe, except as received from this country ; 
Messrs. Vilmorin, knowing nothing further of the Franconia, nor 
Messrs. Chandler of the Knevett's Giant. 



SOUTHERN COMPETITION IN SMALL FRUITS. 51 

Although native grapes will survive the winter they are better 
for covering. The Lindley (Rogers's No. 9) has been grown in 
Canada ; the Wilder (No. 4) can be grown for market, and the 
Pocklington promises to be adapted to cultivation for market. 
The Wilson strawberry is hardly fit to eat, unless we get it before 
we have anything else. It has been a question whether we shall 
ever get a variety to supplant it, but the speaker fully believed 
that we should produce an abundance of varieties of good quality, 
and equally adapted for market. It would be ridiculous to think 
otherwise. 

J. W. Manning thought that the low price of strawberries 
discourages cultivators here. At Dighton, in this State, where 
large quantities are grown, they average only eight cents per 
quart to the grower. These do not come in competition with fruit 
grown further south than Connecticut. He thought people got 
satiated with small fruits before ours come into market. The 
Wachusett is one of the hardiest blackberries, but it wants high 
cultivation. Marshall Miles, of Concord, has a field which is very 
profitable. We want a better quality of peaches than we receive 
from the South ; they are not equal to those grown here. Peaches 
can be grown profitably here ; at Groton, peach growers are suc- 
cessful on high land, and G. & H. Whitaker, there, are successful, 
next to Dr. Fisher, with Concord grapes. The speaker had never 
seen larger or finer peaches in Missouri than he had seen grown in 
New Hampshire. At Mason, in that State, there is a fine orchard 
with a southeast aspect ; others have a southerly aspect. At 
Goffstown, east of the Uncanoonuc mountains, peaches have not 
failed for twenty years, and the peach crop is considered the best 
on the farms. The late ones bring good prices for preserving ; if 
any variety fails to ripen, it is the Crawford's Late. The land at 
Goflstown is a thousand feet higher than here. At Lyndeborough, 
in the same county, Charles Holt is successful with peaches, and 
formerly cultivated Catawba grapes successfully, but this variety 
has been displaced by the Concord. 

Leancler Wetherell remarked that peaches are grown success- 
fully on the hills in Franklin county, Mass. 

E. P. Richardson said that one point in favor of the raspberry 
is its value for canning, because it retains its peculiar flavor better 
than any other fruit. The Philadelphia is especially desirable for 
this purpose, on account of its fine color when canned. A grower 



52 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

at Lawrence, cultivates this and the Wachusett blackberry largely, 
and his fields of the latter form a magnificent sight. He disposes 
of his surplus fruit by canning, and has found it profitable. Mr. 
Richardson thought the Dighton growers should ask a fair price 
for their fruit ; they send it in as the season for Southern fruit is 
closing, and it sells at low prices, which establish the price of all 
the fruit grown here. 

President Hayes said, that as a director of the Old Colony Rail- 
road, he had been astonished at the wonderful quantity of straw- 
berries grown in Dighton, and the extensive arrangements required 
by the railroad company to bring them to market. 

Dr. E. L. Sturtevant thought that one of the duties of the 
friends of horticulture, is to educate the public to discriminate 
between the different varieties of fruit, and to give higher prices 
for the better qualities. If we can educate the people to appre- 
ciate the quality of the Triomphe de Gand strawberry, the growing 
of that variety might become profitable. The Society should make 
some effort in this direction. He had seen finer blackberries 
in the woods in Maine, than he had ever seen in cultivation. They 
always grew in the shade. He spoke of one field of wild black- 
berries, sheltered by alders, which was fenced in, and formed the 
most profitable part of the farm. His first appearance in print 
was when he sent a wild blackberry three and one-eighth inches 
long, to the editor of the Farmington Gazette. We can cultivate 
these varieties or produce new ones, but he was under the im- 
pression that all the kinds now cultivated in our gardens were no 
better than some to be found growing wild. 

Mr. Wilder said that the finest wild blackberries are found in 
the borders of the forest. When the Improved High Bush black- 
berry, now known as the Dorchester, was exhibited before this 
Society, in 1841, by Eliphalet Thayer, of Dorchester, who culti- 
vated it in his garden, he went the same afternoon with the late 
Cheever Newhall to see the fruit. Dr. Sturtevant's impression that 
the garden varieties were found growing wild, is correct, with 
regard to most varieties ; but three kinds, the Orange, Warder, and 
Wilder, were raised in the West by a Mr. Orange, about twenty 
years ago. They were not of good color, and have not come into 
cultivation. 

Mr. Curtis thought it was for the advantage of growers here to 
have Southern fruit in the market, as it produces a desire for our 



SOUTHERN COMPETITION IN SMALL FRUITS. 53 

own. Many of the berries grown here are no better than Southern 
ones. It does not take a provision dealer more than forty-eight 
hours to find out whether a particular mark means good or poor 
fruit ; and, while the good is engaged two days in advance, the 
poor will remain piled up waiting for the hawkers. The taste of 
the people is being educated ; there seems to have been a great 
improvement within a year or two, and a demand for the Sharpless 
and other large and fine berries. If the arrivals are largely 
Wilson, buyers will wait and see what comes by the next train. 

Benjamin P. Ware thought the question before the meeting not 
difficult to answer. Southern small fruits go out before ours come 
in. He has occasion to use a good many, and he finds that when 
they are marked " native," he has to pay a considerable advance. 
People have become accustomed to having fruit, and when ours 
comes, they are ready to buy. The case is the same with peaches, 
except Hale's Early ; the natives are higher. Southern grapes, 
also, are in the market long before ours come. Blackberries are 
got largely from the South, because we do not cultivate largely. 
The competition is not to our detriment, but to our advantage. 

Josiah W. Talbot said there are two points from which to view 
this subject — as members of the community, and as growers of 
fruit. From the former point of view Mr. Wilder is correct in 
considering the Southern competition in small fruit an advantage. 
A neighbor of the speaker who formerly got twenty-seven cents 
per quart for his strawberries, now has to sell for sixteen, but he 
can raise them at a cost of eleven cents. He thought the price 
was reduced on the average twenty-five per cent, through the intro- 
duction of Southern berries. When the market is glutted the 
Dighton growers come in, and have to take Southern prices. The 
remedy is to make the quality of our fruit such that the South 
cannot compete successfully with it. 

Mr. Strong said he believes the time is coming when we must 
reduce the price of fruits as well as of manufactures, so that all 
can have them. We are sending forced flowers South already, 
and if we go into the culture of small fruits on as large a scale as 
is done in the South, we can raise them as cheaply. The difference 
between eleven and sixteen cents is profit enough for Mr. Talbot's 
neighbor. We should not try how much money we can get out of 
the community, but the object of the Society should be to bring 
good fruit within the reach of all. 



54 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Manning said that the matter of labor is a very important 
one. Franklin Davis, at his nursery in Richmond, Va., pays his 
help partly in rations of Indian meal, molasses, and bacon ; none 
receive above fifty cents per day and rations. At William Parry's 
extensive small fruit gardens, at Cinnaminson, N. J., the speaker 
had seen whole families living in barns and cooking out-doors, 
during the picking season. We cannot obtain labor at the prices 
paid in these cases. 

Mr. Wetherell said that he should as soon think of talking 
about competition between strawberries here and in New Bruns- 
wick, as between those raised in the South and those grown here. 
He endorsed all that Mr. Curtis had said. Digh ton berries in good 
order do not sell for the tail end of Southern prices. Mr. Wilder 
had struck the key-note in his remarks. The speaker mentioned a 
dealer who said he rejoiced in low prices, because they brought 
fruit within the reach of the poor. This discussion is in the 
direction of producing better fruit at low prices. In fruit growing, 
as in dany farming, success depends on skill in business. The 
choicest butter will bring eighty cents per pound, and good fruits 
never go begging for remunerative prices. The South may grow 
the best fruit and send it here, and we shall be glad to buy it. 

N. B. White said that Southern grapes come in competition with 
ours, because grapes can be kept. He thought Dr. Sturtevant's 
suggestion, to educate the taste of the community, a good one. 
The Society should give premiums for quality as well as size of 
fruit. 

Mr. Hunt said that growers should not be discouraged by 
the low prices of last season. It should be remembered that 
the season was hot, and forced the strawberries to ripen early. 
The Philadelphia raspberry is the greatest bearer, but the fruit is 
not firm, and turns a little black. 

Mr. Strong suggested that we should cultivate so well here as to 
turn the tables on the South. 

President Hayes gave an account of some of his observations 
of Southern gardening a year ago. As the train approached 
Charleston, circulars were placed in the hands of the passengers, 
giving information concerning a garden at Magnolia, sixteen miles 
from the city. He was one of a party of thirty or forty who visited 
the garden, going up the river, passing the phosphate beds, the 
factories for grinding phosphates, and the alligators lying on the 



SOUTHERN COMPETITION IN SMALL FRUITS. 55 

banks. The garden was from forty to fifty acres in extent, and 
here, in the month of March, magnolias, azaleas, convolvuluses, 
and roses of exquisite varieties were in bloom in profusion. 
President Hayes was struck with the difference in the ease of 
cultivation here and at the South ; the proprietor said that all he 
had to do to grow any of these flowers was to get a little slip and 
plant in the ground. The whole secret was the wonderful supply 
of manure. Before the discovery of the value of these phospates 
as fertilizers, they had been thrown into the river. 

St. Mary's, Georgia, was once an aristocratic place, with fountains 
in the centres of the streets, but it is now deserted, and land in the 
vicinity has fallen from five hundred dollars to one dollar per acre. 
Here he met a gentleman who told him that his father, while at a 
dinner part} 7 , received news that a vessel had gone ashore with a 
cargo of pecan nuts, and though his friends told him he was too old 
ever to see any fruit from them, he got a quantity of the nuts and 
planted them along his garden ; and now the trees from these seeds 
yield from four to five hundred dollars worth of nuts annually, form- 
ing his main support in his old age, and he has to watch that the nuts 
are not stolen. Here, also, President Hayes met Mr. Alexander 
Curtis, a graduate of Cambridge University, England, who was 
engaged in raising fruit and vegetables, but wanting a market, 
and Northern capital to enable him to erect a few small green- 
houses. 

In Florida the sandy ground presented a very unprepossessing 
appearance, and they saw very little foliage, and were much dis- 
appointed at not getting green peas and other early vegetables, 
but found the growers did not keep them for home use, but sent 
them all to the Northern cities. The only good beef came from 
Boston and New York. His wife said that another winter she 
would stay at home and have the tropics in her own house. 

At Fernandina they expected to find bananas, but they all went 
to New York and Boston. On board the steamer, on their way 
to Savannah, there were over three hundred cases of cucumbers, 
and large quantities of cabbages, but not one was landed at Savan- 
nah ; all went to New York, and they had none at their hotel in 
Savannah. At Baltimore they got some Southern fruit, and at 
New York plenty. 

Mr. Wilder said that the result of the discussion today was 
exceedingly gratifying to him. We have settled that there is 



56 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

really no competition between the South and North in small fruit 
growing worth speaking of. Dr. Sturtevant's remark that we 
should seek to educate the public taste is correct ; it is what we 
have been trying to do for fifty years. The sixteen thousand 
bushels of strawberries brought from Norfolk to Boston, and the 
ten thousand bushels from Dighton, have enabled many to eat 
strawberries who never tasted one before. Mr. Strong is right in 
regard to reducing the price of fruit. This, also, is what we have 
been aiming at for years. 

The President gave notice that, at the meeting on the next Sat- 
urday, the subject of discussion would be " Peach Culture," to be 
opened by Caleb Bates. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 12, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Hon. Francis B. Hayes, in the chair. No business 
being brought before the meeting, it 

Adjourned to Saturday, February 19. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The subject today was " Peach Culture," and the discussion was 
opened by Caleb Bates, who said that, in planting peach trees, the 
first thing is to see that they are not set too deep. He preferred to 
have the collar entirely above ground, but they are generally set three 
or four inches too deep. When the collar is below the ground, ex- 
crementitious matter forms on it to the great injury of the tree, 
and makes an excellent place of deposit for the eggs of the borers. 
If the collar is above the surface, this effete matter does not form, 
and the borers do not find a congenial home around the collar. He 
always pours in water while planting the tree, to settle the earth 
around the roots. It is very important to see that there are no 
borers in the trees when planted ; he once bought a lot of trees 
which had been puddled, and when the puddle was washed off he 
found that half the trees had from one to five borers each. 



PEACH CULTURE. 57 

He did not agree with those who think peach trees do best in 
sod land ; they are likely to be not more than four inches in diam- 
eter after twelve or fifteen years' growth, and to have three or four 
dead limbs to one live one. He aims to make his trees grow in 
regular shape and produce abundantly. If all the fruit buds on a 
peach tree are killed, the tree has nothing to do but to grow, and 
care should be taken not to feed it too highly, But if the buds 
are not destroyed and the fruit sets, by the last of May it will be 
of the size of peas, and then the trees should be liberally manured 
with concentrated fertilizers, such as guano or hen droppings, and 
it is astonishing to see by the dark green color of the leaves how 
quickly the trees respond to such treatment. If no fertilizer is 
applied the tree will ripen the fruit, but make no wood or fruit 
buds for the next year. Mr. Bates emphasized this point as the 
most important thing he could say, — force when in fruit, and 
withhold fertilizers when not in fruit. The peach is the only one 
of our fruit trees that bears on the new wood. If all the crop is 
destroyed, or if the tree has grown too fast, the young wood may 
be shortened. Theoretically, a perfect peach tree is a cone cov- 
ered with fruit. Mr. Bates here exhibited a branch of a tree 
which made a total growth last year of one hundred feet ; it was 
originally planted in a very poor soil, but afterwards came within 
the limits of a hen-yard and showed the effect of stimulants. 

Mr. Bates said in regard to borers, that while some pile up ashes 
or sand to keep them from the tree, he believes these are just what 
the borer likes ; they retain just enough moisture to hatch the 
eggs. He would rather have a bowl around the tree than a hill. 
Others advise putting paper around the tree, but he has fifteen 
hundred trees, among which there are no two butts alike. There 
are ribs where the roots run up, and between these are openings 
where the borers can enter. He advised to use a mason's trowel, 
and a six-inch butcher's knife, to scrape away and cut out the 
borers. A mat should be provided to kneel on. The first season 
the borer does not enter the wood, but remains in a cavity outside, 
where it can easily be scraped off. He keeps hens for the benefit 
of his peach trees, and feeds them in the afternoon with cracked 
corn, throwing a handful around each tree. Peach trees seem to 
be exceedingly sensitive in regard to having anything growing 
among them, and Mr. Bates advised that no crop whatever should 
be planted, but that the ground should be left entirely bare. 



58 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The "yellows" in the peach is a very difficult subject. It 
destroys the trees from Plymouth bay to the bay of San Fran- 
cisco. John Rutter, the author of a book on the culture and dis- 
eases of the peach, is of the opinion that it is caused b} T a lack of 
potash in the soil. This view is supported by the fact that some of 
the best trees the speaker had known, grew where the rubbish from 
repairing a house was deposited. The effect of lime on vegetable 
matter is to produce potash. He did not see how we can put a 
stop to this disease, with infected trees all around us, and nursery- 
men sending out diseased trees. He got his trees from a nursery 
at Newbury, where he found a healthy stock. He has known the 
yellows to affect trees a quarter of a mile away from any diseased 
tree. People are very unwilling to remove an infected tree. A 
diseased tree dies very quickly, if young, but if old it lasts a good 
while. The disease will run through a row of trees, and poison 
them, before the effect is shown outwardly. It needs a bold hand 
to take the tree up immediately. It should not be allowed t@ ripen 
fruit. Plenty of lime and potash should be used, if the soil is 
exhausted of these. 

Mr. Bates said that his location gives him peculiar advantages 
for learning the ability of different varieties to resist frosts of 
varying severity. This can not be ascertained by any scientific 
test, but only by observation. Among thirty-two varieties, the 
Ives's Blood and Hale's Early appear as tough as the oak. The 
Coolidge's Favorite, E. S. Williams, and Salway come next. 
Among all the rest there is not much difference until we come to 
Crawford's Early, Crawford's Late, and Snow, which are very 
tender. In 1879, a frost on the 24th of May rose up like a tide ; 
but the Hale's Early gave a handsome crop, while the Coolidge's 
Favorite were killed higher up, and the Crawford's Early clear to 
the top. If he had foreseen it, he could have saved his crop by 
making a smoke on the windward side of the orchard. He has 
saved sweet potatoes in that way, and in one case saved his garden 
from the frost when the smoke rose up in a column, the draft 
bringing in the warm air from the forest. 

In regard to quality, the Rogers's Seedling, a yellow fleshed 
variety, is one of the finest ; it is of spirited flavor, resembling 
Crawford's Early. The Downer, another yellow fleshed variety, 
is excellent. Of white fleshed varieties, the E. S. Williams and 
Mountain Rose are fine ; the Grosse Mignonne is good but smaller. 



FEACH CULTURE. 59 

The Stump the "World is later and excellent. The Snow is 
excellent, but tender. The Salway is too late for general cultiva- 
tion in this climate, but good in warm locations and desirable in 
collections. It holds on to the tree well. Hale's Early is the most 
profitable because most certain. It should not be allowed to over- 
bear. Mr. Bates has had them eleven and a half inches in circum- 
ference. 

His soil is a sandy loam, the sandy constituent being sharp and 
gritty. Such land produces the finest peaches and sweet potatoes. 
He would not advise to plant on soils entirely of sand. The best 
locations are on plateaus and hills ; such places in Massachusetts are 
the safest for peaches north of Florida. Elevation has a wonderful 
effect. His house is on ground thirty or forty feet higher than his 
orchard, and the peach buds are safe there when they are all killed 
in the valley. The peach crop is much more liable to be destroyed 
by late frosts in the South than here. He does not believe there is 
any place equal to Eastern Massachusetts for the production of 
peaches of high color and high flavor, though the western part of 
the state is not bad. The shores of Maine and New Brunswick 
form a coast line against which the northeast winds raise a spray, 
and force a saline atmosphere across our State, while the whole 
length of the State projects beyond all the coast south of New 
York City. This results in the south and southeast winds bring- 
ing salt enough to blur our windows, as can be found by a touch 
of the tongue. This saline influence heightens flavor and color in 
all our fruits. He had had Catawba grapes covered with a bloom 
of salt where they were exposed to a concentrated draft of air. 

The President here introduced to the meeting, John B. Russell, 
now of Newmarket, N. J., and the only survivor of the eight 
corporators of the Society, who thanked the President for the kind 
words in which he had introduced him, and expressed the pleasure 
which he felt in once more attending a meeting of the Society. 

The President remarked that among the horticulturists present 
were many whose gray heads indicated their long experience in 
gardening, and he called on Hon. Marshall P. Wilder to speak of 
peach growing. 

Mr. Wilder said that it is never too late to plant fruit trees, and 
that most of the gray-headed members present would live to eat the 
fruit of peach trees if they should plant them the coming spring. 



60 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

He spoke of a gentleman who, at the age of ninety-two set out 
peach trees, the fruit of which he lived to eat. He agreed with 
Mr. Bates's view that we can raise peaches in Massachusetts which 
will compare with any in the world. If we select good kinds, and 
plant a few trees every year, we shall always have peaches. Be- 
fore planting a tree he examines it carefully to see that it is free 
from borers, and ties around the base a piece of paper six inches 
wide — half above and half below ground. This will protect the 
tree from borers for one year and sometimes more. It is im- 
portant to select the most useful sorts — he thought the Hale's 
Early, Early York (serrate), Crawford's Early, Oldmixon Free, 
and Crawford's Late, the five most valuable kinds. A few years 
ago the Hale's Early was the earliest kind, but the very early 
kinds which have been introduced within a few years have length- 
ened the season four weeks, and the later varieties which have 
been introduced to cultivation at the South, have prolonged it two 
weeks more. He advised to plant the stones of the best kinds, 
as seedling trees are the healthiest and longest lived. He in- 
tends to advise the saving of seeds and the crossing of varieties 
as long as he lives. If previous generations had done this we 
should have many more fine varieties of fruit than we have now. 
The crops of peaches in this country are wonderful ; last year 
there were four million baskets from the Delaware peninsula alone 
— more than ever were raised in the famous gardens of Montreuil. 

Mr. Wilder congratulated the Society on the presence of Mr. 
Russell, to whom, more than to any one else, the formation of the 
Society is due. In 1829 Mr. Russell kept a seed store in North 
Market street, where John Lowell, Elijah Vose, and other lovers 
of horticulture frequently met, to whom Mr. Russell suggested the 
formation of a horticultural society ; and when it was decided to 
form one, he was the most active agent in carrying out the plan, 
and after it was formed he watched over its growth. 

Mr. Bates admitted that it is not as much labor to apply paper 
as to scrape off the borers, but thought it was not as effectual. 
In answer to an inquiry, he expressed the belief that there is no 
particular temperature at which peach buds are certainly killed. 
They may be killed at zero or they may stand twenty degrees be- 
low. Much depends on the condition of the bud when frozen, 
and more on the manner in which it is thawed out. 

George Webb, of Elizabeth, N. J., said that in Delaware the 
borers are scraped off, but nothing is ever put round the trees. 



PEACH CULTURE. 61 

Charles M. Hovey said that he had had some experience in 
cultivating the peach since he was a young man. In 1806 Richard 
Peters read a paper before the Philadelphia Society for Promoting 
Agriculture, of which he was president, on peach culture, in which 
he detailed the difficulties that he had encountered, and the means 
he had taken to overcome them. Judge Peters and other writers 
complained that these difficulties were increasing, and that the 
climate was less favorable than previously ; and every year since 
then people have made the same complaint, and said that it was 
no longer of an} 7 use to attempt to cultivate peaches. They recol- 
lect the abundant crops in former years, when they were young, 
but not the failures. The speaker thought we might count on a 
crop three years out of five, if we have the trees. He used to 
raise ten thousand peach trees in his nursery every year, and had 
a patch in the rear of his house, twenty-five years ago, which were 
left unbudded, and produced many fine varieties, three of which 
were thought worthy of names, and were called the Cambridge 
Belle, White Ball, and Hovey. About 1848 he made a collection 
of eighty varieties of peach trees, which grew up and fruited so 
full that the trees broke down. All the characteristics of the 
varieties were noted. He saw no reason why peaches should not 
be cultivated throughout New England. 

The late A. J. Downing was of the opinion that the peach crop 
was destroyed whenever the thermometer fell to ten degrees below 
zero, but this has been found incorrect. But, if after severe cold 
there comes a thaw, and then the mercury falls to zero again, they 
are destroyed. The case is the same with nearly all plants ; they 
will stand one frost, but the second freezing kills. In low grounds 
peach trees are more liable to be injured than on elevated land. 
Some persons say there is no growth in trees in the winter, but if 
we compare the condition of the buds of the abele on the first 
of November with that on the first of January, we shall find they 
are swollen, and if we examine them now we shall find them still 
more swollen. If peach trees get only moisture enough to keep 
them from drying up, they are more likely to stand the winter than 
if kept too moist. The trees must be pruned, if it is desired to 
keep them down. Mr. Hovey preferred to plant anew frequently, 
and spoke of a gentleman in Dorchester who plants six trees every 
year. He thought the best varieties for amateurs are Hale's Early, 
Early York, Coolidge's Favorite, George the Fourth, Crawford's 



62 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Early, and Crawford's Late. Peach trees in France are subject to 
mildew. 

Benjamin G. Smith said that the buds on his peach trees, which 
are on the highest land in Cambridge, were uninjured. The ther- 
mometer had fallen to seven degrees below zero. The total failures 
have been exceptions to the general rule. He had had six or 
seven crops in the last ten }*ears. 

Joshua Coolidge, a grandson of the originator of the Coolidge's 
Favorite, said that since his boyhood peaches had been a failure, 
owing to the borers and yellows. When he was a boy, peaches 
were as common and required as little care as the coarsest weeds. 
Young seedlings sprang up in the orchard, and the fruit required 
thinning. He now cultivates only for family use. 

John B. Moore was glad to hear such hopeful views expressed 
in regard to peach culture. A few years ago he was taken to task 
for expressing such views. He felt no doubt that we should raise 
peaches as well as ever we did. He has a good peach orchard, 
and if the buds are not killed, will have a crop. The location is 
the first thing to be considered ; it never should be in a vallej 7 , 
but on hills or high table land. Soil that will produce forty 
bushels of corn to the acre is rich enough for peaches. It is a 
great mistake to force trees the first year or two ; a moderate 
growth is all that is wanted. A good strong tree, one year from 
the bud and two from the seed, is better to plant than an older 
one. The main stem should be headed down to five feet, and the 
side branches should be cut off entirely ; they will die if they are 
not cut off. If the trees are headed down to five feet, and the 
fruit is thinned, the trees will not need to be propped. The 
branches will start out horizontally, instead of growing upright 
and making sharp crotches. In shortening the previous year's 
growth, in later prunings, it should always be cut to an outside 
bud. When the trees are large, only the strong leading branches 
should be shortened ; the lateral shoots bear the fruit. In five 
years the lower branches will bend to the ground without break- 
ing. If the tree is cut down to two feet when planted, the branches 
will run up, and split down if not propped, and sometimes if they 
are. It costs a good deal to prop them. The speaker had planted 
peach trees from ten to twentj^ -five feet apart, but thought twenty 
feet best. This gives plenty of air and light, without which the 
fruit cannot color well. The soil should receive clean culture, 



PEACH CULTURE. 63 

and no crop should be grown. He does not pity any man who 
loses trees by borers. He used to have a great many, but now he 
scrapes away the earth and puts on whale oil soap in the spring, 
and again the first of July. It is easy to cut them out. Nature 
expects the collar to be covered. The only serious trouble is the 
3 T ellows, which has never been accounted for, nor has any remedy 
been discovered. The speaker thought it was caused by a fungus. 
Professor Goessmann claims to have cured the yellows, and Mr. 
Moore had been using the material which the Professor had 
applied, which may have prevented the development of the yellows. 
Ashes and bone as fertilizers will give the highest colored fruit. 

In regard to varieties for market, the Crawford's Early is early 
enough, as it comes in just as the best Southern peaches are gone. 
Crawford's Late gets frosted once in four or five years. The speaker 
grows Coolidge's Favorite only for his own eating. The Oldmixon 
Freestone is good, but there is more money in the Crawfords. In 
pruning we must not be afraid to cut off strong wood pretty se- 
verely ; sometimes shoots as large as a man's thumb must be taken 
off. In an orchard, which must be cultivated by horse power, the 
trees cannot be allowed to branch as low as in the garden. His 
land is a gravelly loam, about seventy-five feet above the valley. 
He is not particular as to aspect. 

Mr. Wilder wished to commend Mr. Moore's general system of 
pruning, but he preferred to cut down a young tree to eighteen 
inches when planting. In the autumn it will be five feet high. 

Rev. F. L. Capen had always been interested in peach culture. 
He believes in severe pruning for peach trees ; the}^ need as much 
pruning as grape vines. He would prune during the winter and 
then in spring you have a small top and whole root, and all the 
buds come out strong, and give large, handsome fruit. He thinks 
the yellows is due to the absence from the soil of some kind of 
food which the tree needs. The speaker had cultivated oranges 
in Florida, and said that neither the peach nor the orange would 
succeed with any crop growing around it. He advised those 
present to go South and raise oranges and fresh figs. 

James P. King said that he planted a hundred peach trees eight 
years ago, and four years ago raised a great deal of fruit. He 
thought they should bear the third year. He could have told when 
he looked at the thermometer, when the buds were killed. They 
are not killed so much in winter as in the spring. He mulched 



64 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

with spent tan — about three bushels to a tree — which by keeping 
the frost in the ground retarded the swelling of the buds, and 
prevented injury to the crop by late frosts. A neighbor (in Pea- 
bod}-) who pursued the same course, sold in two years, from half 
an acre of land, $790 worth of fruit of finer quality than the 
Southern. His trees are planted eight or ten feet apart. The 
buds are all right for a good crop this year. The Crawford's 
Early and Foster are the principal varieties ; the Foster is very 
handsome, but the Early Alexander is ahead of all others as an 
early fruit. The New York nurserymen say it is a clingstone, 
and they do not think much of it ; but it comes into market nearly 
as early as the Southern peaches, which are not to be compared 
with it. He thought these and the Oldmixon Freestone the four 
best varieties. The speaker advised all peach growers to try 
mulching with tan. He would pile it around the trees without 
removing the soil, and after it has served the purpose of retarding 
the buds, would remove it lest it should furnish a harbor for in- 
jurious insects. He had one tree affected with yellows, which 
looked as if it was caused by starvation. He took the tree away, 
but it appeared to have affected another tree near by, as seedling 
onions are injured by a bed of rareripes alongside. Trees affected 
with 3'ellows should be immediately removed, as the disease is 
liable to affect any trees in the orchard. Those nearest are most 
in danger of injury. Even if the trees have fruit on them when 
the disease is discovered, they should "be removed, the value of the 
fruit being of no consideration in comparison with the injury to 
the trees around. In planting he marks the ground with a large 
breaking up plough, taking care not to disturb the subsoil ; this 
makes it easy to set out the trees. At the time of planting he 
takes off every branch and shortens the stem, leaving from two 
and a half to three and a half feet. If the top does not leave 
out he trims it down to the highest shoot. If the thermometer 
falls to twenty degrees after the buds are nearly ready to bloom, 
they would be sure to be killed, and it is to prevent this that he 
mulches with tan. If the ends of the shoots are injured by frost, 
they should be trimmed back to the live part. 

The President announced that the subject for discussion the 
next Saturday would be " Plum Culture," with, perhaps, a con- 
tinuation of Peach Culture. 



PEACH CULTURE. 65 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 19, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Hon. Francis B. Hayes, in the chair. No business 
being brought before the meeting it 

Adjourned to Saturday, February 26. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The subject of Peach Culture was first taken up, and Caleb 
Bates referred to some criticisms on his recommendation to set 
trees with the collar at the surface of the ground. It had oeen 
objected that the borers would get into the roots, but he said it 
was as easy to find and destroy them in the roots as in the trunk. 
Nature always puts the collar upon the surface, as in forest trees 
which spring up from seed. Mr. Bates here showed two sketches ; 
the first of the base of a pine tree growing naturally, and the 
second of the base of an apple tree ; the latter was eleven inches 
in diameter, but would, he said, have been much larger if not 
planted too deep. The first is the plan of nature ; the second is 
art. The tree does not lift in growing ; the reason that trees 
planted as recommended appear to have their roots above ground, 
is that the roots increase in size. When trees are planted in soil 
which is made loose and mellow some distance below the roots, 
they should be set two inches above the surface to allow for set- 
tling. When a boy he planted some apple trees too deep, and 
they did not grow for five years ; he then dug them up and planted 
them properly, and now they are thriving and productive trees. 

George Hill said that he lives on what was a peach farm sixty 
years ago. The yellows is the greatest trouble in raising peaches. 
It appeared on his farm about 1848. This was the second instance 
in Massachusetts ; the first was on the Coolidge farm in Watertown 
two or three years earlier. Since that time the trees in this State 
have never been free from it. Mr. Hill's trees bore well for three 
years after they were attacked. He thinks it is deep seated. Old 
trees, isolated in grass land, escaped the disease and died of old 
age, but when diseased trees were set out near them, they took 
5 



66 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the disease. It appears about the fifth or sixth j-ear from the seed. 
A nursery raised from the seed of peaches brought to our markets 
from the South will be sure to show the disease, and nurserymen 
are uow collecting their peach stones from healthy trees in Missouri 
and the mountains of Virginia. Trees from such seed should be 
budded from the healthiest trees that can be found, and will then 
endure for five or six years. Mr. Hill said that as a member of a 
Committee of the Middlesex Agricultural Society he visited two 
peach orchards offered for premium ; one of these, containing two 
thousand trees, was in Hudson, and the owner had also a nurser}* of 
four thousand trees. Mr. Hill saw symptoms of yellows there. 
The seed was got from New York. Any person planting a peach 
orchard must take new land, be very particular in selecting his 
seed and manure, and watch carefully every step, to avoid con- 
tagion. There still remain old, isolated trees which are free from 
yellows. The speaker saw some on Cape Cod, from twenty to 
fifty years old, which looked like the trees he used to see, before 
the yellows was known, and at Mashpee he saw a healthy tree 
thirty years old. Such trees as these will furnish healthy seed. 
The whole difficulty in raising peaches is the yellows ; when this 
disease prevails new plantations must be made almost as often as 
of strawberries. Half of Mr. Hill's trees have begun to show yel- 
lows. The soil, aspect, elevation, and method of planting are of 
comparatively little consequence. He found the border of Spy 
pond, and a hill two hundred feet above, equally eligible. Old 
native trees gum more than trees from New Jersey. If you get 
healthy seed and raise healtlry trees, it is very difficult to keep 
them so ; pruning a healthy tree with a knife that has been used 
to prune a diseased tree will communicate the disease. When 
planting he would prune off all bruised roots, and prune the top to 
a straight stick, but not prune at all afterwards. His last orchard 
of two hundred trees of Crawford's Late was never pruned. He 
thought seedlings from healthy trees would be longer lived than 
budded trees. It is of no use to set a healthy tree in the place 
from which a diseased tree has been removed. 

David B. Flint said that he had cultivated peach trees success- 
fully on ground from one hundred and twenty to one hundred and 
fifty feet above tide water. He had covered the trunks of his 
trees with straw to protect them from the sun, as he saw done at 
Montreuil, where the trees are trained on walls, and thought it 



PEACH CULTURE. 67 

beneficial. The straw is removed about the middle of May. 
Buds of the Foster peach inserted on the north side of seedling 
stocks came through the winter safely, when those on the south 
side were killed. 

J. W. Manning said that he got buds of the Foster peach, and 
budded two thousand trees at Billerica, which showed the yellows 
in three years. He thought that peach trees planted deep would 
form new roots near the surface, and that plums and elms would 
do the same. 

Benjamin G. Smith showed peach buds taken from several trees 
in his garden at Cambridge, none of which were injured. Hon. 
Marshall P. Wilder's, at Dorchester, and Mr. Flint's, at Water- 
town, were uninjured, while those of Edmund Hersey, at Hingham, 
and Mr. Bates, at Kingston, were killed. 

Mr. Bates said that the buds of trees at his house, where 
the trees are not healthy, were uninjured, while those at his 
orchard, thirty feet lower, where the trees are healthy, were 
destroyed. 

Aaron D. Capen spoke of raising peach trees forty years ago, 
from stones which he got at a garden in Roxbury, where the trees 
were all seedlings, all healthy, and all produced fine fruit. The 
progeny of these trees all produced fine fruit. He bought some 
Long Island trees, which proved to have the yellows, and commu- 
nicated it to all these seedlings, and they were all destroyed. The 
disease will go through acres of orchard, and the only way to 
banish it is to destroy all diseased trees. Most of the seed from 
which nursery trees are raised, has been collected promiscuously, 
and there are two chances for them to take the yellows — from the 
seed and from the bud. Handsome dishes of peaches have been 
shown here, of some of which the Committee said at once, u These 
are from a diseased tree, and buds will propagate the disease." 
On the hills in Connecticut are found what are called " sheep 
peaches ; " the trees are twenty -five years old, and healthy. It 
would be well to select pits from such trees as these to produce 
healthy stocks in the nursery. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, said it was learned long ago that 
diseased peach trees must be extirpated. He agreed with Mr. 
Hill's condemnation of stones gathered promiscuously ; some of 
them must be diseased. If we plant the stones from our trees 
which are perfectly healthy, we shall get good kinds, and he 



68 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

advised to grow them up without budding, believing that they will 
last longer. 

John Owen quoted from Thacher's " American Orchardist,' 
(page 207), a case where a tree supposed to be dead from the 
effects of the yellows, had large quantities of common wood ashes 
thrown about the roots during the winter. The next season it put 
forth its leaves vigorously, and bore an abundance of fine fruit. A 
small quantity of ashes was thrown'around the roots the next fall, 
and the next season the tree bore so full that it was necessary to 
prop it up. Another gentleman tried the same experiment with 
entire success. The speaker asked why this cure was not con- 
tinued. He raised one year fifty bushels of peaches. The Noblesse 
is the best of all — it is wonderfully delicious ; it is of the color of 
a Green Gage plum and equal to it in quality, but the tree is tender. 
The George the Fourth is more solid than Coolidge's Favorite, 
and superior in quality. He had trees of Crawford's Late planted 
near a marsh, which never failed to ripen their fruit. 

Mr. Wilder doubted whether we should find any remedy for the 
yellows, though experiments are under way at the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College, and in the experimental grounds of the 
u Rural New Yorker," in the hope of discovering a remedy. Pro- 
fessor Goessmann applied a chemical manure to a row of affected 
trees, which restored them for one year. 

C. M. Atkinson said that some of Mr. Bates's points were new to 
him, and some he could confirm from his own experience. There 
was, however, one point which he had overlooked — the influence of 
the stock and of root pruning in retarding growth. He would have 
his peaches on the Muscle plum stock. But the plum is not so 
successful on the peach stock ; five years ago he planted five plum 
trees, one of which sent up peach suckers, and last summer, when 
trees had nearly completed their growth, there came a heavy rain 
after dry weather, and this tree burst in fifteen or twenty places, 
and gum exuded. Peach stocks are, however, much cheaper than 
plum stocks, and plums budded on them will make marketable 
trees sooner, and hence there is a great temptation to nurserymen 
to propagate them in this way. The principle works two ways ; 
the plum cannot take all the sap furnished by the peach stock and 
bursts, while the peach on the plum finishes its growth and ripens 
its wood earlier. In England, peaches are cultivated entirely on 
the plum stock. At the late John P. Cushing's place (now Samuel 



PLUM CULTURE. . 69 

R. Pa}- son's) , the speaker found peaches on plum stocks, planted 
by David Haggerston, and if he were planting one or a thousand, 
he would have them on plum stocks. He thought it would ward 
off the yellows. 

Charles M. Hovey, asked whether peaches under glass are ever 
affected by the yellows. He had never seen this disease in the ex- 
tensive peach houses of Samuel G. Perkins or Thomas H. Perkins, 
and it does not prevail in Europe, if it is known there at all. He 
thought we should have to look sharp to find any fungus connected 
with it, but it might be caused by climate. In 1857, there were 
more pear trees than peach trees killed ; in 1861, the thermometer 
fell to twenty degrees below zero, falling sixty degrees in twelve 
hours, and the peaches and cherries did not get over it for years. 
In 1854 or 1855, there were so many peaches that he could not sell 
them in the market. He had had little trouble from the yellows. 
Peach trees grow so quickly that it is hardly worth while to doctor 
them. If he wanted to grow them for market he would plant ten 
acres, and when they failed, cut them down and plant ten acres 
more. He would plant on high sandy land. They cannot be 
grown so cheap on plum stocks as on peach ; the great value of 
the peach stock is its quick growth and cheapness. 

Mr. Atkinson confirmed Mr. Hovey's view that the yellows is 
unknown in England, or under glass in this country. 

The subject of "Plum Culture" was here taken up. 

Mr. Wilder said that formerly we raised the plum very success- 
fully ; the only troubles were the curculio and the black knot, and 
now from these [causes they have almost gone out of cultivation. 
Samuel Pond and Henry Vandine grew them at Cambridgeport. 
almost as freely as currants. The curculio can be destroyed by 
jarring it down on a sheet placed underneath. The black knot 
should be cut out as soon as it appears. For a few years past, 
plums appear to have succeeded better than previously. He has 
only two plum trees left ; one a Monroe, twenty-five feet high, 
which has some black knots that he cuts out, and another on the 
Canada stock, which it overgrows, producing an unsightly appear- 
ance. There are never any black knots on the latter. He hopes 
we are going to cultivate plums more successfully than a few years 
ago, and means to make a new plantation. 



70 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Wilder quoted from a report by Dr. T. W. Harris, in the 
"Proceedings of the American Pomological Society," for 1854, 
the opinion that the black knot is not caused either by the insects 
found in them, or by the black fungus, Sphceria morbosa, on the 
outside. He who will not protect his plum trees from the curcnlio, 
does not deserve to have plums, an}' more than he who will not 
protect his trees from canker worms, deserves to have apples. 
Ellwanger & Barry, of Rochester, N. Y., raise plums by cartloads ; 
a man attends to half an acre of plums exclusively for two months. 
He spreads cloths under them morning and evening, and a sudden 
blow on the tree with a mallet jars the curculios down on the 
cloths, when they are gathered up and destroyed. 

Rev. A. B. Muzzey said that he was a neighbor of the late 
Samuel Pond, and that Mr. Pond had most remarkable plums — 
Washington, Jefferson, Green Gage, etc., which always com- 
manded the highest price — some of them two dollars per dozen. 
This was from 1835 to 1845 or later. Mr. Pond's land had been at 
times overflowed by the tide, and the speaker thought his success 
was clue in part to the saline matter in the soil. In the latter part of 
his life he was somewhat troubled by the black knot. Mr. Muzzey 
said he had destroyed the curculio by jarring it down upon sheets. 

Mr. Hovey said that he was born in Cambridge, and lived about 
a hundred feet from Mr. Pond, who was a blacksmith. At that 
time Mr. Pond had no garden. The estate where the speaker 
lived was purchased by his father in 1799, and the spring tides 
were kept out of the garden by a dike which was overflowed every 
fifteen or twenty }-ears, though he could recollect only one over- 
flow. His father had plum trees producing white and blue plums, 
the fruit of which then brought four or five dollars per bushel. 
One of his earliest recollections was of climbing one of these 
trees and picking three bushels of fruit from it. At first there 
were no curculios, but afterwards the fruit began to drop ; the 
next year it dropped more, and then the black knots appeared 
and he suggested cutting down the trees. In 1831 or 1832 a very 
high tide covered the garden six inches in depth, and killed the 
strawberries. When the sun came out everything was covered 
with salt. Mr. Pond began his garden after this, but the soil 
was no more salt marsh than Mr. Hovey's, and salt had nothing 
to do with Mr. Pond's success in raising plums, but it was rather 
due to his manuring very highly. Mr. Pond's trees finally sue- 



PLUM CULTUEE. 71 

cumbed to the curculio. In 1827, before the curculio appeared, 
Mr. Hovey received from Prince's nursery the Washington and 
Imperial Gage plums. He once bought a thousand Canada 
plum stocks, but found they were more subject to black knots 
than the ordinary stocks. 

Mr. Bates said that his trees were struck with black knots all 
at once. He planted Green Gage and Lombard plums, and when 
he discovered curculios in his trees he tried every expedient to 
save the fruit by frightening them away or other means. He 
thought that when people apply remedies the curculio is often 
frightened away by the frequent examinations made as to the effect 
of the remedy. He placed stakes around a Green Gage tree and 
fastened a single breadth of mosquito netting to them, and the 
tree fruited nicely. Before that time his children had hardly seen 
a plum. Last year his wife pinned a breadth of mosquito netting 
around the tree and it fruited well again. 

Mr. Owen said that he had cultivated a great variety of plums, 
and had the curculio more or less, but no knots ; afterwards the 
knots set in violently. He cut them out and washed with salt, 
and concluded that it was a remed}^ and wrote a paper on the 
subject for one of the agricultural meetings at the State House, 
but afterwards the salt did no good ; the knots grew worse and 
worse, until the trees were destroyed. He thought the knots due to 
the soil ; naturalists say that the fungus grows on the knot. Profes- 
sor Cleveland, of Bowdoin College, saved his plum crop by removing 
the earth under the branches to the depth of three or four incl.es 
and covering with air-slacked lime. He tried it on one tree, and 
had no curculios about it, and it bore three bushels of fruit. The 
Jefferson and Reine Claude de Bavay are two of the best varieties. 

Mr. Smith had used whale oil soap in the proportion of five 
pounds to a gallon of water, for showering his plum trees and 
shrubs, and had great faith in it as a destroyer of insects. 

Mr. Bates said that plums could be protected from the curculio 
by sprinkling the fruit when damp with air-slacked lime, so thickly 
as to cover it, and it will not injure the fruit. Some cultivators 
think a clay soil necessary for plum trees, but he thought some 
varieties would succeed in a light soil. 

Mr. Flint said he had trees of Coe's Golden Drop and other 
plums, bearing well in a sandy soil ; four or five feet down there 
is blue clay. He has put a peck of wood ashes around each tree 
and dug it in. 



72 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

J. W. Manning had seen plums in numerous instances thriving 
in sandy loam. In his native town of Bedford, New Hampshire, 
the soil is a rocky yellow loam without clay, but thirty years or 
more since, twenty-five of the finest varieties were cultivated there, 
and all bore abundantly until the curculio appeared, which was 
about 1855. In Chelmsford, the curculio destroyed the plums 
about 1849 or 1850, so that their cultivation was practically aban- 
doned. In Chelsea, two years ago, he saw Lombard plums from 
a rocky, gravelly loam, though there might be clay underneath. 
They were under good cultivation, and the hens picked up the 
insects under them. 

Robert Manning said that the researches of Professor Farlow* 
had proved conclusively that the black knot is caused by a fungus 
(Sphceria morbosa) . 

It was announced that the subject for discussion the next week 
would be, " Which of the new or more recently introduced Hardy 
Ornamental Trees and Shrubs are worthy of special mention ?" 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 26, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Hon. Francis B. Hayes in the chair. 

The Treasurer stated that it would be necessary to provide a new 
plate for the Certificates of Merit awarded by the Society. The 
subject was referred to the Executive Committee with full powers. 

Adjourned to Saturday, May 5. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The President, in behalf of the Committee on Discussions, re- 
spectfully requested that exhibitors of fruit, flowers, or vegetables 
would have their contributions arranged by 11 o'clock, so as not 
to interrupt the meetings for discussion. 

* Bulletin of the Bussey Institution, Vol. I, p. 440. 



HARDY ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS. 73 

The subject assigned for today was, " Which of the new or more 
recently introduced Hardy Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, or Plants are 
worthy of special mention ? " 

Several members having been called on to name such plants, 
and having answered that they were unprepared, Hon. Marshall 
P. Wilder said that he would name one shrub which he considered 
the most desirable of all — the Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora. 
Though introduced here a quarter of a century ago, its merits 
have not been recognized until within a few years. 

William C. Strong thought it the most showy but not the most 
beautiful of shrubs. He considered the Hydrangea paniculata in 
some respects preferable to the variety grandiflora. The latter is 
more heavy and coarser than the type, which is of more upright 
growth, more graceful, and quite as hardy. The Viburnum plica- 
turn (which is allied to the snowball) is much more delicate. It 
is not so common as the Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora, for it 
is more difficult to propagate and does not grow so rapidly. 

Mr. Wilder thought the Viburnum very beautiful, but not more 
so than the Hydrangea. Many of the plants which we think new 
have been known a good while but have not become common. 
This is the case with the Viburnum plicatum as well as the 
Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora. The former was figured in the 
44 Flore des Serres" more than thirty years ago. Sometimes 
varieties of grapes and other fruits as well as flowers are dropped 
from cultivation, and afterwards come up again and are thought 
new. 

Mr. Strong thought the Viburnum plicatum was not introduced 
into this country thirty years ago, and was not like the Exochorda 
grandiflora which was comparatively rare and has now come up 
again. 

Charles M. Hovey said that he had the Viburnum plicatum thirty 
years ago. He saw it at Mr. Buchanan's grounds at Astoria, 
Long Island, eighteen years ago. He thought the variety grandi- 
flora of Hydrangea paniculata did not differ from the type. The 
subject was discussed in the " Gardeners' Chronicle." The Hydran- 
gea paniculata represents all that is grandest in shrubs as the Ex- 
ochorda represent all that is most beautiful. He agreed with Mr. 
Strong that the Viburnum is more beautiful than the Hydrangea, 
but thought the Exochorda still more beautiful, and also more diffi- 
cult to propagate. These three are the most beautiful of the more 



74 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

recently introduced shrubs. The Viburnum macrocephalum 
resembles V. plicatum; the cluster of flowers is larger. 

President Hayes agreed with Mr. Wilder (whom he styled the 
Nestor of the Society) that the Hydrangea paniculata grandifiora 
is superb. He cultivates it in mam T forms, — large groups, and 
trained to a single stem. He had taken great pleasure in the 
exquisite foliage of the Japanese maples, — some of rich scarlet 
before that of others has appeared. The Aralia (Dimorphanthus) 
Mandshurica, is a new tree-like shrub with immense clusters of 
cream}? white flowers. The Polygonum Japonicum is a new climb- 
ing plant with large variegated leaves, which are very ornamental. 
It grows with great rapidity, propagates easily, and is perfectly 
hardy, having stood four winters. The Xanthoceras sorbifolia is 
a new and very charming shrub. The last three plants, which 
were introduced here by the speaker, are yet quite rare. The 
Sciadopitys verticillata or umbrella pine, which some have thought 
was not hardy, Mr. Hayes had found quite hardy, several plants 
which were left out during the winter having done better than 
those sheltered. 

Mr. Strong inquired of the President whether he gave special 
care to shading and watering the Japanese maples. In his 
observation they had suffered from the hot sun, like the variegated 
Negundo. Of this he saw a specimen at Mr. Hunnewell's as fine 
as any that he saw in France, but it does not look as well now. 

President Hayes replied that his Japanese maples were planted 
in the shade of pear trees, and had no special watering. In winter 
he puts a little matting around them. His finest variegated 
Negundo is on a sidehill, and has no protection ; in severely hot 
summer days it burns a little, but on the whole is most satisfactory. 
Others which stand in bleak places have a little protection, but 
this will soon be discontinued. 

Mr. Strong thought that the President's fine Negundo would 
ultimately fail like the others. Our clear sky and hot sun are 
too much for its delicate foliage. The plain type is hardy in suit- 
able soils. He thought the Japanese maples would also suffer ; 
under protection they may do, but as a general rule they will 
disappoint. The Acer Schweidleri is very promising ; it is a tree 
of the Norway maple type, of first size, hardy, with foliage of a 
beautiful pink changing to dark green. 

President Hayes agreed with Mr. Strong in regard to Acer 



HARDY ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS. 75 

Schweidleri. He had had the variegated Negundo for eight years, 
and though he lost most of the first, those which he has now 
promise to stand. We cannot expect to have everything perfect ; 
we must take some trouble with choice and delicate plants, and it 
is little to put a mat round a small maple. 

Mr. Wilder said he tried the Japanese maples when they were 
first introduced, and lost every one ; he found them very feeble. 
Mr. Hunnewell's experience has been the same with very few 
exceptions. The speaker admired the enterprise of President 
Hayes, but did not think the Japanese maples would ever come 
into common use. In his observation the variegated Negundo had 
generally failed under our hot sun, and a large tree which he saw 
in the Pare Monceau, at Paris, has since wilted and withered. He 
had seen none looking really well except at Mr. Haj^es's and Mr. 
Hunnewell's. He hoped the President would persevere and be 
successful in getting up the Japanese maples. With some plants 
the case is exactly opposite that of the Japanese maples ; perfectly 
hardy things are introduced, but not known to be hardy, and are 
therefore kept in the greenhouse, where they die out. Forty years 
ago he paid three guineas for a plant of Andromeda Jloribunda, 
which he kept in the greenhouse, and William E. Carter came over 
from the Botanic Garden at Cambridge to help nurse it ; the price 
afterwards came down to seven shillings and sixpence, and is now 
only one and sixpence, and the plant is known to be as hardy as a 
currant bush. 

William Gray, Jr., said that he had made a specialty of the new 
evergreens, and had found all the Retinosporas perfectly hardy. 
There are many new spruces of medium size — not as large as the 
Norway and of better habit ; they do not get straggling. The 
Nordmanniana, Menziesii, and orientalis are all very beautiful ; 
the last is the best. Mr. Gray's largest specimen is fifteen feet 
high. The blue spruces, of which there is a great variety — among 
them the Abies Menziesii, now know as Picea pungens — are next 
in beauty. The Japanese evergreens are all hardy, and are adapted 
to small places. Mr. Gray's plants were received directly from 
Japan. 

Mr. Strong remarked that Retinospora squarrosa Veitchii has the 
reputation of being more glaucous than the type. 

Mr. Hovey was glad to hear Mr. Gray speak so highly of Abies 
orientalis. It is the most refined of all the spruces ; A. Nord- 
manniana is more grand, but A. orientalis is superior in delicacy. 



76 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

It is a slow grower, and not so easily transplanted as some species. 
It is difficult to raise from seed and therefore scarce. 

Mr. Hovey quoted from the "Magazine of Horticulture," for 
1866 (page 330), his recommendation of the Viburnum plicatinn 
as a species that should have a place in every collection of hand- 
some flowering shrubs. He imported from Lemoine, in 1878, a 
plant of Xanthoceras sorbifolia. for which he paid fire francs, and 
also at the same time the Kentucky coffee tree with variegated 
leaves. The type of the latter (Gymnocladus Canadensis) is one 
of the most remarkable and beautiful trees in winter and summer. 
In winter its blunt shoots, without spray, are unique, and in summer 
its twice-pinnated leaves, three feet long, are delicate yet massive. 
In 1878 the speaker planted seed in a box ; in the centre there 
came up a plant with variegated foliage. Wier's cut-leaved maple 
is one of the best recent acquisitions. The liquidambar is some- 
what tender here ; it gets killed back in winter, but gains a foot 
or more every year. In Connecticut it is entirely uninjured. The 
star-shaped leaves are very peculiar, and change to a beautiful deep 
crimson in autumn. The tupelo has foliage as beautiful in sum- 
mer as that of a camellia, changing in autumn to an intense crim- 
son ; no other tree takes so deep a color. The limbs spread 
horizontally. There is in Cambridge a very fine old tree, from 
which the speaker has raised seedlings, and a second generation 
from those. The Acer Colchicum is almost as deep colored as the 
Japanese maples, but had not proved hardy with him ; it was 
killed in the winter of 1861-2. He thought one variegated 
Xegundo enough on a place, unless it was desired to have it spotted 
all over with white, and moreover the foliage is apt to burn. He 
had a plant of Sciadopitys verticillata very early, and had found 
it perfectly hardy, but a very slow grower, not making more than 
six inches of wood in a year. The magnolias have been very 
much neglected ; M. acuminata is a very fine tree, with beautiful 
foliage, and perfectly hardy, but difficult to transplant. M. trU 
petala has the ends of the shoots winter-killed, but is nevertheless 
very desirable. M. Lennei is a very fine variety, with large purple 
flowers, and sufficiently hardy. M. tripetala and M. acuminata 
grow freely from seed, while the Chinese species are reputed not to 
germinate well, but the speaker saw no reason why they should 
not. 

Mr. Strong said that the seeds of Magnolia Soulangeana come 



HARDY ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS. 77 

up as easily as peas, but no magnolia seed should be allowed to 
get dry. 

Mr. Hovey said that twenty-five or thirty years ago he imported 
the Abies Cephalonica from Waterer and now he has but one tree 
left ; almost all were killed down to the snow line very soon. 
Twenty-five of them were set in a line, next to a row of Thuja 
JSibirica, and grew up and made a thick hedge, but the sun struck 
all except one end, where stood the only one now remaining. This 
has reached the height of twelve feet. It is very remarkable for 
its stiff, silvery foliage — glossy green on one side and white on the 
other. This succeeds better in Mr. Hunnewell's ground, where 
the soil is light and dry. Mr. Hunnewell has also very fair trees 
of Cedrus Atlantica, C. Deodara, and others which do not succeed 
with the speaker. 

F. L. Harris, gardener to Mr. Hunnewell, said that at the 
grounds at Wellesley the variegated Negundo had done remarkably 
well. There are specimens from three to twelve feet high, and 
they are seldom injured. Some are in the sun, and some in shade ; 
the latter hold their color best. The purple maples are equally 
hardy ; Acer polymorphum atropurpureum, one of the Japanese 
species, retains its color until the first of July, when it turns green. 
The later growth is like the first, and the contrast with the green 
is pleasing. He had not much to sa} T in favor of the other Japanese 
maples with the exception of A. polymorphum sanguineum, which, 
though a vigorous grower, is not so highly colored as atropurpureum. 
The foliage of the fern-leaved varieties crumples up, and they look 
as if they needed water or some stimulant. He had never suc- 
ceeded in raising either Magnolia Soulangeana or M. conspicua 
from seed. 

Mr. Strong remarked that Acer polymorphum is the stock on 
which atrosanguineum and other Japanese varieties are grafted. 
Mr. Harris is sanguine about many trees from which others cannot 
get the results that he does. The Acer Colchicum rubrum, of the 
Norway type, is perfectly hardy ; the speaker has a tree thirty feet 
high which he transplanted when it was twenty-five feet high. The 
young leaves are scarlet and become green when older. The 
purple birch is very valuable ; early in the season it is not so deep 
colored as the purple beech, but later in the season it is darker 
than the beech, and has a metallic lustre. He sows magnolia seeds 
as soon as gathered, first rubbing off the outside cuticle. He did 



78 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

not know that Magnolia Lennei has fruited in this country. Mr. 
Parkman has raised large numbers of seedlings of the Chinese 
magnolias ; the speaker had bought seedliugs of him. Mr. Park- 
man used to get seed from John Kenrick's trees ; the seedlings vary 
a little. 

Mr. Wilder said that he had often tried to germinate the seed of 
Chinese magnolias, but without success ; that of the American 
species grows very readily. No European nurseryman has adver- 
tised seedlings of Magnolia Soulangeana, 

Mr. Strong did not wish to be understood as saying that he had 
raised Magnolia Soulangeana from seed in quantity. 

William H. Spooner confirmed Mr. Strong's statements in regard 
to Mr. Parkman's success in raising Chinese magnolias from seed. 

Mr. Hovey spoke of the golden poplar and the golden syringa 
as very beautiful ; the latter is especially golden. 

It was voted to continue the discussion of the subject on the 
next Saturday. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 5, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
Vice-President John B. Moore in the chair. 

The decease of four members of the Society, — E. Fred Washburn, 
Henry Vandine, Hon. John C. Gray, and George B. Emerson, 
LL.D., — was announced and a committee consisting of Hon. 
Marshall P. Wilder, John C. Hovey, John G. Barker, Charles M. 
Hovey, and William C. Strong, was appointed to prepare memorial 
resolutions. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee, were on ballot duly elected members of the 
Society : 

William A. Bock, of North Cambridge. 

Georg- A. Schmitt, of Boston. 

Charles W. Norton, of Allston. 

Herbert Merriam, of Weston. 

Frederick M. S afford, of Dorchester. 

E. Francis Bowditch, of Framingham. 
Adjourned to Saturday, March 12. 



HARDY ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS. 79 



MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The subject of the last discussion, "The Hardy Trees, Shrubs, 
and Plants, of recent introduction, most worthy of notice," was 
again taken up, and F. L. Harris, gardener to H. H. Hunnewell, 
opened the discussion by reading the following paper on the 
subject : 
Mr. President and Ladies and Gentlemen : 

I think it quite unnecessary to speak particularly of the older 
species and varieties of evergreen trees and shrubs, for they have 
been frequently brought to your notice by many practical cultiva- 
tors, through whom their adaptability to withstand the severities 
of our climate has become fully recognized, not only by the members 
of this Society, but by lovers of horticulture through the length and 
breadth of the land. It may not be out of place, however, to state 
a few facts in reference to some of these, because every close 
observer discovers by years of experience many ways of doing 
things that may prove novel and interesting. I shall, therefore, 
touch upon a few that are familiar to you all. 

First, then, we have the Abies Alcoquiana, A. polita, A. Sitchen- 
sis, and A. Maximowiczii. They are comparatively rare here, but 
they are all very desirable, particularly the last, which is close 
and compact in habit, with the foliage short and very rigid, and 
the underside of the leaf quite glaucous. 

In regard to the Abies Douglasii — one of the most beautiful of 
all — it has been proved that trees imported from Europe seldom 
survive our winters, but grown here from Rocky Mountain seeds 
they prove equally hardy with the Norway spruce. The trees of the 
latter description at Wellesley are now eighteen feet high. I notice 
that this species, like all the others, prefers a very deep soil ; say three 
feet in depth to the extent of fourteen or fifteen feet in diameter. 

Picea Cephalonica is a tree of great beauty ;* our specimens are 
twenty feet high, and for several years we have been in the habit 
of surface dressing around them with strong manure, and it is 
perfectly astonishing to see the difference between those thus 
treated and the little miserable starvelings usually seen. I say 
then, manure all conifers, and you will be fully repaid in the 
vigor and healthfulness of your trees. The manuring of evergreens 
was, twenty years ago, almost unknown, but today I thiukit is the 
only road to success. 



80 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Picea nobilis is not very generally known, and yet when it 
becomes so, I think it will be acknowledged that it cannot be 
excelled in majesty. Picea Nordmanniana is a grand tree ; in its 
youth it is difficult to get a leader, and in this case the side 
branches should be judiciously pruned, which is best done in April 
and May, as is the pruning of all other conifers or evergreens. 
Picea Veitchii is an elegant tree, a rapid grower, and every way 
worthy of attention. 

I know of no class of evergreens so well calculated to give 
general satisfaction as the Retinosporas. Their peculiar forms and 
colors, both in summer and winter, afford the greatest pleasure. 
Many of the varieties are dwarf in habit, while others grow from 
twenty-five to thirty feet high. Retinospora plumosa, R. plumosa 
aurea, R. squarrosa, R. obtusa, and R. jilifera, are among the 
most valuable. R. plumosa aurea, is, above all others, one of the 
most desirable, it yields so readily to the pruning shears. For 
topiary work it is unequalled, and particularly for edgings to beds, 
or it may be planted in masses and cut into any form chosen. 
Ribbons may be made of any desirable length, composed as fol- 
lows, — the first row next the grass, Euonymus radicans vdriegata ; 
second row, Retinospora decussata; third row, R. plumosa aurea; 
fourth row, R. squamosa. 

Retinospora ftlij 'era aurea will probably become the most beautiful 
of all, appearing in the distance like a fountain of yellow interspersed 
with green. It is perfectly hardy, as are also R. obtusa Keteleeri 
(handsome), R. filicoides, R. lycopodioides (singular), R. gracilis, 
R. obtusa variegata (a low grower), R. obtusa pendula (very pretty), 
and R. decussata, which is remarkably glaucous in summer and 
dark brown in winter, and of erect growth. 

Thuiopsis Standishi is the most hardy of its genus, and a very 
desirable evergreen. T. dolabrata and T. dolabrata variegata, 
delight in shady nooks, yet not immediately under the foliage of 
other trees. In the sun the} T will brown, especially the variegata. 
T. Icetevirens, is dwarf and very pretty. 

Taxus adpressa, I have found to be the hardiest of all the yews. 
The foliage is small and dark green, and the habit of the plant 
spreading. 

Of the TJiujas, or arbor-vitass, T. gigantea is quite hardy, and 
destined to be one of the really ornamental trees. T. occidentalis 
Vervaeneana is quite distinct ; it has beautiful yellow foliage. It 



HARDY ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS. 81 

surpasses the George Peabody ; perhaps, indeed, it is the most 
beautiful of all. As Thuja Queen Victoria grows older and more 
dense, the peculiar silver points at the ends of the growth become 
brighter. It is quite a desirable variety. 

Juniperus communis var. Cracovia, I think is not generally 
known ; it is certainly much more hardy than either the Swedish 
or Irish species. J. Virginiana Burkei is one of the best of all ; 
its narrow, erect, almost columnar, mode of growth gives it an 
attractive and unique appearance. It resembles J. Virginiana 
glauca, and is perfectly hardy. A golden variety of juniper — a 
creeping form of J", prostrata, from Mr. Douglas — is a rapid, spread- 
ing grower, and maintains its rich, golden tint through the summer, 
looking in autumn like a mass of bronze, and showing the same 
today through the snow. It may be used as a margin, or edging, 
to clumps of rhododendrons. Juniperus Toungi aurea, is beauti- 
ful and hardy. 

To come to deciduous trees, I should like to know why it is 
that Young's weeping birch, when grown as a standard in this 
country, appears so unlike those received from England. All 
those I have seen worked here at a height of from six to eight feet, 
droop immediately, whereas those from Europe, grafted low down, 
go away rapidly with a bold leader, with the laterals weeping close 
to the stem of the tree. I prefer the latter. 

Robinia Pseudacacia Bessoniana, when better known, I think 
will be highly esteemed, for I know of no tree equal to it for 
rapidity of growth. Its foliage is dense, and its flowers are pro- 
duced in profusion, and are very ornamental. I am not sure but 
it may be planted extensively in this country for timber, provided 
its wood proves as durable as the common locust. I hope some of 
our friends, who have the means and land, will plant it so exten- 
sively as to test its merits in this respect. 

One more and I have done. The Hydrangea paniculata grandi- 
Jlora is so well known, that it would appear as though nothing 
more could be said in its favor ; yet, it seems to me that if some of 
our nurserymen were to train plants as standards, say from six to 
eight feet high, we should regard them with still more favor. At 
that elevation, its immense panicles, almost touching the ground, 
would not require the least support, whereas, when grown as it 
usually is, it requires a number of stakes to support it, especially 
after a drenching rain. We have one at Wellesley, with a stem 



82 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

seven feet high and a head five feet across. I hope some of our 
nurserymen will take the hint and act accordingly, for I am satis- 
fied that when grown in this way it is far preferable to any other 
form. To prune this shrub, cut back all the previous year's wood 
to two eyes from the old wood. 

Discussion. 

Jackson Dawson said there are two varieties of Hydrangea 
paniculata grandiflora, one of which resembles H. arborescens. 

Charles M. Hovey said that the date of introduction of every 
fruit, flower, and shrub is recorded in the "Magazine of Horti- 
culture." The Viburnum plicatum was introduced in 1848 ; 
Exoclwrda grandiflora in 1859, and Hydrangea paniculata grandi- 
flora, in 1868, or earlier, and now it is talked of as new. He first 
got it under the name of Hydrangea deutziflora. 

William C. Strong said that the habit of growth of Hydrangea 
paniculata (the type) is more upright than that of the variety 
grandiflora. 

Mr. Dawson said there is the same distinction between Hydran- 
gea paniculata and the variety grandiflora as between Viburnum 
Opulus and the variety sterilis. 

Mr. Hovey spoke of the Prunus triloba as a most beautiful 
shrub, with wreaths of rosy pink blossoms, and of the Spirma 
prunifolia as most desirable for the beautiful color of its foliage 
in autumn — amber and gold. Viburnum macrocephalum is good. 
He imported Negundo aceroides variegata in pots in 1859, and 
Magnolia Lennei from Van Houtte in 1856. 

Mr. Harris remarked that nothing is more ornamental in the 
conservatory than Negundo aceroides variegata. 

Mr. Hovey said that Forsythia suspensa flowers before almost 
anything else. It may easily be trained as a standard, in which 
form it is very beautiful, with its drooping branches and clear yel- 
low flowers. Pavia macrostachya (the dwarf horse-chestnut) is 
most beautiful and massive. He has a tree forming a mass twenty 
feet in diameter. Spirosa Thunbergii is a very desirable species. 
The Messrs. Veitch used it for edgings to beds in their camellia 
house. Pyrus Maulei has fruit even more ornamental than the 
flowers ; the former are about the size of a Coe's Golden Drop 
plum. Daphne Cneorum blooms the whole summer through and 
the pink flowers are very fragrant. Philadelphus thyrsiflorus is a 



HARDY ORNAMENTAL TRESS AND SHRUBS. 83 

most show}' plant ; he has a specimen eighteen feet high which has 
borne ten thousand flowers ; shoots seven feet long were covered 
with them, and the individual flowers are larger than those of P. 
grandiflora. The Salix Naptoleona is nothing but the old weeping- 
willow, Salix Babylonica. 

Mr. Dawson said that Salix Japonica pendula, from Japan, has 
narrower leaves than the common weeping willow, and makes a 
growth eight or nine feet long in a season, and seems to be a very 
desirable variety. He went on to speak of a large number of 
shrubs now cultivated at the Arnold Arboretum (where he is gar- 
dener), which have either proved, or promise to be, desirable for 
general cultivation. Some, which are new to us, may be old 
plants that have been neglected and laid aside and are now reintro- 
duced. Some may not prove hardy, and some may need slight 
protection. 

Xanthoceras sorbifolia has proved perfectly hardy, and is very 
beautiful, bearing a profusion of white flowers with pink centres. 

Malus Toringo (baccata) grows from ten to twelve feet high and 
is covered with semi-double pink flowers. Malus Jioribunda is per- 
fectly hardy, and bears full of rosj' pink flowers. At the Arboretum 
there are three varieties of Malus spectabilis, — the double white, 
double pink and single white. They can be kept down to three 
feet in height, by pruning. 

Slaphylea Bumalda is not hardy when young, but in two or 
three years it becomes capable of resisting the cold. The flowers 
are almost pure white, and would be fine for forcing. It is from 
North China and Japan. Staphylea Colchica and S. pinnata are 
hardy. 

Deutzia parvijlora is more like a Spiraia than a Deutzia, and is 
one of the finest new species, as is also the true Deutzia scabra — 
not the old variety under that name, which is a rough-leaved form 
of D. crenata. The new one was brought from Japan by Thomas 
Hogg, and the speaker had it on the authority of Samuel B. 
Parsons. If not the true Deutzia scabra, it is the exact counter- 
part of Siebold's plate of that species.* 

Mr. Hovey said that if the Deutzia scabra mentioned by Mr. 
Dawson is new, it is different from that described hy Loudon, 

* Mr. Dawson states that he was informed by Mr Hogg, who introduced 
the true Deutzia scabra, that in Japan it rarely grows above two feet in 
height and is entirely distinct from all other species, both in flower and habit. 



84 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Don, and others. The leaf of the kind commonly cultivated under 
that name is rough. 

Mr. Dawson said the leaf of the true Deutzia scabra is rounder 
than that of the one commonly cultivated under that name. The 
bark peels off from all the species as the plants become old. He 
then resumed his remarks on shrubs at the Arnold Arboretum. 

Cytisus nigricans has the cluster of pale yellow flowers upright 
instead of drooping, and is perfectly hardy. 

Lonicera hispida, from St. Petersburg, is also perfectly hardy ; 
it trails like Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, and is well adapted to rock- 
work. Lonicera Maximowiczii is a very rare upright hone3^suckle, 
perfectly hardy, and one of the most desirable late introductions. 

Actinidia polygama is a beautiful climber, and said to produce a 
delicious fruit. 

Philadelphus coronarius var. Schrenkii, is of very dwarf habit, 
and flowers very early — a week or ten days before any other 
species. P. coronarius var. tomentosa, promises well. P. hirsu- 
tus is softer and more delicate — one of the prettiest of all. 

Rosa rugosa and the variety alba or Regeliana are desirable. 

Mr. Harris thought Rosa Regeliana distinct from R. rugosa; the 
flowers of the former are four inches in diameter, and the fruit 
covers the plant in autumn. 

Mr. Hovey remarked that Rosa tacoum is slug proof. 

Mr. Dawson still thought Rosa Regeliana but a variety of 
R. rugosa. He said that Rosa rubrifolia has very fine purple 
foliage, which it holds through the hottest weather, and Mr. Harris 
agreed with him. 

Rubus villosus semi-pleno is a very fine double-flowered variety 
of the common high-bush blackberry, and desirable as adding an- 
other variety to a garden where there is sufficient room. 

Tamarix Sinensis is an old plant ; it is more hardy than any 
other of the genus, and is worthy of cultivation for its delicate 
foliage and flowers — the latter appear a month or two months later 
than those of any other species. 

Styrax Japonica is perfectly hardy in dry soils. It has white 
flowers very similar to those of JS. Americana, but perhaps a little 
larger. The latter is a very pretty shrub, from four to six feet 
in height, which ought to be in every collection ; the flowers re- 
semble those of the Halesia or silver bell. 

Viburnum macrocephalum is also hardy. 



HARDY ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS. 85 

Dolichos Japonicus is new, and a most rapid climber, having 
grown forty feet in one year. 

Hypericum prolificum ; H. aureum, from the Missouri river, and 
H. Kalmianum — the last an old sort but not much cultivated, be- 
ginning to flower nearly a month earlier and holding on a month 
later than H. prolificum, are all desirable. 

Mr. Hovey said that E. L. Beard has a fine plant of Hypericum 
patulum, which has stood out-doors three years. 

Mr. Dawson said that Hypericum patulum was always cut to the 
ground with him, but came up sufficiently to flower. Hardiness 
depends greatly on treatment. Plants of doubtful hardiness should 
have a good, well-drained soil, and a chance to ripen up their wood. 
Mr. Harris agreed with this. 

Mr. Hovey said that his soil has a clay bottom and is unfavor- 
able to plants whose hardiness is doubtful. Anything that will 
stand on his grounds will stand anywhere in the United States. 
The Bussey Arboretum and Mr. Beard's garden are on elevated, 
gravelly soil. 

Mr. Dawson said that Berberis Sinensis is perfectly hardy, 
grows two to three feet high, and is of drooping habit. When 
full of ripe fruit (which is less acid and "peggy" than that of 
the common barberry) it looks like a fountain of scarlet. Ber- 
beris Thunbergii has fine autumn foliage, and, when the fruit, 
which is of a deep, rich, scarlet color, is ripe, forms a perfect pic- 
ture. It is a low-growing shrub. 

Desmodium pendulmfiorum, D. pendulafiorum album, and D. 
Canadensis are hardy on dry soils. All are suffruticose rather 
than shrubby. The first two are especially valuable on account of 
blooming late in autumn, when there are but few flowers. The 
flowers of the first are purple, and all are pea-shaped. 

Cerasus Japonica flore pleno is more double and whiter than the 
old double flowering cherry, and blooms later. 

Prunus Sibirica is a very desirable variety, flowering early in 
spring. Prunus Myrobalana is one of the earliest trees to flower 
in the spring. 

Mr. Hovey remarked that the last-named tree grows very rap- 
idly, and the wood, when burnt, perfumes the room. 

Mr. Dawson added that the Germans grow it for " zwetschen- 
wasser." 

Clematis Davidiana and (7. tubulosa are erect growing species, 
from two to four feet high, and in midsummer are covered with 



86 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

beautiful blue flowers like panicles of hyacinths. Unfortunately 
they do not seed freely and are rather difficult to propagate. 0. 
Davidiana is the more desirable of the two. Clematis graveolens 
(orientalis) is perfectly hardy and a very rapid growing climber ; 
it has yellow flowers. C. coccinea is the prettiest of all the hardy 
species ; the flowers are brilliant crimson. It is a climber from 
Northern Texas ; not hard-wooded, but dies to the ground. 

Leiophyllum buxi 'folium has stood, in the Botanic Garden at 
Cambridge for twelve years. It is a small evergreen shrub, grow- 
ing about a foot high. A larger form, from the mountains of 
North Carolina, has a larger leaf of a more waxen appearanee. 

Spircea confusa var. mollis, is one of the earliest and prettiest. 
S. laevigata is a curious species from Siberia ; the flowers are not 
of much account, but the foliage is beautiful. S. Lenneana, from 
St. Petersburg, has bright, rosy pink flowers. S. Tobolski 
resembles 8. sorbifolia, but flowers three weeks later, and is per- 
fectly hardy. 

Nelia (Spircea) Amurensis is similar to Nelia Opulifolia, but the 
corymbs are much larger, and about two weeks earlier in blooming. 

Jamesia Americana resembles Spircea Beevesiana; it grows two 
feet high. It is from the Rocky Mountains. 

Neviusia Alabamensis belongs to the rose f amiry ; it has nume- 
rous bunches of pure white flowers, and is quite show}\ Though 
from Alabama, it is perfectly hardy. 

Aralia pentaphylla is perfectly hardy and desirable for the 
beaut} 7 of its foliage, which is of a bright glossy green. 

Erica vagans, E. vagans rubra, E. carnea, and Calluna vul- 
garis all do well on thoroughly drained land with a slight covering ; 
if the snow blows off and leaves them bare, they burn. 

Andromeda polifolia is a native species, which under cultivation 
becomes one of the gems of the garden. The foliage is of a 
glaucous color. It is perfectly hardy. Andromeda Catesbcei is of 
rapid growth and easily propagated. When planted with rhodo- 
dendrons, nothing is more beautiful, and with the protection which 
they afford it is perfectly hardy ; if not sheltered the ends of the 
shoots are sometimes injured. Andromeda Jloribunda is the finest 
of all. Andromeda Japonica is perfectly hardy. It has been cul- 
tivated by Mr. Parkman for ten years, and he has never covered 
it. It wants to bloom too early in the spring, but five years out 
of six it will be good. Mr. Dawson exhibited a small plant in 



HARDY ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS. 87 

bloom which he took from a cold frame and placed in heat only 
ten clays before. 

Cassandra calyculata, a native of Massachusetts, is very beau- 
tiful under cultivation. The speaker expressed the opinion that 
if all the beautiful shrubs of our State were gathered together 
there would be a sufficient variety to form a most beautiful garden. 

Mr. Hovey mentioned the Clethra alnifolia* found abundantly 
in this vicinity, as one of the most beautiful shrubs. 

Mr. Dawson added that one of our native trees, a variety of 
Pinus strobus, is destined to take a place among the finest pines. 
The original tree is fifty feet high, with a head from twenty to 
twenty-five feet through, and as round as if it had been clipped. 
Seedlings from it have the same habit. It is in the town of Dracut, 
but the exact locality has been kept secret. 

Mr. Harris said that the variegated Pinus Massoniana is the 
finest of all variegated evergreens. The best specimen in this 
country is at Wellesley. 

Benjamin G. Smith said that he was much pleased to hear Mr. 
Dawson speak in praise of native shrubs. The late Joseph Breck 
pronounced the Kalmia latifolia the finest of all shrubs. In the 
experience of the speaker the Andromeda Jloribunda has proved a 
brave shrub, well furnished with flowers, and as hardy as an 
oak. 

Mr. Hovey said that between 1790 and 1800, Lyon and Fraser 
carried from this country to England nine hundred varieties of 
trees and shrubs, the sale of which at auction occupied several 
days. On their second visit they carried home three hundred or 
four hundred varieties. 

Mr. Lewis said that the great trouble with cultivators is to 
know what is hardy. Many things would be hardy at Wellesle} T 
that are not hardy on Mr. Hovel's grounds. Mr. Dawson hit the 
nail on the head when he said that shrubs should have a thoroughly 
drained soil, and that the wood must be well ripened to stand the 
winter. 

It was voted that a committee of five be appointed b} T the Chair 
to prepare a list of the best twenty deciduous shrubs, the best 
twenty deciduous trees, and the best twenty conifers, and report 
at a future meeting. Henry Winthrop Sargent, H. H. Hunnewell, 
William C. Strong, William Gra} 7 , Jr., and Charles S. Sargent 
were appointed as that committee. 



88 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Benjamin G-. Smith, Chairman of the Committee on Publication 
and Discussion, announced that the subject for the next week 
would be "Vegetables and their Culture." 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 12, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
Vice-President John B. Moore in the chair. No business being 
brought before the meeting it 

Adjourned to Saturday, March 19. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The subject assigned for today was "Vegetables and their Cul- 
ture" and the Chairman called on Benjamin G. Smith to give his 
method of cultivating the Lima bean. 

Mr. Smith said that having been quite successful in the cultiva- 
tion of this vegetable he had been frequently asked for his method. 
He sows the seed about the middle of April (being careful to place 
the eye down), in what are known as "cucumber boxes," filled 
with loam, five seeds in each. The boxes are without bottoms, six 
inches in height, seven inches square at the top and eight inches 
square at the lower part, and are made of half-inch stuff. They 
cost six dollars and a half per hundred, and his have already been 
in use ten years. He was first to use them to forward Lima beans, 
and finds them invaluable for this purpose. When the beans are 
planted the boxes are placed in the cold grapery. When the plants 
are about two feet high the ground is prepared and the poles are 
set out, and a hole large enough to receive the box is made at the 
foot of each. A box is then lifted on a shovel and placed in the 
hole and the shovel withdrawn. The box is then removed by lift- 
ing up ; the object of making the top an inch smaller than the 
bottom being to permit this. It is not advisable to set out the 
young plants before the first of June, but this is as early as the 
seed can be planted out-doors, and by forwarding in this way five 
weeks can be gained, and the beans can be had fresh from the 
garden from the middle of August to the middle of October. The 



VEGETABLES AND THEIR CULTURE. 89 

Lima bean is a tropical plant and requires a long season. Any 
surplus can be dried for winter use, and when soaked can hardly 
be distinguished from fresh beans. In saving seed the earliest 
beans should be carefully selected. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder said that all who have visited the 
markets in Philadelphia must have noticed that no vegetable is so 
popular there as Lima beans. Through the winter they are soaked 
over night and sold ready to cook. He agreed with Mr. Smith in 
regard to their value for winter use, and said that he had still a 
barrel on hand in the pod. 

E. W. Wood said that lettuce is forced very extensively in the 
vicinity of Boston, and three quarters of the crop is sent to New 
York, and the same with roses. They both bring a higher price 
than those grown there. It is certainly very remarkable that coal 
should be brought here from Pennsylvania to force vegetables, and 
the product sent to New York. Some time ago, several New York 
rose growers visited Boston, and spent two or three weeks in 
examining the method of culture, and took back some of the most 
skilful gardeners, but they were no more successful at New York 
than others, and all have returned. "Boston Roses" are adver- 
tised in all the florists' stores there, and it is the same with lettuce 
and cucumbers as with roses. The New Yorkers will pay a higher 
price for forced vegetables than Bostonians ; when forced cucum- 
bers first appear they bring six dollars per dozen, but few are sold 
in Boston until they get down to ten dollars per hundred, when they 
are preferred to the Southern product at two dollars per hundred. 
Many lettuce growers have substituted houses for hotbeds, but 
though there is no difficulty in growing lettuce in them until head- 
ing commences, at that time the top of the head is apt to slough 
off, or " burn" as it is called. The same trouble occurs in hotbeds 
to a less extent. It is not burning ; the sun strikes the glass too 
obliquely in January. It is most frequent in cloudy weather, 
and especially after several successive days of such weather. 
Sometimes the greater part of the crop has to be thrown away, and 
growers would be very glad to know the reason of the trouble. 
The White Seeded Tennisball is best for forcing, and the Black 
Seeded Tennisball for out-door culture. 

William C. Strong thought that we have a brighter sun and a 
clearer atmosphere than at New York, and that the greater success 
in forcing flowers and vegetables here might be partly due to that 



90 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

cause. The color of Bon Silene rosebuds grown here is brighter 
than that of those grown at New York. It has been supposed by 
some that the variety is different, but this is not correct. He 
thought the sloughing of lettuce is caused by dampness and the 
houses not facing due south. His own houses have this aspect, 
and he thought that if Mr. Wood's had had the same there would 
have been less of sloughing off in his lettuce. Unless a house 
faces the sun the frames do not receive the direct impact of the 
sun's rays, and are hard to dry off in dull weather. 

The Chairman said he had forced lettuce in hotbeds for two or 
three years, and had had little trouble from rot, but did not like 
the price it brought. He thought the rot was caused b} 7 dampness, 
for he found most of it under the sash. He had not grown lettuce 
in a house. He begins in fall and transplants twice ; the first time 
the seedlings are set three inches apart. Lettuce must have plenty 
of air and be grown slowly. At a low temperature there is not so 
much trouble with the aphis as at a high degree. It is very hard 
to get rid of when on the under side of the leaf. Smoking will 
not do it. Some cultivators grow lettuce to half size in houses, 
and finish in hotbeds. 

Horse dung brought by railroad is not equal to fresh for making 
heat. The box used by Mr. Smith for transplanting Lima beans 
is equalh' good for cucumbers — indeed they are called " cucumber 
boxes." There is no difficulty in removing tomatoes. When it 
can be done, it is best to transplant them twice — the second time 
into eight inch pots — and give plenty of air. Then, when placed in 
the open ground they are fine, stocky plants, in bloom, and go 
light along ; but this is too much work for market gardeners. 

Mr. Wood said that William D. Philbrick has a lettuce house 
two hundred feet by twenty-six, facing south, and has just as 
much trouble with the rot as in houses running north and south. 
Mr. Wood had seen no aphis in his house for three years, and 
thought that if houses are well aired, and fumigated once a week, 
there would be little trouble from it. It is a hard-shelled insect, 
and difficult to get rid of when grown. 

Mr. Strong said that Mr. Philbrick's houses are very wide and 
flat-roofed, and that it is impossible to give air and dry them off 
thoroughly. 

William H. Hunt thought that one great advantage of living in 
the country is to have fresh vegetables, but it is not appreciated 



VEGETABLES AND THEIR CULTURE. 91 

here as it is in France, where they hardly ever fail to have some 
green salad ever}* day in the year. It is very healthy, yet few 
families have it, but he had endeavored to. People in the country 
should take more pains to have a variety of vegetables, especially 
fresh ones. 

Leander Wetherell regarded the subject under discussion as of 
the highest importance. Quality should be considered before 
quantit} 7 . He related an anecdote of an English root grower, who, 
when a farmer brought him an enormous mangel-wurzel, said it 
was a very good way to raise wood. Such overgrown beets and 
turnips are coarse, and crops when the quantit}* is less to the acre 
possess more feeding properties, as has been proved by chemical 
analysis. It is the same with the sugar beet, whether grown for 
food or for sugar. The most profitable potato and the one that 
sells best is the Early Rose. The market price last year and this 
was from five to ten cents per bushel higher than that of any other 
variety. The Snowflake is better for baking, but not so good for boil- 
ing, and is not so productive. The best quality is always in demand. 
The Early Rose grown in Canada is not as good as when grown 
here, but those raised at Houlton, Maine, are better than ours. 
This variety is often grown too large, when it becomes coarse. 
Quality is not enough studied by vegetable growers. 

Mr. Wilder said that the Early Rose is the only potato used in 
his family. It is both early and late. There may be others as 
good. 

Mr. Wetherell said that Bresee's Prolific is of better quality than 
the Peerless, but not so productive. The Prolific grown at 
Houlton is better than anywhere else. The Early Rose is the 
most productive of all. 

The Chairman had found the Early Vermont more prolific than 
the Early Rose, and it is said to be fifteen minutes earlier. It is 
a seedling from the Early Rose, and he prefers it to its parent 
because the vine is stronger. For market he wants the largest 
potatoes he can get, because they bring more ; but for his own 
eating he chooses those of medium size. The Snowflake, and 
some others, are of better quality than the Early Rose. In June, 
he prefers the Mammoth Pearl, a variety which originated in Ohio ; 
it is very productive, has remarkable keeping qualities, and is very 
white when cooked. Vegetables are of better quality for having 
good culture and growing rapidly. There is no difficulty in grow- 



92 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ing good potatoes. He grows fewer small potatoes than his neigh- 
bors ; they are worth little more than the cost of picking up. If 
whole potatoes are planted they produce too many vines, and 
there will be many small potatoes, and only one or two strong, 
vigorous ones. He cuts up good, strong potatoes into pieces with 
two eyes each. He has seen splendid crops from small potatoes, 
but on general principles would not recommend planting them. 
Potatoes are smoother for not overseeding. 

Mr. Wetherell said that his brother planted one-half a field with 
medium sized potatoes, and the other half with small ones ; the 
yield of the former was more than double that of the latter. 

William C. Strong spoke of B. K. Bliss's experiments in pro- 
ducing a stock of the Early Vermont potato from green cuttings, 
and said that the tubers produced were as large as those grown in 
any other way. The cuttings are made like verbena or fuchsia 
cuttings. It is the same with the Early Eose ; under the same 
culture the tubers are as large, and the quality as good, as when 
grown from tubers. 

John Fillebrown was called on as a skilled market gardener. 
He thought the Hill's Early, an Arlington variety, the best early 
pea ; it yields well. It is difficult to tell how to grow sweet 
melons. If too much rain comes on them when they are two-thirds 
grown, the whole crop is destroyed. Last year the aphis came on 
them in such myriads that it was useless to attempt to keep them 
under. 

Mr. Wilder said he had tried all the new kinds of peas, but did 
not get much ahead of the Champion of England in quality. The 
Dan O'Rourke and Landreth's Early are very much alike. He 
thought the Dan O'Rourke, McLean's Advancer, and Champion of 
England a good selection for early, medium, and late. 

The Chairman said that he cared only for the wrinkled varieties 
of peas ; the quality of the early, round, yellow peas is so infe- 
rior that he does not plant them. McLean's Advancer is second 
early and of fine quality. The Champion of England makes too 
much vine ; there are others of as good quality that do not grow 
so high. The tall ones rot. 

Charles E. Grant approved the McLean's Advancer for medium 
season, and the Champion of England for late. The very early 
kinds, like Dan O'Rourke, Caractacus, Hill's Early, and Philadel- 
phia Extra Early, are all substantially alike. 



VEGETABLES AND THEIR CULTURE. 93 

Aaron D. Capen said that he bought of Daniel T. Curtis two 
quarts of seed peas ; the fourth picking of the product sold for 
two dollars per box, and the gross proceeds of the crop were be- 
tween twenty-four and twenty-five dollars. The variety was the 
Early Kent. Twenty-five years ago he was advised to cut off the 
seed end of potatoes and feed to the cows, and plant the other 
end, and he had found that by following this advice and cutting 
the potato so as to have only one or two eyes on a piece, his crop 
was more uniform in size and of better quality, and he was not 
troubled with so many little sprouts and small potatoes. 

The Chairman said that many experiments had been tried in 
planting the seed end, middle, and base of the potato, and some- 
times one plan had succeeded best and sometimes another. 

Mr. Wood expressed the opinion that the Early Rose and Early 
Vermont potatoes are the same ; he bought seed of both kinds of 
Mr. Moore, and took pains in planting both in the same field to keep 
them distinct, but could see no difference in foliage, strength, 
yield, size, or eating quality. 

The Chairman said there is little difference in the height of the 
tops, but quite a difference in productiveness. He cannot tell 
them apart in the barrel, and the quality is the same. There are 
more Early Vermont potatoes sold in Boston market for Early 
Rose, than there are of the true variety. 

Mr. Wood asked if the old potato did not afford nourishment to 
the young plant, which a mere sprout did not receive. He thought 
the fact that a sprout attached to an old potato can be trans- 
planted without wilting, while a detached sprout cannot, showed 
that the old potato does afford nourishment. 

The Chairman said that he had grown many potatoes from cut- 
tings, and thought Mr. Strong was correct in the opinion that they 
produce as good tubers as pieces of potatoes. As to nourishing 
the plant, the old potato is frequently found whole in autumn ; 
the young eye soon throws out a whole system of roots, and as 
soon as these get at work, the old potato is of little consequence. 

Mr. Wetherell said that the farmer who plants potatoes whole 
is most certain of good crops. 

The Chairman said that he had been growing potatoes all his 
life, and would not let a man plant whole potatoes on his ground 
if he would give him the seed. He would have two e} 7 es on a 
piece, but no doubt experiments can be quoted in favor of both 
ways. 



94 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Wetkerell said that he had a good farm and would not 
allow a man to cut a potato to plant. These discordant opinions 
can only arise from our failure to take note of all the conditions 
under which our crops grow. 

Mr. Capen agreed with Mr. Moore in regard to cutting potatoes, 
but preferred only a single eye on each piece. Some break off 
the sprout when an inch long, and repeat this process four or five 
times and then after planting the sprouts they plant the potato. 
Two men may plant alongside of each other and get very different 
results, and in 1881 you may get very different results from those 
produced in 1880 by the same method. 

Mr, Hunt agreed with Mr. Moore in regard to cutting potatoes 
rather than planting whole, and thought the former was the gen- 
eral practice. He thought that the young sprout gets a certain 
amount of nourishment from the piece of potato to start it. In 
his experience the Beauty of Hebron is more productive and of 
better quality than the Early Rose. 

Rev. F. L. Capen said he had found that the first blossom on a 
shoot of a tomato plant fails to produce fruit, and he had pinched 
off the ends of the shoots to cause them to develop, and had suc- 
ceeded. He asked if any one had propagated from seed of the 
fruit from the first blossom. 

The Chairman said that the first blossoms often set fruit. 

Rev. Mr. Capen thought that tomatoes are generally planted too 
near together — about three feet — they should be five or six feet 
apart. He thought it would pay to train them on a cheap trellis. 

The Chairman said that training and pinching tomatoes would 
do for amateurs, but not for market gardeners. All the money 
the latter make on tomatoes is in the first three weeks, and they 
would have no use for trellises. The Acme took the first prize 
last year, and it is productive and of fine quality, but it is not so 
early by five or ten days as some other varieties. 

Mr. Wilder said that the Paragon is as good as the Acme. Mr. 
Livingston, who originated the Acme, says that the Livingston's 
Perfection is superior to the Acme. These improved tomatoes are 
as rich in their way as a fine peach in its way, and only want a 
little sugar added to them. The speaker thought that the tomato 
had been brought to perfection, and that it is a matter for rejoic- 
ing that any vegetable can be improved to so high a point. For 
home cultivation tomatoes are greatly improved by training ; he 



PLUM CULTURE. 95 

planted them against vacant spaces on his grape trellis, and they 
grew six or eight feet high and produced four times as much as 
those trailing on the ground. 

Mr. Grant said that he invariably trains his tomatoes to an 
open fence, trellises, or brush, and the fruit keeps sound and per- 
fect longer than when lying on the ground. He deems a trellis of 
some kind indispensable. 

George TV. Humphrey said that he set twenty-seven plants 
against a slatted fence, and though he cut off the ends of the shoots 
beyond the blossom, to throw all the sap into the fruit, they reached 
the top of the fence, which was six feet high, and would have gone 
further but were not allowed to. They were watered with guano 
water and produced most abundantly. 

The Chairman said that he had been requested to speak of his 
success in raising plums. He thought the time had come 
when there should be no difficulty in raising this fruit. He felt 
the want of such plums as he had when a boy, and he got thirty 
trees from Ellwanger & Barry to see whether he could beat the 
curculio. He planted them in his hen yard and trimmed them up 
so that the hens should not fly up into them, and they have borne 
considerable fruit for the last two years, and there has not been a 
curculio mark to be seen on it. The trees get manure enough from 
the droppings of the hens. Four trees outside had the fruit marked 
with the curculio, but he dug out the eggs with the point of his 
knife, and they matured good crops. The only trouble in raising 
plums, besides the curculio, is the black knot, and he had had only 
two or three of these, which came out on the trunks of the trees. 
He cut them out to clean, sound wood, removing all that had a 
diseased, granulated appearance. It is said that the spores of the 
fungus which causes the knot, mature after the knots are' cut out, 
and to avoid the risk of their propagating, he put all that he cut 
out into the stove. The wild plum and cherry trees on which the 
knot is also found, should be cut down and burned. He shortened 
the long, vigorous shoots two-thirds, so as to make broad, spreading 
trees, rather than tall ones, and the result is some very vigorous 
and pretty trees. In jarring trees to shake down the curculio there 
is danger of starting the bark, but the hens lay eggs, raise chickens, 
and take care of the curculio. He was surprised to hear an old 
horticulturist like Mr. Hovey, maintain that the black wart is 
caused by the curculio. Some of the best plums are the Green 



96 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Gage, Washington, Jefferson, Smith's Orleans, Pond's Seedling, 
Bradshaw, Lawrence's Favorite, Imperial Gage, and Coe's Golden 
Drop. He planted his trees about twelve feet apart. Cutting 
back has a tendency to produce a good deal of small wood. He 
saw no reason why he and all others should not raise plums. 

Mr. Smith said that he had six plum trees which he got from 
Ellwanger & Barry. These gentlemen exhibited at the Missis- 
sippi Valley Horticultural Societ3 T 's Exhibition at St. Louis, last 
year, fifty varieties of plums, and at the Centennial Exposition in 
Philadelphia, more than all others except Canadian growers. We 
have been told that it is of no use to try to raise plums, but if 
Ellwanger & Barry can do it, others can. 

The Secretary announced that Charles S. Sargent had declined 
serving on the Committee to prepare a list of trees and shrubs, and 
John Robinson was appointed in his place. Jackson Dawson was 
added to the Committee. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 19, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was bolden today at 11 
o'clock, Vice-President Benjamin G. Smith in the chair. 

A package of seeds from J. L. L. F. Warren, of San Francisco, 
Cal., was received, and the thanks of the Society were voted to 
Col. Warren therefor. The seeds were placed in the hands of the 
Committee on Plants and Flowers, for distribution among the 
members. 

Adjourned to Saturday, March 26. . 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The committee appointed at the meeting on the fifteenth of 
January, to prepare a list of the forty-eight most desirable Hybrid 
Perpetual Roses, reported the following which was accepted : 

WHITE. 

Mile. Bonnaire, Pernet, 1859. 

Baronne de Maynard, .... Lacharme, .... 1865. 



HYBRID PERPETUAL ROSES. 



97 



BLUSH. 

Mme. la Baronne de Rothschild, . Pemet . 
La France, Guillot, fils, 



1867. 
1867. 



PINK. 



John Hopper, .... 
Fran cois Michelon, 
Marguerite de St. Amand, 
Marquise de Castellane, . 
Mme. Georges Schwartz, 
Mme. Nachury, . . . 
Comtesse C. de Chabrillant, 



Ward, 1862. 

Levet, 1871. 

Sansal, 1864. 

Pemet, 1869. 

Schwartz, . . . . 1871. 

Damaizin, . . . . 1873. 

Marest, 1859. 



ROSE-SALMON. 



Marie Finger, . 
Mile. Eugenie Verdier, 



Ouillot, fits, 



1874. 
1869. 



ROSE. 

Victor Verdier, Lacharme, . . . . 1859. 

Mme. G. Luizet, Liabaud, .... 1877. 

Magna Charta, W.Paul & Son, . . 1877. 

Marchioness of Exeter, .... Laxton — Paul & Son, 1877. 

fidouarcl Morren, Granger ) .... 1868. 

Dupuy Jamain, Jamain, 1868. 

Mme. Therese Levet, .... Levet, 1866. 



fitienne Levet, 



LIGHT CARMINE RED. 

Levet, 



RED. 



Alfred Colomb, Lacharme, . . 

Charles Lefebvre, Lacharme, . 

Marie Beauman, Beauman, . . 

Mme. V. Verdier, E. Verdier, 

Horace Vernet, Guillot, fits, 

Dr. Andry, E. Verdier, . . 

Exposition de Brie, Granger, 

Mons. E. Y. Teas, E. Verdier, fils, 

Comtesse d'Oxford, Guillot, pbre, . 

Mrs. Laxton, Laxton — Paul & Son 

Duchesse de Ca} T lus, C. Verdier, . . 

Sir Garnet Wolsele}', .... Cranston, . . 
7 



1871. 

1865. 
1861. 
1863. 
1863. 
1866. 
1864. 
1865. 
1874. 
1869. 
1878. 
1864. 
1875. 



98 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



. . . 1859 


. . . 1868 


. . . 1869 


. . . 1871 


. . . 1871 


. . . 1873 


. . . 1869 


. . . 1864 


. . . 1875 


. . . 1864 


. , . . 1874 


. . . 1863 


. . . 1865 


. . . 1861 


. . . 1861 



Senateur Vaisse, Guilliot, pere, 

Duke of Edinburgh, . . - . . Paul & Son, 

Ferdinand de Lesseps, . . . . E. Verdier, 

President Thiers, Lacharme, . 

Richard Wallace, Leveque, 

Thomas Mills, E. Verdier, 

CRIMSON. 

Louis Van Houtte, Lacharme, . 

Mons. Boncenne, Liabaud, 

Abel Carriere, E. Verdier, 

Xavier Olibo, Lacharme, . 

La Rosiere, Damaizin, . 

Pierre Notting, . . . . . . Portemer, . 

Fisher Holmes, E. Verdier, 

Prince Camille de Rohan, . . . E. Verdier, 

Olivier Delhomme, . . . . . V. Verdier, 

WILLIAM GRAY, Jr., 

Chairman. 

No subject having been assigned for discussion, that of last 
week, "Vegetables and their Culture," was again taken up. 

Aaron D. Capen expressed surprise that the plan of planting 
potatoes whole should have found an advocate on the previous 
Saturday. Lie had for many years rejected the seed end for 
planting and never failed of success. It has many small, weak 
eyes, which produce shoots corresponding in number and charac- 
ter. He agreed with a speaker at the last meeting, that the best 
potatoes for exhibition are found in hills having but a single stalk, 
showing the advantages of light seeding. He prepares pieces with 
but a single eye on each. 

John S. Martin had planted potatoes in all ways — large and 
small, whole and cut, and had never found any difference. 

J. W. Talbot said that a neighbor of his received a letter offer- 
ing to send directions for increasing the crop of potatoes twenty per 
cent., for one dollar, to be paid in case the plan proved success- 
ful. The method was to take a well ripened potato of any size, 
and cut out all the eyes but two, and let the cut surfaces dry a 
week or two before planting. It proved so successful that his 
friend sent the dollar. Mr. Talbot thought this much better than 



VEGETABLES AND THEIR CULTURE. ^ 99 

high seeding, and thought also that experience had shown very 
little difference in the results on the crop between using for seed the 
eyes from either end. 

Mr. Martin said that he had been advised by an old cultivator 
to place the cut side up in planting potatoes. 

Mr. Capen said that in planting potatoes he puts the cut side 
uppermost. He spoke of a cultivator who soaked cut potatoes in 
a solution of Paris green, and strewed them between the rows of 
planted potatoes before the latter were up, as turnip growers in 
England strew poor turnip seed in trenches. The potato beetles 
ate the poisoned potatoes, and thus many were destroyed which 
would otherwise have preyed on the crop. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder concurred with Mr. Talbot and Mr. 
Capen in regard to the advantage of avoiding high seeding. The 
same principle applies to squashes and melons, or fruit trees, none 
of which can produce the best results when crowded. His system 
of planting potatoes is to place one or two strong eyes in a hill. 

Mr. Capen said that he prefers to plant in drills, and places 
the potatoes about a foot apart in the drills. He ploughs from the 
plants, and then has only a narrow space left to hoe. He culti- 
vates at intervals of one or two weeks in opposite ways. To 
secure the best crop of squashes he planted the pure Marrow as 
far as possible from the hybrids, and every year added a little of 
the pure Marrow seed to the seed from hybrids ; by so doing he 
thought the crop was more than doubled. He plants squash, 
melon, and cucumber seeds in drills, as we plant peas, putting in a 
supply for the bugs as well as for the crop. After the plants have 
grown sufficiently to allow it, they are thinned so that each one 
left has a better supply of food than by the usual way of planting 
in hills. 

Mr. Wilder said that the first cross in plants is like that in 
animals, stronger than the parents. He does not believe that 
hybridizing affects the fruits of squashes, melons, etc., the first 
year. 

Alfred W. Paul said that he practised cutting his potatoes to a 
single eye for seed. In the Early Rose, what appears to be a 
single eye is really a cluster of eyes, of which only one usually 
grows. He plants in drills and gets more and better potatoes for 
market at fifteen inches apart than at a foot. In one experiment 
he did not get as large a yield at fifteen inches apart in the row, as 
at four feet apart, the land being in a high state of cultivation. 



100 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Wilder inquired of Mr. Paul what quantity of strawberries 
was raised in Dighton, where he resides. 

Mr. Paul replied that he had tried to get correct and full 
information on this point. More strawberries are grown in Digh- 
ton than in any town east of the Hudson River. They are mostly 
Wilsons. In 1877 there were 772,600 quarts produced in the 
town. In 1878 and 1879 the crops were small, owing to the blight 
and the depredations of the larvse of the May beetle. Last year 
about a million quarts were produced. This was about two-thirds 
what the crop would have been, but for the drought, which was, 
with one exception, the severest known during the strawbeny sea- 
son for fifteen or sixteen years. The largest well authenticated 
crops that he has known of have been raised in Dighton. The 
best crop he had known was four years ago on an acre and three- 
quarters of land (half being an old bed, which does not produce as 
well as a new), that yielded 17,000 quarts. Another half -acre 
yielded 6,400 quarts. He thought that the average of old and 
new beds — some being three years old — was about 5,000 quarts 
per acre for the year 1877. The business did pay, but is now 
overdone, and the quantity raised will be reduced rather than 
increased. The larvae of the May beetle injure strawberry plants 
more in sod land the first year after it has been broken up, than 
after it has been cultivated in hoed crops one or two years, 
and the plants should therefore be set only after the sod is 
rotted. The Wilson has deteriorated within a few years, and 
is subject to a blight on both fruit and plant, which destroys 
it — in some cases, in a few days. None of the new varieties are 
so productive as the Crescent, but it is smaller and softer than the 
Wilson, and not of as good quality-. The Sharpless has not been 
tested sufficiently. The Charles Downing is cultivated more 
largely than any other variety except the Wilson, and if firmer 
would supplant that variety. The Turner's Beauty, from South- 
ern New Jersey, has failed two years out of five, but the other 
three years it was equal in productiveness, and superior in quality, 
to any kind he has tested. Last year the strawberries averaged 
eight cents per quart at wholesale, out of which the grower had to 
pay the cost of growing and picking, freight, commission, and 
rent of land. 

Few raspberries are cultivated at Dighton, but Mr. Paul thought 
that a hardy variety would be profitable. The Turner is most 



RASPBERRIES AND CURRANTS. 101 

promising, but is not exactly what is wanted. It is as hardy as a 
burr oak, but the berries are only of medium size and are soft. 
It suckers very badly. The Brandy wine kills out, and even 
when the canes were laid down they did not survive, but appeared 
to be smothered. Some winters are very different from others in 
their effect on plants. Winter before last some of the strawberry 
plants appeared to be smothered, but during the winter now clos- 
ing the ground has been frozen continuously, and the prospect is 
better. 

Mr. Wilder thought two men could lay down and cover an acre 
of raspberries in a day. He would not cultivate either the Phila- 
delphia or the Brandywine, because they sucker so immensely. 
He commended the Caroline as quite hardy. It is a lrybrid be- 
tween Brinckle's Orange and the Catawissa, of orange color, and 
unless fully ripe has a pretty sharp acid. It roots somewhat from 
the tips like the Black Caps. No white cherry, currant, or rasp- 
berry will bring as much in the market as red ones. 

Mr. Paul said he had attempted to raise currants ; he had 
planted nearly all Versaillaise, but some Cherry, and had found no 
difference between the two. One currant bush would bear a good 
crop ; the next a moderate crop, and a third none at all — which 
he could not account for. He had found a borer very troublesome 
in his currant bushes. 

The Chairman had found the same trouble in regard to the pro- 
ductiveness of currant bushes as Mr. Paul. He intended in rais- 
ing new plants to take cuttings only from the most prolific. 

Mr. Wilder said that the course proposed by the Chairman 
would give a stock of productive bushes. He introduced the Ver- 
saillaise currant from France many years ago ; there was a great 
demand for the plants, and they got mixed with the Cherry cur- 
rant, but they are distinct, and the Versaillaise is best. 

John Fillebrown said that he knew an instance of a man's 
planting a peck of Hill's Early peas, from the produce of which 
he sold fift} r dollars' worth. ' At Arlington, where he carries on 
the business of market gardening, they have to irrigate in order 
to get good crops of vegetables. Melons are a very uncertain 
crop ; the year before last he had a fine piece, but at a critical time 
there came two or three days of rain, and he never picked a melon 
from it. He had not tried any remedy for lice on melons ; when 
they come they eat so fast that it would be useless to try to pre- 



102 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

vent it. The only thing to be done for the maggot or borer is to 
cut it out. A small or moderate crop is more profitable than a 
large one. 

Mr. Martin, in answer to an inquiry from Mr. Wilder, named 
the Surprise, Casaba, and Bay View melons as superior to any 
others. He had had no trouble with his melons from the weather. 

Mr. Wilder said that the Boston greenflesh melons are re- 
nowned for their excellence. He could not grow the finest kinds 
in perfection, and was obliged to rely on such as would in a meas- 
ure take care of themselves. The Christiana, originated by the 
late Captain Josiah Lovett, is the hardiest. The Casaba grows 
very strongly, and the fruit is large and almost as good as the 
greenfleshed kinds. The Bay View is good and easily grown ; it 
is much like the Casaba. For earliest he cultivates the Japan 
White ; it is small but very delicious. It is not so easily grown 
as the other kinds named. The Golden Orange is next in earli- 
ness to the Japan White, and quite as good. He saves seed from 
the best specimens, and perpetuates the different varieties without 
much crossing. 

He has used specific manures from the time when guano was 
introduced, and takes great care in mixing them. He made a 
strong compost for melons, and ploughed in and also put it in the 
hills. It consisted of two cords of loam, one hundred pounds of 
guano, and half a cord of manure. His foreman told him he 
would destroy all his melons with it, but he put a few quarts in 
each hill and never had such a crop of melons. 

John C. Newton, being called on, said that his experience in 
horticulture had been confined mainly to the cultivation of pears. 
For two }^ears he had been troubled with pear blight, which had 
destroyed his best trees. He asked whether it was not induced by 
too high culture. 

Mr. Wilder said that he never saw a pear tree over-manured, 
though the late Samuel G-. Perkins ascribed the death of a large 
Seckel tree to plethora, by manuring. 

Rev. F. L. Capen had seen pear trees killed by the application 
of excessive quantities of green manure. 

Mr. Newton said that he would not put green manure to a pear 
tree, but would compost it with loam and let it lay from twelve to 
eighteen months, and turn it over three or four times. 

Mr. Fillebrown thought there was no such thing as over- 



VEGETABLES AND THEIR CULTURE. 103 

manuring. In the market gardens at Arlington large quantities 
of fresh manure are used. At Philadelphia, in the month of 
December, he was surprised to see the large quantities of night 
soil applied to the ground. He thought it a very coarse way of 
raising vegetables, and was astonished to see the vegetables grown 
by it. 

James Fisher spoke of a novel way of raising potatoes, which 
he saw in Illinois. The ground is subject to drought, and is 
ploughed and harrowed perfectly smooth, and the potatoes are 
then placed on it and covered with from fifteen to twenty inches 
of straw or strawy manure, which protects them from drought, 
and they grow up through it. Seventy miles from Chicago he saw 
the ground covered with two feet of straw to smother Canada 
thistles. 

Mr. Wilder said that twitch grass could be destroyed in the 
same way, or by planting the ground with cabbages, which, when 
grown, afford such a perfect shade as to destroy everything be- 
neath them. 

Rev. Mr. Capen had seen potatoes grown in Florida in a trench 
filled with thatch. The thatch was removed from time to time, 
and such of the potatoes as were large enough were picked out, 
and the thatch was then replaced for more to grow. 

Mr. Fillebrown thought that the ashes of a cord of manure 
would be worth as much as the manure. He mentioned an in- 
stance where coarse strawy manure was applied for a crop of 
beets on a hot day in July, when the manure dried so as to have 
a burnt appearance, but no difference could be told between the 
crop there and that fertilized with manure in the usual condition. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 26, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
Vice-President John B. Moore, in the chair. No business being 
brought before the meeting, it was dissolved. 



104 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The report of the Committee appointed on the 5th of March to 
prepare a list of the best Deciduous Trees and Shrubs, and the 
best Conifers, was read by the Secretary. 

Report. 

The Committee, to whom was referred a selection of the best 
twenty Deciduous Trees and Shrubs, as also twenty of the most 
desirable Evergreens, beg leave respectfully to report as follows : 

In the absence of all instruction as to whether the selection was 
intended for the purpose of planting places of some magnitude, or 
to be confined to what seems to be the future character of 
suburban homes, — a comparatively small number of acres, — your 
Committee, or rather a portion of them, have made the latter 
selection, choosing trees *and plants of a secondary size, rather 
than those they might have recommended for the adornment of 
large estates, where much space would have been required. 

The Committee likewise wish to say that these three selections 
were made by three members of the Committee of five (two 
declining to serve), without any consultation with each other, it 
being thought that by this course, the public would receive their 
individual opinions and experience without any bias or influence 
from mutual discussion or comparison. 

HENRY WINTHROP SARGENT, Chairman. 

The first list, which was selected by the Chairman of the Com- 
mittee, and is intended for places of moderate or small extent, is 
as follows : 

Deciduous Trees. 

Weeping Beech. Weeping Larch. 

Fern Leaved Beech. Weeping Silver Linden. 

Purple Beech. Imperial Cut Leaved Alder. 

Cut Leaved Weeping Birch. Golden Oak. 

Young's Weeping Birch. Golden Catalpa. 

Upright Pyramidal Birch. Golden Locust. 

Purple Leaved Birch. Variegated Maple. 



SELECT LISTS OF TREES AND SHRUBS. 



105 



Weeping Cypress. 
Weeping Bird Cherry. 
Variegated Dogwood. 
Virgilia (Yellow-Wood) . 
Magnolia cordata. 



Magnolia Soulangeana. 

" conspicua. 

" glanca longifolia. 

" Lennei. 
Camperdown Weeping Elm. 



Shrubs. 



Dwarf Horse Chestnut. 
Oak Leaved Hydrangea. 
Hydrangea paniculata grandi- 

flora. 
Viburnum plicatum. 
Berberis Bealii. 

" Japonica. 
Scarlet Dogwood. 
New Weeping Scarlet Thorn. 
New Double White Thorn. 
New Double Scarlet Thorn. 



Paul's Crimson Thorn. 
Koelreuteria paniculata. 
Judas tree. 
Malus floribunda. 
Fern Leaved Sumach. 
Golden Elder. 
Weeping Sophora. 
Azalea mollis. 
Rhododendrons. 
Japanese Maples. 



Evergreens. 



Abies orientalis (Oriental 

Spruce). 
" Canadensis (Hemlock 

Spruce). 
Weeping Hemlock. 
Picea pungens (Blue Spruce) . 
Victoria Spruce. 
Weeping Norway Spruce. 
Golden Yew. 
Golden Upright Yew. 
Waterer's Seedling Yew. 
Young's Golden Juniper. 



George Peabody Arbor Vitae. 
Vervaene's Arbor Vitre. 
Semper Aurea Arbor Vitae. 
The Retinosporas. 
Cephalotaxus Fortunei. 
" drupacea. 

American Holly. 
Maxwell's argentea Holly. 
Thuiopsis dolabrata. 

" borealis. 
Pinus Cembra. 



The next list, by H. H. Hunnewell, is intended for a much more 
extensive place than the above. 



Deciduous Trees. 



Elm, American. 
" English. 



Oak, White. 
" Scarlet. 



106 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Maple, Sugar. 

" Norway. 

" Scarlet. 

' ' Japanese atropur- 
pureum. 
Other Japanese Maples. 
Beech, American. 

" Copper. 

" Weeping. 
Cut Leaved Weeping Birch. 
Tulip tree. 
Magnolia acuminata. 



Magnolia Lennei. 
Linden, European. 
" American. 
Virgilia lutea (Yellow-wood) 
Salisburia (Gingko). 
Dogwood. 
Catalpa. 

Flowering Cherry. 
Common Chestnut. 
Liquidamber. 
Weeping Willow. 



Coniferous Trees. 



Abies alba (White Spruce). 
" Canadensis (Hemlock 

Spruce) . 
" exeelsa(Norway Spruce) 
" orientalis (Oriental 

Spruce) . 
" Menziesii. 
" Alcoquiana. 
" polita. 
" Douglasii. 
Picea Nordmanniana (Nord- 

mann's Fir). 
" Cephalonica. 



Pinus Pichta. 

" Lambertiana. 

u Pyrenaica. 

u excelsa. 

u Strobus (White Pine) 

" Cembra. 

u sylvestris. 
Sciadopitys verticillata. 
Larix Americana. 

" Europsea. 
Retinospora obtusa. 

" plumosa aurea. 

" filifera. 



The following list was selected by William C. Strong : 

Deciduous Trees. 



Acacia, Three Thorned. 
Beech, American. 

" Purple. 

" Weeping. 
Birch, Cut Leaved Weeping. 
Cherry , Myrtle LeavedWeeping. 
Elm, American. 

" Camperdown Weeping. 



Gingko (Salisburia). 
Maple, Norway. 

" Reitenbach's purple. 

" Scarlet. 

" Schweidler's. 

" Sugar. 

" Wier's Weeping. 
Magnolia acuminata. 



SELECT LISTS OF TREES AND SHRUBS. 



107 



Sophora Japonica. 


Virgilia, or Yellow-Wood. 


Tulip tree. 


Walnut, Black. 


Shrubs. 


Almond, Double White. 


Hawthorn, Scarlet. 


Azaleas, Ghent. 


Kalmia latifolia. 


Clethra alnifolia. 


Magnolia glauca. 


Cornus sanguinea. 


Primus triloba. 


Cyclonia Japonica. 


Rhododendrons. 


Deutzia crenata flore pleno. 


Roses. 


Exochorcla grandiflora. 


Spiraea arisefolia. 


Forsythia viridissima. 


u prunilblia. 


Fringe tree, White. 


" Thunbergii. 


H3 T drangea paniculata grandi- 


S} T ringa Josiksea. 


flora. 


Viburnum plicatum. 


Evergreen Trees. 


Arbor Vitas, Booth's. 


Pine, White. 


" George Peabody. 


Retinospora filifera. 


" Hovey's Golden. 


" plumosa. 


" Pyramidal. 


" plumosa aurea. 


" Vervaene's. 


" squarrosa Veitchii 


" Siberian. 


Spruce, Hemlock. 


Fir, Engelmann's. 


1 ' Norway. 


" Nordm ami's. 


" Norway Weeping. 


Pine, Austrian. 


" Oriental. 


" Swiss Stone. 


" White. 


Discussion. 



Hon. Marshall P. Wilder thought such lists as the above, from 
gentlemen so experienced in the cultivation of ornamental trees 
and shrubs, were great acquisitions. 

William C. Strong said that, though the lists were made by 
different individuals, it was remarkable how closely the last two 
ran together. He felt a good deal of difficulty in making his 
selection, because a list which would be exactly what one person 
would want, might be entirely unfitted for another. Many trees 
which are extremely desirable, are entirely omitted ; the ailanthus, 
which, for some purposes, produces an effect that no other tree 



108 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

gives, is not mentioned. A bare list may be misleading ; one half 
may be just what a planter wants, and the other half may be what 
he does not want. The problem before the Committee differed 
from making a selection of roses or pears, and was much more 
difficult, because the character and habits of the trees are so 
different. 

Benjamin G. Smith said that the three gentlemen who had 
reported were very familiar with the subject ; and he thought Mr. 
Sargent's list well adapted to small places, and those of Mr. 
Hunnewell and Mr. Strong, to large places. 

Mr. Wilder said that Mr. Strong was so conscientious and so 
desirous to give a list which all could understand without study, 
that he found it difficult to satisfy himself, but any one who has 
any idea of rural adornment, can select from these lists. In 
regard to some trees, such as the purple beech, cut leaved weep- 
ing birch, and virgilia, they are unanimous. 

Mr. Strong hoped that the circumstances under which each tree 
does best would be added to the report of the Committee, and that 
the trees best adapted to particular localities would be mentioned. 

Leander Wetherell thought that the greatest error in planting 
trees was the disregard of their adaptation to the soil. The sugar 
maple should never be planted in gravelly or sandy soils, nor 
should the elm. Emerson says that regard should also be had to 
the ripening of the leaves, beginning with the sumach and scarlet 
maple, which are earliest, and ending with the brown oak leaves 
so as to produce the finest effect in autumn. 

Mr. Strong said that the adaptation of a tree to the soil in 
which it is to be planted, is a point not understood by the public. 
All agree that the magnolias are very desirable, yet they are 
utterly unfit for dry soils ; but this fact does not appear on the 
list. 

Mr. Smith asked whether elms do not grow on dry soils. 

Charles M. Hovey said that Cambridge is famous for dry soils, 
yet it is also noted for fine elms, such as the Washington elm, and 
the two elms at the "gates of Arlington," on a sandj 7 knoll. 
There is another near the Botanic Garden. His own ground is 
partly moist, but he has no such elms in the moist as in the dryer 
parts. 

Mr. Smith said it was well known that Cambridge Common, 



ADAPTATION OF TREES TO SOILS. 109 

near which the Washington elm grows, is sandy. He had seen 
excavations there eight or ten feet deep, showing only sand. 

Alexander Dickinson considered the elm the toughest of all 
trees. It will grow where anything else will grow, even where the 
tide flows. About thirty years ago, he planted an elm near his 
soap works, in Cambridgeport, where the tide frequently flows 
and the soil is chiefly marsh mud, and it has thriven and grown 
well. He had seen magnificent elms at Goffstown, and also at 
Manchester, N. H., in sandy soil. 

The Chairman said that elms grow at Concord on sand banks ; 
they make long rambling roots. 

Mr. Wilder said it is true that elm roots run wide and deep. 
One of the Paddock elms, on the opposite side of the street, sent 
its roots into the burying ground and entwined them around the 
skull of James Otis. Roots run deeper than is generally supposed ; 
in ground prepared for a dahlia bed, he had had strawberry roots 
run down three feet. 

Rev. A. B. Muzzey said that he was jealous of the reputation 
of Cambridge, and that a portion of the soil is clay, even in the 
highest parts, while in other elevated places the soil is sandy. 
Some of the soil is probably drift from the North Pole, which was 
partly clay, and was carried into certain parts of Cambridge, so 
that the soil changes entirely within a very short distance. He 
believed that there is clay within reach of the roots of the elm 
trees which have been mentioned as growing on sandy soil, and 
that those who have referred to them, and those who believe the 
elm does best in moist soils, are both right. 

E. H. Hitchings said that the largest elm he knows, which is 
twenty-eight feet in circumference, is in a sandy soil. 

Mr. Wetherell mentioned an avenue of elms at Hatfield, in a 
mixture of sand and cla}\ He was still of the opinion that the 
elm prefers a moist soil, and quoted from " Gray's Manual" the 
statement that it is found in "moist woods, especially along 
rivers, in rich soil." 

Mr. Hitchings said, while disclaiming any intention to detract 
from the authority of so eminent a botanist as Dr. Gray, that the 
concise statements of his " Manual" cannot always be taken as 
covering all the facts in regard to a tree or plant. Dr. Gray says, 
that the Habenaria blephari glottis and H. ciliaris are found in moist 
soils, and it is true that they generally are, but the speaker had 



110 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

frequently found them also in dry places. So the elm may be 
found in sandy as well as clayey soils. 

The Chairman said that there are many large elms in Concord ; 
some are twent}^ feet in circumference, with no soil to be seen 
about them. There is one in front of the town house. They have 
no difficulty in growing in sandy soil. On ploughed land near the 
river, some of the roots run near the surface. He had seen a root 
six rods from the tree, as large as his wrist, and so strong that 
two yoke of oxen could not break it. The roots are very tough. 
He has large elms near his house, and the bottom of the cellar is 
full of the roots. The bottom of his well is also full, and they 
stop up drains. 

Mr. Wetherell remarked that the roots of maples in Hardwick 
had stopped up the drains on the Common. 

O. B. Hadwen said that he was much interested in the report of 
the Committee, though his farm was not large enough, nor his 
purse long enough, to plant all the trees recommended by them. 
Each one should study the habits of trees, and plant those best 
adapted to his situation. No roots penetrate the soil deeper, or 
hold on with more tenacit}', than those of the elm. There are 
others than the elm, which are not adapted to all situations. As 
a member of the Committee on Shade Trees in the city of Worcester, 
he had found that the rock, or sugar maple will not thrive in either 
sandy or clayey soils. The Norway maple often succeeds where 
the sugar maple fails, and will live and thrive in the streets. 
There was hardly a tree on the three lists reported by the Com- 
mittee but he liked, and an} r one could choose from them. He 
spoke of the beauty of the purple beech, and alluded to a fine 
specimen on Mr. Wilder's lawn. Many years ago, he visited 
William Kenrick's nurseries, with the late William Lincoln, where 
they saw a purple beech for the first time, and when Mr. Lincoln 
was told what it was, he said that he had heard of a thing being 
knocked into the middle of next week, but this knocked him into 
the middle of next autumn. 

It was voted that the lists be accepted and referred to the Com- 
mittee on Publication. 

The Chairman here announced that the List of Roses reported 
on the 19th instant, by the Committee appointed for that purpose, 
was printed, and ready for distribution to the members. He 



THE BEST ROSES. Ill 

added that, as a member of the Committee, he was of the opinion 
that one most important thing had been omitted, viz. : a list of ten 
or twelve of the most promising new roses. Among these is the 
Mabel Morrison, which he thought the best of all the white roses — 
a class in which first rate kinds are deficient. 

Mr. Strong thought the list valuable and serviceable, but also 
misleading. La France is a splendid rose, but good for nothing 
for general cultivation. 

Mr. Wilder said that, in France, La France received a greater 
number of votes than any other rose. 

The Chairman and Mr. Strong both thought it worthless for 
general cultivation, out-doors or in. 

Mr. Hovey thought that if the Committee had described the list 
as comprising the best roses for exhibition purposes, no exception 
could have been taken to it. The Baroness Rothschild is in the 
same case with La France ; Captain Christy is wholly tender ; 
Madame Eugenie Verdier is tender. 

The Chairman said that two years ago, he began to examine 
roses critically, to see which were best, judging by points, and was 
surprised to find so many of high repute ranking low. Paul 
Neron, our largest rose, has no fragrance, and marks low on that 
point. 

E. W. Wood thought the Society could do no better work than 
to publish select lists, especially of fruits. This list of roses 
represents large growers. He would like to have the best one, 
and the best twelve designated. 

The Chairman said that the best one under each color was placed 
first, as white, Mile. Bonnaire ; blush, Baroness Rothschild ; 
pink, John Hopper ; rose salmon, Marie Finger ; rose, Victor 
Verdier ; light carmine reel, Etienne Levet ; red, Alfred Colomb ; 
crimson, Louis Van Houtte. 

Mr. Hovey objected that the colors were not described with 
sufficient exactness ; one rose might be of a silvery hue, and 
another of a dark shade of the same color ; one might be of an 
opaque and another of a translucent crimson. 

Mr. Wood said that man}^ persons plant roses in prominent 
places, and that those which bloom only in June are not things of 
beauty after that time. The Committee could select kinds which 
would bloom from June until frost, and he would like to have the 
names of a dozen such. In his observation, the Mme. Alfred 



112 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Eoiigeinont is the most continuous bloomer of all. It is perfectly 
hardy, though not vigorous, and very useful for bouquets. The 
color is white, tinged with pink. 

Mr. Wilder recommended the white Mme. Plantier rose. It is 
not perpetual. 

The Chairman said that the subject of color was talked over in 
the Committee for an hour, and it was found impossible to desig- 
nate all shades. Every one is not as well informed as Mr. Hovey, 
in regard to colors. As to the objection made by a previous 
speaker, to Baroness Rothschild, that it is too large for bouquets, 
the Chairman said that it is not necessary to put it into bouquets. 
A single flower in a vase is as beautiful as a bouquet, without the 
help of the florist. The Committee were all prominent rose 
growers, not second to any in the Society, and gave their best 
judgment to inakiDg up the list, but the speaker was of the opinion 
that some of the new roses would soon supersede some of the 
kinds on the list. 

Mr. Hovey thought the list was an excellent one, but he was 
speaking for amateurs, who want to cut flowers for their friends, 
and instead of one great flower of Baroness Rothschild, would 
rather have ten smaller ones. 

Mr. Wilder said that if one-half the varieties on the list prove 
as desirable as we know they will, we have got some valuable 
information. 

The Chairman thought there were not ten varieties on the list 
that were not desirable for general cultivation. La France and 
Baronne Maynard, are both tender, and so are all the white Hybrid 
Perpetuals. If roses are wanted to peg down in beds, those with 
withy shoots should be selected. 

Mr. Wood asked if we could not select twelve or eighteen 
perpetual bloomers from the list. 

The Chairman replied that we could ; many of them are more 
constant bloomers than other-. 

Mr. Strong said that while all think the list a valuable one, it 
must be taken with exceptions ; but the public will take it just as 
it is. It would be better to publish it with comments, and the 
same with the lists of trees and shrubs ; otherwise the public will 
be misled. There are many roses not on it, that are more valu- 
able than those recommended, such as Gen. Jacqueminot and 
Triomphe d' Angers. 



THE BEST ROSES. 113 

The Chairman said that if we could strike out half a dozen 
varieties from the list, it would be a safe one, though there are 
many on it that he would not plant, but would prefer new varieties. 

Mr. Hovey said that if a customer should order twelve plants of 
La France, he could not recommend them, and it would be un- 
pleasant for him to differ from the Society. Mme. Nachury is 
only seen at Mr. Gray's. Jules Margottin and La Reine are well 
established kinds, with which no fault can be found. De la Grif- 
feraie is an old rose, of which the speaker has a plant that bears 
three thousand flowers. Such roses are like rhododendrous, 
which are valuable for their masses of bloom. Col. Wilder would 
not recommend a pear after only two years trial, and roses, also, 
require time to test their value. 

Mr. Smith said that he found no difficulty in growing La France, 
by laying it down and covering with leaves. If we can grow a 
very beautiful thing with a little extra attention, we had better 
give it that. 

Mr. Wilder said that the agapanthus and the hydrangea may 
be gVown in the open ground by being thoroughly protected with 
leaves or straw during the winter. 

The Chairman said that if any one expected to let Hybrid Per- 
petual roses run wild, like blueberry bushes, and get good flowers, 
he would be disappointed. In all our discussions of roses, it has 
been taken for granted that the}' would have good culture. They 
must have it. 

Mr. Wood said that he did not question the judgment of the 
Committee, but he would like, first, a list of twelve roses best 
adapted for general cultivation ; second, a list of twelve continual 
bloomers ; and, third, a list of the twelve most promising new 
roses. The present list is valuable, but gives no information as to 
the continuous blooming of the varieties named. 

The Chairman said there were not more than seven or eight 
roses on the list that could possibly prove a failure on the ground 
of tenderness. As to the first two, all white Hybrid Perpetuate 
are more tender than the colored. No rose is first class in all 
respects. Baroness Rothschild is slightly tender, but he earths it 
up and has no trouble. La France is the most tender variety on 
the list, but he grows and winters it. Xavier Olibo is of the most 
beautiful color, but not a good grower. Growth was one of the 
points considered by the Committee. Louis Van Houtte, in dry, 



114 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

sheltered places, is all right, but in a wet place is bad. La France 
might be the same. He did not agree wholly with the report, but 
could not expect to have his own way ail the time. The Com- 
mittee went through the whole list of roses, and when a name was 
called, each member marked independently of the others, and the 
markings were then compared. The Committee of fire were 
unanimous with regard to twenty or twenty-five out of the forty- 
eight varieties recommended, and the others had four or three 
votes. It does not take so long a time to test roses as pears ; their 
value can be judged of in three or four years. 

Mr. "Wetherell moved that the list be recommitted with instruc- 
tions to indicate the freest bloomers, and those most desirable for 
bedding : and to add a list of the most promising new roses, and 
this motion was carried. 

A vote of thanks to the Chairman and members of the Com- 
mittee on Publication and Discussion, for the faithful manner in 
which they had discharged their duties, was unanimously passed. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 



CONTENTS. 



Prefatory Note, ......... 

Business Meeting, January 1, 1881 ; Address of President Hayes, pp. 5-10; 
Amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws, 10, 11 ; Invitation to the 
American Pomological Society, 11 ; Alterations in Biilding, 11 ; Reports 
of Committee on Vegetables and of Arrangements read, 11; Award of 
Prospective Prize, 12; Proposals for Membership, 12 ; Portrait of the 
President, 12; Announcement of Meetings for Discussion, 

Business Meeting, January 8; Appointment of Treasurer and Secretary 
p. 12; Proposals for Membership, 13; Further Time Granted to Treas- 
urer, .......... 

Meeting for Discussion ; Hardy Rose Culture, by William H. Spooner 
pp. 13-18; Discussion, ....... 

Business Meeting, January 15; Committee on Meeting of Pomological 
Society, p. 24; Report of Treasurer and Finance Committee presented 
24; Election of Members, ...... 

Meeting for Discussion; Hardy Rose Culture, 

Business Meeting, January 22 ; Prizes for Essays announced, 

Meeting for Discussion ; Tropical Fruits and Flowers, by John E. Russell 

Business Meeting, January 29, ..... 

Meeting for Discussion; Fruits Best Adapted for Market Purposes, by 

E. W. Wood, pp. 36-41 ; Discussion, ..... 

Business Meeting, February 5, ..... . 

Meeting for Discussion; Southern Competition in Small Fruits, 
Business Meeting, February 12, ..... . 

Meeting for Discussion ; Peach Culture, by Caleb Bates, pp. 56-59 ; Dis 

cussion, ......... 

Business Meeting, February 19, ..... . 

Meeting for Discussion; Peach Culture, pp. 65-69; Plum Culture, 
Business Meeting, February 26; Plate for Certificates of Merit, . 
Meeting for Discussion; New Hardy Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, and 

Plants, ......... 

Business Meeting, March 5; Decease of E. Fred Washburn, Hon. John 

C. Gray, George B. Emerson, LL.D., and Henry Vandine, announced 

p. 78; Election of Members, ...... 

Meeting for Discussion ; New Hardy Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, by 

F. L. Harris, pp. 79-82; Discussion, 82-87; Committee to Prepare List of 
Trees and Shrubs, ......... 



Page 

3 



12 



13 



18-24 



25 
25-29 

30 
30-35 

35 

41-46 
47 

47-56 
56 

59-64 

65 

69-72 

72 

73-78 



78 



87 



11 CONTENTS. 

Page 
Business Meeting, March 12, ....... 88 

Meeting for Discussion ; Vegetables and their Culture, pp. 88-95 ; Plum 

Culture, .......... 95,96 

Business Meeting, March 19 ; Seeds from California, . . . 96 

Meeting for Discussion; List of Roses reported, pp. 96-98: Vegetables 
and their Culture, 98, 99 ; Strawberries at Dighton, 100 ; Raspberry and 
Currant Culture, 101 ; Vegetables and their Culture, . . . 101-103 

Business Meeting, March 26, ...... . 103 

Meeting for Discussion; Select Lists of Trees and Shrubs reported, pp. 
104-107; Discussion of Report, 107-110; The Best Roses, 110-114; Vote of 
Thanks to Committee on Discussion, ...... 114 



A HISTORY 



OF 



AMERICAN HORTICULTURE, 



The attention of- Trustees and Librarians of Public Libraries, 
and of Horticulturists generally, is called to the History of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, for fifty years, from its 
foundation in 1829. This work will be found of general interest, 
as the introduction comprises a sketch much fuller than exists else- 
where, of the History of Horticulture in the United States, from 
the settlement of the country to the foundation of the Society, and 
the history of the Society onward is, in the language of President 
Hovey, in his address at the dedication of the present Hall of the 
Society, "the History. of Horticulture in our country." It is 
handsomely printed, on an extra quality of paper, and embellished 
with a fine steel engraving of Gen. H. A. S. Dearborn, the first 
president, and heliotypes of the two Halls erected b}' the Society. 
Among other interesting matters, it contains an account of the 
foundation by the Society, of Mount Auburn Cemetery, the parent 
of all similar cemeteries in the country. 

The work is furnished to members of the Societ}' at cost, $2.50, 
and to others than members for S3, but will be supplied to public 
libraries and booksellers at the same price as to members. Please 
address the Secretary of the Society, at Horticultural Hall, Boston. 

ROBERT MANNING, 

Secretary. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




assacljnsetts Potltcitltural Sncicig, 



FOR THE YEAR 1881. 



PART II. 




BOSTON : 
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY 
18 82. 



TRANSACTIONS 



or THE 




&ssac|usetts jp^iotltaal Storidj, 



FOR THE YEAR 1881. 



PART II. 




BOSTON : 
PRINTED FOE THE SOCIETY. 

1882. 



The Committee on Publication and Discussion, take this oppor- 
tunity to repeat what they have heretofore stated, — that the Society 
is not to be held responsible for the certainty of the statements, 
the correctness of the opinions, or the accuracy of the nomenclature 
in the papers and discussions now or before published, all of 
which must rest on the credit or judgment of the respective writers 
or speakers, the Society undertaking only to present these papers 
and discussions, or the substance of them, correctl} T . The award 
of a prize or gratuity for an Essay is not to be understood as 
implying that the Committee approve it in every particular, but 
only that they believe it calculated, on the whole, to promote the 
science or art of Horticulture. 

Benjamin G. Smith, Chairman, 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



^Mrnhmtte *§Miun\inx%\ gf witty. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, April 2, 1881. 

A duly notified stated meeting was holden at 11 o'clock, the 
President, Hon. Francis B. Hayes, in the chair. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder presented to the Society six copies of 
the Proceedings at the Session in 1879 of the American Pomologi- 
cal Society, of which he is President. The thanks of the Society 
were voted to Mr. Wilder therefor. 

The following appropriations, having been approved by the 
Executive Committee, were unanimously voted : — 

For Prizes for the year 1881, .... $3,050 

For the Library Committee, for the purchase of 
magazines and newspapers, binding of books, 
and incidental expenses of the Committee, . 200 

For the Committee on Publication and Discus- 
sion, 150 

For the expenses of the Committee of Arrange- 
ments, 250 

The amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws, proposed at 
the stated meeting of the Society on the 1st of January, and then 
ordered to be entered on the records, came up for final action, and, 
after being again read by the President, was unanimously adopted, 
as follows : — 

Voted, That the thirteenth and sixteenth sections of the Consti- 
tution and By-Laws of this Society be amended by striking out in 



122 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the thirteenth section the words, "He shall also act as Superin- 
tendent of the Building, subject to the orders of the Finance Com- 
mittee, and shall attend to the care and letting of, the same, and 
the collection of rents, and other income of the Society." And, 
also, in the same section, strike out the words, u He shall also act 
as Librarian under the direction of the Library Committee." And 
strike out in the sixteenth section, after the word " appoint," in 
the sixth line of the printed copy of the By-Laws, the words, "A 
Treasurer and a Secretary of the Society, " and insert, after the 
words in the seventh and eighth lines of said copy, " Whenever a 
vacancy shall occur," the words, "A Treasurer, a Secretary, a 
Superintendent of the Building, and a Librarian of the Society, 
and define their respective duties, except when these are deter- 
mined by the By-Laws." 

Adjourned to Saturday, May 7. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, May 7, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Hon. Francis B. Hajes, in the chair. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, Chairman of the Committee appointed 
at the meeting on the 5th of March to prepare resolutions in mem- 
ory of George B. Emerson, LL.D., Hon. John C. Gray, Henry 
Vandine, and E. F. Washburn, reported as follows : — 

Resolved, That in the decease of George B. Emerson, LL.D, 
there has been removed from our circle one who has been an active 
promoter of educational development, and a devoted friend of 
horticultural art. Engaged during his whole life in the great work 
of public education, he still found hours of leisure to practically 
illustrate the pursuit he loved so well, and which he considered of 
such importance to the development of the industry and the great- 
est interests of our State. 

Resolved, That in his labors as one of the Commissioners for 
an Agricultural Survey of the State, and in his elaborate Report on 
the Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts, we recognize the intelli- 



MEMORIAL RESOLUTIONS. 123 

gence, ability, energy, and fidelity with which he discharged his 
duties ; and the revision of that Report, which was one of his latest 
works, is an honor to us and to the State which he so well served. 
To him are we also indebted for the advice which led to the foun- 
dation of the Arnold Arboretum. 

Resolved, That as an educator and instructor, a representative 
of liberal ideas, an honored citizen, a kind friend, and a sincere 
and Christian man, his death is a public loss. Our consolation is 
that he had reached that ripe age when all must cease from earthly 
cares and toils, and where few could look back on a life better 
spent for the welfare of their fellow men. 

Resolved, That in the removal by death of the Hon. John C. 
Gray, the last survivor of the first board of Vice-Presidents of this 
Society, we have to mourn the loss of one who, in its early history, 
contributed largely by his influence and addresses to its advance- 
ment and popularity. 

Resolved, That we hold in grateful remembrance his valuable 
services in the cause of terraculture, not only in this Society, but 
as President of the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agricul- 
ture, and also for his other official services in connection with the 
progress and prosperity of the institutions of this city. 

We have also to record the decease of Henry Vancline, of Cam- 
bridgeport, one of the oldest of our members. Mr. Vancline, who 
joined the Society in 1845, was fond of rural life, and was a suc- 
cessful cultivator of fruits, especially the plum and pear, as may 
be seen in the reports of the Society. Of the plum he made 
contributions when others w r ere unable, from lack of skill or of 
perseverance, to do so. As a man, Mr. Vandine was singularly 
modest and unassuming in his manners, gentle in his disposition, 
and benevolent in his desires for the advancement and welfare of 
mankind, having in his will made special bequests for that purpose. 

Resolved, That it is with the deepest regret that we have heard 
of the decease of our friend and fellow member, E. Fred Wash- 
burn. 

He served the Society long and well on many of its most 
important Committees, of one of which, that on Plants and 
Flowers, he was a member for ten years, and all who were asso- 
ciated with him w T ill ever remember his cheerful countenance, kind 
w r ords, and amiable disposition. 



124 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Resolved , That these proceedings be entered on the records of 
the Society, and that copies of the same be forwarded to the 
respective relatives of the deceased. 



Marshall P. Wilder, 
Charles M. Hovey, 
William C. Strong, 
John C. Hovey, 



Committee, 



President Hayes said that he was well acquainted with Mr. 
Emerson, having been early attracted to him by his courteous and 
benevolent manners and his interest in horticulture. He spoke of 
the pleasure which he had in a visit from Mr. Emerson to his 
grounds at Lexington, and of the careful observations and valua- 
ble suggestions which Mr. Emerson made. He was particularly 
interested in the oaks and maples, as well as in native shrubs. He 
did not lose his interest in planting with age, but after he was 
eighty years old he planted ten thousand trees, and exchanged new 
and rare trees with President Hayes. He not only took pleasure 
himself in planting, but in looking forward to the enjoyment by 
others of the results of his labors. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder also spoke of Mr. Emerson's deep 
interest in trees and shrubs, and said that his first report on the 
trees and shrubs of Massachusetts was a most remarkable volume, 
prepared with great practical knowledge of the subject. Soon 
after the establishment of the State Board of Agriculture he was 
appointed Chairman of a Committee — of which Charles L. Flint, 
Secretary of the Board, and the speaker were the other mem- 
bers — to prepare a book on agriculture for common schools. He 
was the founder, in one sense, of the Arboretum connected with 
Harvard College, having been a trustee of Mr. Arnold's bequest 
to promote the culture of trees and shrubs in such manner as he 
thought best. His interest in this subject pervaded his whole life. 

The report was accepted and the resolutions were unanimously 
passed. 

The Secretarv announced the decease of Hon. Andrews Breed, 
of Lancaster, one of the founders of the Society, and Robert Man- 
ning, Marshall P. Wilder, and John G. Barker were appointed by 
the Chair a Committee to prepare memorial resolutions. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 



DECEASE OF HON. ANDREWS BREED. 125 

Executive Committee, were, on ballot, duly elected members of 
the Society : 

J. C. Vaughan, of Chicago, 111. 

Charles L. Fowle, of Dorchester. 

Peter D. Smith, of Andover. 

Charles Storer, of Natick. 

William P. Gould, of Jamaica Plain. 

George W. Fowle, of Jamaica Plain. 

Adjourned to Saturday, June 4. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, Jane 4, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Hon. Francis B. Hayes, in the chair. 

Robert Manning, Chairman of the Committee appointed at the 
last meeting to prepare resolutions in memor} T of Hon. Andrews 
Breed, reported the following: — 

The Massachusetts Horticultural Society have learned with deep 
regret of the decease of the Hon. Andrews Breed, one of the 
Founders of the Society, therefore 

Resolved, That we would place on record our appreciation of 
the services of one of those who, more than fifty-two } T ears ago, 
were present at the first meeting held to form a horticultural 
society, — one who has watched its growth from that small beginning 
until it has become an important and beneficent institution, and 
whose interest in its work continued through his active business 
career and the retirement of his later years, and ceased only with 
his life. 

We would remember his labors for the promotion of horticulture 
in his native city of Lynn, not only in his own garden, but for the 
public benefit, on the Common, where the people walk under the 
trees which he took from the forest with his own hands and planted 
there. We would pay our tribute to his industry, perseverance, 
economy, integrity, and business enterprise ; to his public spirit, 
his Christian virtues, and his untiring zeal in all that tended to 
promote the welfare of the community. He was a tried and true 



126 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

friend, and his kindness and courtesy were displayed to all with 
whom he came in contact. His fellow citizens testified their esteem 
for him, and their confidence in him, by electing him chief magis- 
trate of their city, and b}~ frequently calling him to positions of trust. 

Resolved, That while we mourn the loss of a good man, we are 
consoled by the thought that his death was not untimely, but that 
he lived to a good old age to benefit his fellow men, and rejoiced 
many years in the prosperity of this Society, which he helped to 
establish, and that he has left two generations of descendants who 
inherit his love for horticulture, and practise the art which it is the 
object of this Society to promote. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be entered on our records, and 
that a copy be transmitted to the family of Mr. Breed. 

Robert Manning, } 

Marshall P. Wilder, > Committee. 
John G. Barker, ) 

After remarks by Hon. Marshall P. Wilder the resolutions were 
unanimously passed. 

Mr. Wilder presented the following letter from the family of 
George B. Emerson, LL.D., which was read by the Secretary : — 

Gentlemen, — 

Mr. Lowell and I are veiy much gratified by the appreciative 
and thoughtful notice of my dear father at the late meeting of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Societ\', and thank yo\\ for your kind- 
ness in drawing up and sending to us the resolutions, which give 
us a great deal of pleasure and consolation. M} T father found so 
much of the happiness of his very happy life in the stud}' of the 
works of God, especially in plants, flowers, and trees, that it is 
very delightful to me to be assured that his services were appre- 
ciated by a society like yours, in which he was always so deeply 
interested. 

With respectful thanks to you all, I am 

Very sincerely 3'ours, 

LUCY B. LOWELL. 
To Hon. Marshall P. Wilder. 

Charles M. Hovey. 

William C. Strong. 

John C. Hovey. 

Chestnut Hill, May 13, 1881. 



RESIGNATION OF THE TREASURER. 127 

A letter was also read from John C. Gra} r , nephew of the late 
John C. Gra} T , acknowledging, in behalf of the famity, the receipt 
of the resolutions passed by the Society in memory of his uncle, 
and their gratification at the sentiments expressed in regard to 
Mr. Gray by a societ}' in whose proceedings he took so warm an 
interest. 

"Wulliam Gray, Jr., called the attention of the Society to the 
fact that the u Challenge Cup," which had been won b} r him for the 
last two years as a prize for roses, was again to be competed for. 

The President read the following letter : 

Boston, June 2d, 1881. 

F. B. Hayes, Esq., Chairman Executive Committee: 

Dear Sir, — Thirtj-three years of constant business activity, 
nearly fifteen of which have been spent in the service of this 
Society, lead me to desire retirement and rest. 

I therefore tender to you my resignation of the office of Treas- 
urer, to take effect when my successor shall be appointed and 
qualified. 

In taking this course, I assure you that my interest in the wel- 
fare of the Society, and of individual members, will not be broken. 

Respectfully, 

E. W. BUSWELL. 

The President stated that the Executive Committee had accepted 
Mr. Buswell's resignation, and had appointed George W. Fowle, 
of Jamaica Plain, Treasurer of the Society and Superintendent of 
the Building. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder moved that a committee of three be 
appointed by the chair to consider what acknowledgment should be 
made to the retiring Treasurer for his services. The motion was 
carried unanimously, and the chair appointed Mr. Wilder, Charles 
O. Whitmore, and William Gray, Jr., as that Committee. 

The President announced that the Executive Committee had 
appointed the Secretary of the Society, Robert Manning, to the 
office of Librarian. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 



128 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, July 2, 1881. 

A stated meeting of the Society was duly notified for 11 o'clock 
today, and the President was in the chair, but no quorum was 
present, and the meeting 

Adjourned to Saturday, August 6. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, August 6, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Hon. Francis B. Hayes, in the chair. 

William C. Strong moved to rescind the vote passed September 
13, 1879, that the President and Vice-Presidents should be ineli- 
gible for more than one reelection. 

The President here retired, after calling Ex-President Hon. 
Marshall P. Wilder to the chair. Mr. Strong's motion was 
seconded by Aaron D. Capen, and unanimously passed, and the 
President resumed the chair. 

The President reported from the Executive and Finance Com- 
mittees, to whom the repairs and alterations of the building were 
intrusted, that the repairs of the halls would be completed before 
the Annual Exhibition, which was to commence on the 13th of 
September. 

Agreeably to the Constitution and B3^-Laws the President re- 
ported the following Committee to nominate suitable candidates 
for the various offices of the Society for the ensuing year, — William 
Gray, Jr., William H. Spooner, Charles H. B. Breck, Charles N. 
Brackett, Charles M. Atkinson, Charles F. Curtis, John C. Hovey. 

On motion of Charles M. Hovey, Mr. Hovey, Hon. Marshall P. 
Wilder, and Robert Manning were appointed a Committee to nom- 
inate twenty delegates to the meeting of the American Pomological 



DECLINATION OF CHARLES O. WHITMORE. 129 

Society, in September next, with power to add to their number or 
appoint substitutes. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee, were on ballot duly elected members of the 
Society : 

Andrew Washburn, of Hyde Park. 

P. W. Van der Veur, of New York. 

J. Willard Hill, of Belmont. 

Dean Pierce, of Brookline. 

G. W. Batchelder, of Dorchester. 

George W. Hollis, of Grantville. 

John Thorpe, of Queens, N. Y. 

Edwin S. Barrett, of Concord. 

Dr. William H. Ruddick, of South Boston. 

Hon. Oliver Ames, of North Easton. 

William Bliss, of Springfield. 

Charles Fairchild, of Belmont. 

Adjourned to Saturday, September 3. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 3, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Hon. Francis B. Hayes, in the chair. 

William H. Spooner, from the Committee to nominate officers 
for the year 1882, presented the report of that Committee. 

It was announced that Charles O. Whitmore, who at the end of 
the year will have completed fifteen years of service as Chairman of 
the Finance Committee, (having previously been for five years a 
member of the Committee,) had declined a reelection, and Hon. 
Marshall P. Wilder took occasion to speak of Mr. Whitmore's ser- 
vices to the Society, especially in purchasing the site and securing 
the erection, of the Society's present building, which probably 
could not have been effected but for the steadfast and indomitable 
perseverance of Mr. Whitmore, who never wavered in the belief 
that the course finally adopted was for the interest of the Society. 



130 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The report of the Committee was laid on the table and it was 
voted that the Committee be continued and requested to nominate 
candidates in place of any who might decline before the election. 

Charles M. Hovey, Chairman of the Committee appointed at the 
last meeting to nominate a list of delegates to the meeting of the 
American Pomological Society, to be held in this city September 
14-16, reported the following, which was accepted: 

President, Francis B. Hayes, Chairman. 

Marshall P. Wilder, Charles F. Curtis, 

Charles M. Hovey, J. W. Manning, 

James F. C. Hyde, O. B. Hadwen, 

William C. Strong, P. B. Hovey, 

William Gray, Jr., Warren Fenno, 

CO. Whitmore, John C. Hovey, 

John B. Moore, Charles H. Hovey, 

John Cummings, J. H. Woodford, 

Benjamin G. Smith, Charles N. Brackett, 

F. L. Ames, John G. Barker, 
C. H. B. Breck, _ E. W. Buswell, 

Robert Manning, Samuel Hartwell, 

Hervey Davis, E. P. Richardson, 

E. W. Wood, William H. Hunt. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, Chairman of the Committee appointed 
June 4th, to consider what acknowledgment should be made to the 
retiring Treasurer, for his services, reported as follows : 

The Committee to whom was referred the matter of an acknowl- 
edgment of the services of the late Treasurer of the Society, 
Edwin W. Buswell, report 

That, in consideration of the long and varied services of Mr. 
Edwin W. Buswell in the several offices which he has held in the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, they recommend that a 
gratuity be presented to him of five hundred dollars. 

Marshall P. Wilder, 

Charles O. Whitmore, J> Committee. 

William Gray, Jr., 

The report was accepted. 



ANNUAL ELECTION. 131 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee for membership in the Society, were, on 
ballot, duly elected : 

J. Allen Crosby, of Jamaica Plain. 

Silas Pierce, of Boston. 

E. W. Willard, of Middletown, R. I. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, October 1, 1881. 

A stated meeting of the Society, being the annual meeting for 
the choice of officers, was holden at 11 o'clock, the President, Hon. 
Francis B. Hayes, in the chair. 

The Recording Secretary stated that the requirements of the 
Constitution and B}'-Laws, in regard to notice of the meeting, had 
been complied with. 

The chair appointed Benjamin G. Smith, John G. Barker, and 
Robert Manning, a committee to receive, assort, and count the 
votes given, and report the number. 

The polls were opened at eighteen minutes past eleven o'clock. 

The following named persons were proposed for membership in 
the Society: Thomas Strahan, of Chelsea/ and Christopher H. 
Starr, of Boston, by George W. Fowle ; Rev. B. Judson, of West 
Dedham, by F. Copeland ; Robert Elder, of Watertown, bj- John 

C. Hovey ; S. F. Terwilliger, of Saratoga Springs, N. Y., by H. 

D. Wilmarth ; and Henry Woods, of Dorchester, Hon. James P. 
Ray, Frank B. Ray, Hon. Joseph G. Ray, Edgar R. Ray, James 
F. Ray and William F. Ray, all of Franklin, by Hon. Marshall P. 
Wilder. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder made appropriate mention of the long 
and valuable services (beginning in 1862) , of Charles O. Whitmore, 
as Member and Chairman of the Finance Committee, and of his 
declination of a reelection to that position, and moved that a com- 
mittee be appointed to consider what acknowledgment should be 



132 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

made to Mr. Whitmore for his services. The motion was carried, 
and the Chair appointed as that Committee, Hon. Marshall P. 
Wilder, C. H. B. Breck, and William Gray, Jr. 

Mr. Wilder also announced the decease of Samuel Downer, a 
son of one of the founders of the Society and himself an old and 
active member, and moved the appointment of a committee to 
prepare memorial resolutions. This motion was carried, and the 
Chair appointed Mr. Wilder, Aaron D. Capen, and Rev. A. B. 
Muzzey, as that Committee. 

Dr. Jphn A. Warder, of Cincinnati, Ohio, President of the Ohio 
State Horticultural Society, and a Corresponding Member of this 
Society, who was present, was called on by the President to address 
the meeting. Dr. Warder, who is also President of the American 
Forestry Association, and deeply interested in the promotion of 
arboriculture, spoke on that subject, substantially as follows : 

Address of Dr. John A. Warder, on Arboriculture. 

Dr. Warder said that western people when they cross the Alle- 
ghanies do not feel that they have anything to tell — they look to 
the east for light. Agriculture — and horticulture, which is a branch 
of agriculture — are complex subjects, and while in parts of our 
country the pioneers are engaged in cutting down the forest to 
plant grain, in other parts the necessity of planting timber trees is, 
or will soon be, felt. He thought that this climacteric is fast ap- 
proaching, and had come to Massachusetts to see what he could of 
interest in this branch of agriculture, and intended this afternoon 
to visit the estate of Ben : Perley Poore, at West Newbury, and see 
his 3'oung plantations of white ash and white pine, and his famous 
premium oaks. He had visited the plantations of the Messrs. Fay, 
at Lynn and Wood's Holl, and viewed the extensive plantations of 
pitch-pine and cranberries on sandy Cape Cod. Though on that 
wretched soil there could be no noble oaks, poplars, or catalpas, 
Nature provides a tree for every peculiar condition of soil or cli- 
mate, and on these poor lands the Pinus rigida or pitch-pine flour- 
ishes — not, however, growing large enough for timber, but very 
soon yielding valuable firewood. In the rich soils of some parts 
of the country the weeds would overcome the young trees planted 
in them, but there no such trouble is experienced. Wherever it is 



DR. WARDER ON ARBORICULTURE. 133 

desired to induce people to plant trees they must be shown the 
cheapest way. 

Professor Sargent, of the Arnold Arboretum, recommends Amer- 
ican trees as most desirable for planting, and Dr. Warder agreed 
with him that they are most likely to be successful, but would not 
wholly discard trees of foreign origin. The Ailanthus glandulosa, 
which was introduced some years ago as an ornamental tree, is 
now being planted largely for timber, and though the speaker had 
feared it would not stand well so far north, it has proved otherwise. 
The timber is of some value ; it is not strong, but takes a good 
finish and the color is good where a quiet tone is desired. 

At Falmouth in this State there are large trees of the Catalpa 
speciosa. The distinction between this and the eastern form was first 
brought to the attention of the speaker in 1853, and noticed bj^ 
him in the " Western Horticultural Review," which he then edited. 
He then felt some diffidence in calling it a distinct species, but 
suggested that as it was a distinct variety it should be called Ca- 
talpa bignonioides speciosa. It is now recognized as a species, and 
Dr. Warder acknowledged it as his hobby. It has been dissemi- 
nated largely from Cincinnati, and is now grown by the million, at 
the nurseries of his friends, Robert Douglas & Sons, Waukegan, 
111. The original habitat of this species is but a few hundred 
miles in diameter. The tree is of very rapid growth and it is use- 
ful for ornamental planting, but its great value as a timber tree 
has not been understood until lately. It is very durable, there 
being many instances of fence posts of this timber enduring for 
seventy-five years. General Harrison, when at Vincennes, learned 
its value from the French and Indians, but did not know that it 
was a distinct species. In twenty years it will make three railroad 
ties per tree. H. H. Hunnewell, Esq., of Boston, has contracted 
with Messrs. Douglas, of Waukegan, for the planting of several 
hundred acres of this tree in Kansas. The soil is broken up and 
planted with grain for one year or more before setting out the 
catalpas. They are planted four feet apart, taking nearly three 
thousand to the acre, and Mr. Douglas agrees to furnish the trees 
and plant and tend them for three cents each, until they are old 
enough to take care of themselves. 

In reply to a question by Leander Wetherell, Dr. Warder said that 
the Norway Spruce is the most successful evergreen at the West ; 
but, on the exposed prairies no evergreen should be planted first. 
2 



134 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY^ 

The cheap trees, like the cotton woods, must come first, to afford 
protection to the more valuable kinds. The adaptation of the 
European larch to the "West, is not yet determined. The speaker 
found when in Germany, that two grades of this lumber were 
recognized there. One, growing in low grounds, is inferior, but 
that which grows in Alpine regions is valuable. In Styria he saw 
larch trees cut for railroad ties for the Viceroy of Egypt, who was 
to pay one dollar for each tie. In the West it generally grows well 
enough, but when less than twenty years old, though it blossoms 
and fills out its cones, it does not pefeetits seeds. The conditions 
required for perfecting a species are numerous, and Mr. Sargent 
has laid it down as an axiom that no tree will be of permanent 
value in a region where it does not perfect its seed. 

European rules of forestry, which direct to plant young trees 
without ploughing the land, are not adapted ^to the rich soils of the 
West. There the plantation must be tilled for three years, by 
which time it will be found that the trees have taken possession. 
After the prairie has been broken up and tilled for a year or two, 
it is furrowed both ways, and the trees are planted at the intersec- 
tions of the furrows. If not tilled, the grass and weeds would 
soon smother the young trees. The cost of planting varies ; cot- 
tonwoods, from the river bars in the West, are sold at the rate of 
one hundred dollars per million. When planted closely, the}' run 
up and require little trimming. The earl}' settlers failed in their 
planting from not recognizing the difference in the requirements of 
their rich soils and the poorer lands of Europe. Now the sod is 
broken and cultivated in corn for a year before planting. It pays 
to cultivate the soil and keep it loose, so as to give the }~oung trees 
a start. 

President Hayes alluded to a visit which he received from the 
late George B. Emerson, who expressed great pleasure in seeing 
that he had preserved the native pitch pines. No tree has so much 
variety and picturesqueness as this ; there are no two alike, and 
the}* are, therefore, valuable for ornament. 

Dr. Warder said, in answer to an inquiry by Mr. Wetherell, 
whether a man could afford to grow forest trees on tillable land, 
that if one wants to make a large per cent, at once, he had better 
plant corn, but on every farm there are waste places, where in 
thirty years a good crop of trees could be grown. The black 
locust is ready for the axe in thirty }*ears. At from twenty to 



DR. WARDER ON ARBORICULTURE. 135 

thirty j^ears of age, it has } T ielded a thousand dollars per acre in 
the west. 

Leander Wetherell spoke of an Illinois farmer, who said that as 
long as he could raise corn enough on an acre to pay for a 3-ear's 
supply of coal he preferred to do it, rather than to cut and haul 
wood. 

Dr. Warder said that Mr. Wetherell's suggestion was a practical 
one. In Illinois, the farmers say the} 7 cannot afford to devote 
good soil to wood, but they ignore the general beneficial effect. In 
Iowa, where there are fewer trees than in Illinois, — in some parts 
averaging- only an acre of wood to a square mile, — the need of 
trees is felt more strongly. One man there has planted them 
around every field, and found that when one-fifth of his ground is 
in wood, his crops are larger than if the whole were in grain. 

In reply to an inquiry as to the climatic effects of trees, Dr. 
Warder said that the question is a very large one. The Romans 
suffered from the cold in France, and died when pursuing their 
enemies into Germany and Austria, the countries from which we 
now procure our finest wines. In Spain the population is diminish- 
ing, owing to the removal of forests. Great changes have been 
observed, both from the removal and the planting of trees. Th3 
question of the effect of forests on the rainfall, is also veiy wide, 
and is now being worked up by meteorologists. Not only the 
rain, but the humidity of a climate between falls of rain, is 
important, and we know that this is increased by the presence of 
trees. What becomes of a good rain when it falls on the ground? 
In a country unprovided with trees, a south wind would dry it up 
in a much shorter time than in one furnished with a proper pro- 
portion of wood. Here lies our danger in the dry climate of the 
United States. 

President Hayes said that when in Madrid, he was astonished at 
the desolation and bareness of the hills around that city and the 
Escurial. It was uncomfortably cold there ; the east winds were 
worse than in Boston. A few years afterwards he went to Ger- 
many, and became acquainted with one of the government foresters 
there, and it was interesting to see how all the trees were taken 
care .of. It was a rule that for every tree taken awaj~ another 
should be planted. 

Dr. Warder said that one great element of destruction to the 
forests of Spain, was the sheep which ate up even the seeds of the 



136 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

trees. The same cause is now operating to destroy the forests in 
the Sierras of California. The Moors in Spain believed with 
Mahomet, that the trees were fathers to the rain. 

On behalf of his western associates, recently here, Dr. Warder 
desired to express heartfelt thanks to the members of this Society 
for the courteous hospitalities that had, on every hand, been 
bestowed upon the visitors. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, as President of the American Pomologi- 
cal Society, expressed his gratification at the elegant preparations 
made for the reception and accommodation of that Societ}' during 
its meeting in this city, from the 14th to the 16th of September, 
and especially for the banquet given it by the Horticultural Society. 

The polls were closed at eighteen minutes past twelve o'clock, 
and the Committee to receive, assort, and count the votes, reported 
the whole number to be fifty -three, and that all the persons whose 
names were on the ticket presented by the Nominating Committee 
were chosen. These persons were, agreeably to the Constitution 
and By-Laws, declared by the President to have a majority of 
votes, and to be elected Officers and Standing Committees of the 
Society for the year 1882. 

Adjourned to Saturday, November 5. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, November 5, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Hon. Francis B. Hayes, in the chair. 

The President, as Chairman of the Executive Committee, reported 

a recommendation that the appropriations for Prizes, and for the 

Committees on the Library, on Publication and Discussion, and of 

Arrangements, for 1882, be the same as the present year, viz. : — 

For Prizes, . . . . . . $3,050 

For the Library Committee, for the purchase of 
magazines and newspapers, binding of books, 
and incidental expenses of the Committee, . 200 



DECEASE OF SAMUEL DOWNER. 137 

For the Committee on Publication and Discus- 
sion, ........ $150 

For the expenses of the Committee of Arrange- 
ments, ....... 250 

The Report was accepted, and, agreeably to the Constitution 
and By-Laws, was laid over until the stated meeting in January. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder appropriately announced the decease 
of the Hon. John Amory Lowell, a son of the late Hon. John 
Lowell, who presided at the first meeting held to form this Society, 
and himself an Original Member and a benefactor of the Society, 
and moved the appointment of a committee to prepare memorial 
resolutions. The motion was carried, and the chair appointed, as 
that Committee, Mr. Wilder, William Gray, Jr., and C. H. B. 
Breck. 

Mr. Wilder, as Chairman of 'the Committee to prepare resolutions 
in memory of Samuel Downer, made the following report : — 

The undersigned, a Committee to whom was referred the duty 
of preparing resolutions in regard to the memory of Samuel Dow- 
ner, respectfully report the following : — 

Resolved, That. in the death of Samuel Downer, junior, — as his 
name first appears on our records, — one of our oldest Life Mem- 
bers, the Massachusetts Horticultural Society have to mourn the 
loss of a sincere friend and promoter of the objects of our associa- 
tion. Mr. Ddwner's father was one of the Founders of our institu- 
tion, and his portrait, by the generosity of our lamented friend, 
now adorns the walls of our hall. Samuel Downer, junior, whose 
loss we deplore, inherited his father's love for horticulture, and 
retained, in excellent condition, the old homestead to the day of 
his death. He was himself formerly a successful cultivator, exhib- 
iting fine specimens of fruits, particularly of the pear, and was 
present at the celebration of the Semi-Centennial Anniversary of 
the Societjr. 

Mr. Downer was also an upright, energetic, and enterprising 
merchant, the founder and proprietor of the extensive kerosene 
works at South Boston, and to him, more than to any other man, 
are the public of New England, if not the whole country, indebted 
for the introduction and general use of this manufacture. He was 
not only a man of enterprise, but felt a lively interest in the welfare 
of society. He founded the Melville Gardens, at Downer's Landing, 
from benevolent motives, and from a desire for a place of recrea- 



138 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tiou where all could resort Without fear of meeting any but pure 
and good influences. This object was very near his heart, and 
only a few weeks before his death he expressed, to one of this 
Committee, his intention to make it more and more worthy of the 
approbation of the public. But more than this, Mr. Downer was 
early associated with the friends of freedom and the emancipation 
of the slave, and a few years ago held, at Downer's Landing, a 
reunion of them and the old Free-Soilers, of whom he was one, an 
account of which was published. 

Resolved, That a copy of these proceedings be forwarded to the 
family of the deceased. 

The report was accepted, and the resolutions were unanimously 
passed. 

The President reported the following votes, recommended by the 
Executive Committee, which were unanimously passed: — 

Voted, That it is the opinion of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society that the proposed arrangement between Harvard College 
and the City of Boston, for the joint occupancy of the Arnold 
Arboretum, will give to the City of Boston, and the whole country, 
a free educational institution of great value, through which the 
popular taste for the cultivation and study of trees and the science 
of Forestry, will be fostered and increased. 

Voted, That the Secretary send a copy of the above to the Hon- 
orable the City Council of the City of Boston. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee, were, on ballot, duly elected members of 
the Society. 

Thomas Strahan, of Chelsea. 
Christopher H. Starr, of Boston. 
Rev. B. Judkins, of West Dedham. 
Henry Woods, of Dorchester. 
S. F. Terwilliger, of Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 
Hon. James P. Ray, of Franklin. 
Frank B. Ray, " " 

Hon. Joseph G. Ray, " u 
Edgar K. Ray, " " 

James F. Ray, " " 

William F. Ray, " " 
Charles J. Lee, of Dorchester. 
Adjourned to Saturda}*, December 3. 



DECEASE OF HON. JOHN A. LOWELL. 139 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 3, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
Hon. Francis B. Hayes, President, in the chair. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, Chairman of the Committee to pre- 
pare resolutions in memory of Hon. John Amory Lowell, made the 
following Report : 

The Committee to whom was referred the duty of preparing res- 
olutions in regard to the decease of the Hon. John Amory Lowell, 
present the following : 

Resolved, That in the death of John Amory Lowell, this Society 
has lost one of its oldest and most highly respected associates — 
one of the Original Members, who subscribed before its organiza- 
tion on the 17th of March, 1829 — and the worthy son of him who 
did so much to advance its interests and the agriculture and horti- 
culture of New England. 

Resolved, That we shall ever cherish in our memories the recoU 
lection of Mr. Lowell's interest in the objects of this Society, his 
excellent character, his eminent usefulness, and his generous im- 
pulses in promoting the happiness of his fellow men. As one of 
the distinguished promoters of New England manufactures, the 
custodian of the funds of the Lowell Institute, the benefactor him- 
self to our own and other associations, his name will long be 
cherished ; and not only for these, but for his generous and con- 
scientious devotion to the best interests of our city, state, and 
country, and of humanity, — an upright man, a Christian gentle- 
man, and a most useful citizen. 

Resolved, That these proceedings be entered on our records, and 
that a cop}' thereof be sent to the family of the deceased. 

MARSHALL P. WILDER, 

Chairman of Committee. 

President Ha3'es said that he was most happy to bear his tribute 
to the excellence of Mr. Lowell's character. Before his admission 



140 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

to the bar, and since then, he had been acquainted with Mr. Lowell, 
and had the opportunity of knowing him and what subjects he was 
most deeply interested in. He knew him as a business man, as a 
donor to our benevolent and scientific institutions, as one of the 
chief pillars and benefactors of the Church of King's Chapel, and a 
most valuable member of the community. He not only took a deep 
interest in horticulture, but was himself an eminent botanist, 
having a large herbarium of his own collecting. By his will he 
bequeathed 820,000 to the Botanic Garden connected with Harvard 
College. For many years he had been one of the Fellows of the 
College, and it is through his services and his interest in the 
Botanic Garden that it occupies its proud position, with the first 
botanist in the world at its head. 

Mr. Wilder said that the Hon. John Lowell, the father of John 
Amory Lowell, presided at the first meeting held to form this 
Society ; and his father, Judge John Lowell, was well known for 
his rural tastes, and had a garden in Roxbury which was inherited 
by his son. John Ajuoiy Lowell inherited a taste for horticulture 
from his father and grandfather, but had not time to practise it, 
and therefore presented his collection of plants and his horticul- 
tural and botanical library to the Botanic Garden. His heart was 
alwa}'s open to appeals in behalf of every good work. 

Charles M. Hovey said that he was happy to be present, and to 
have the opportunity to express his concurrence in the resolutions, 
which express the sentiments of the Society. To Mr. Lowell, 
whose donation to the Society was made at a time when its 
resources had been heavily taxed b}* the erection of the first Hor- 
ticultural Hall, we are indebted for much of its prosperity. Mr. 
Lowell was the son of one of our most enthusiastic horticulturists, 
who contributed to the Magazine of Horticulture, established by 
Mr. Hovey, and whose choice collection of plants Mr. Hovey 
looked over with him but a short time before his death. The 
donations of the son to the Botanic Garden, at Cambridge, have 
been such as to enable that institution to maintain its high position. 
Mr. Hovey congratulated the Society that it had been aided by 
such a man, for whose memory we shall alwa}*s retain a grateful 
respect. 

The resolutions were unanimously passed. 

The Annual Report of the Committee on Plants and "Flowers 



ANNUAL REPORTS PRESENTED. 141 

was read by William H. Spooner, Chairman, accepted, and referred 
to the Committee on Publication. 

On motion of Mr. Spooner, it was unanimously 

Voted, That the Prospective Prize of $40 for the best Seedling 
Flowering or Foliage plant (other than Rose, Camellia, Azalea 
Indica, Tree Paeony, Hard}' Rhododendron, or Hardy Azalea), be 
awarded to James F. C. Hyde, for his Seedling Gladiolus, Hyde's 
White, as recommended in the Report of the Committee on Plants 
and Flowers. 

The Annual Report of the Committee on 'Fruits, was read by 
E. W. Wood, Chairman. 

The Annual Report of the Committee on Vegetables, was read 
by Charles N. Brackett, Chairman. 

The Annual Report of the Committee on Publication and Dis- 
cussion, was read by Benjamin G. Smith, Chairman. 

John Robinson, from the Library Committee, read the Annual 
Report of that Committee. 

Robert Manning read his Annual Report as Secretary and 
Librarian. 

These Reports were severally accepted and referred to the Com- 
mittee on Publication. 

The Chairman of the Committee on Gardens, asked further time 
to prepare his Annual Report, which was granted. 

The President reported from the Executive Committee the List 
of Prizes to be offered for the year 1882, with the approval of that 
Committee. The list was laid on the table for examination by the 
members of the Society. 

George B. Kelly, of Jamaica Plain, 

having been recommended by the Executive Committee was, on 
ballot, duly elected a member of the Society. 

Adjourned to Saturday, December 10. 



142 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 10, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
Hon. Francis B. Hayes, President, in the chair. 

John O. Sargent, of Lenox, was proposed by the President, as 
a Life Member of the Society. 

E. W. Wood, from the Committee of Arrangements, read the 
Annual Report of that Committee. 

John G. Barker, Chairman of the Committee on Gardens, read 
the Annual Report of that Committee. 

These reports were severally accepted and referred to the Com- 
mittee on Publication. 

The Schedule of Prizes for 1882, presented at the last meeting 
and then laid on the table, was taken up and unanimously adopted 
and referred to the Committee on Publication. 

The President expressed his gratification at the manner in which 
the annual reports of the various committees, which were now con- 
cluded, had been made. The}* were not only promptly presented, 
but were admirably prepared. Lie spoke particularly of the com- 
mendation by the Garden Committee of Mr. Moore's peach 
orchard and vineyard, which he had visited himself. He could 
join the Committee in speaking of Mr. Moore's place as a model 
of neatness and good cultivation. 

Benjamin G. Smith, Chairman of the Committee on Publication 
and Discussion, announced that the series of meetings for discus- 
sion the present season, would begin on the next Saturday with 
the reading of a Prize Essay by Mrs. T. L. Nelson, of Worcester, 
on "Our Native Plants, Adapted for Winter Culture, for their 
Flowers," and that on the succeeding Saturday, John Robinson, 
Professor of Botan} T and Vegetable Physiology to the Society, 
would read a Paper on " Ornamental Arboriculture." 

John B. Moore, a member of the Committee on Publication and 
Discussion, added that the Committee hoped to make the discus- 
sions better than ever before, but that to do this they must have 
the cooperation of the members of the Society. Dr. Goessman, 
the Professor of Chemistry at the Agricultural College, had been 
invited to lecture, and the Committee trusted that during the 
winter we should have the pleasure of hearing from him. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 143 

The Secretary read the following correspondence : — 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 
Boston, October 17, 1881. 

Dear Sir: Some time ago I had the honor to send to the Royal 
Horticultural Society a copy of the History of this Society, which, 
Dr. Masters wrote me, was placed in the Lindley Library. I have 
thought that you might like to add to this volume the other publi- 
cations of this Society and, therefore, send a set as far as the}' can 
be obtained. I beg that the} 7 may be received as a token of the 
regard entertained by this Society for the Royal Horticultural 
Society of London — the prototype and exemplar of all horticultu- 
ral societies — to which we, in common with all other similar associ- 
ations, feel under the deepest obligations. 

We have in our Library the quarto Transactions of the Horti- 
cultural Society of London, complete, and of the octavo Journal 
the first nine volumes. Dr. Masters wrote me that the supply of 
the latter, in the hands of the Society, is quite exhausted, but if 
you can refer me to some bookseller who would be most likely to 
secure the succeeding parts, and also inform me what has been 
published since 1854 and is necessary to complete our set up to 
the present time, you would confer a favor on this Society. 

Can you tell me how many parts of Lindley's Folia Orchidacea 
were published? We have eight parts, unbound, and supposed it 
to be complete, but I observe that the last edition of Pritzers 
Thesaurus says nine parts. I should like, before binding, either 
to complete it or to be certain that there is no more. 

Is Dr. Masters's Vegetable Teratology out of print? We 
ordered a copy nearly two years ago, but have never got it. 

I hope I have not taken too great a libert}' in troubling }'ou with 
these inquiries, but trust you will S3'mpathize with my desire to 
make our library as complete as possible. It is already the best 
horticultural library in this countiy, and, so far as we are informed, 
is excelled by few in Europe. I can hardly hope to be able to 
make you any return for the favors I ask of you, but shall be very 
glad to if it is ever in my power. 

Yours respectfully, 

ROBERT MANNING, 

Secretary and Librarian. . 

Rev. George Henslow, Librarian Lindley Library. 



144 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Royal Horticultural Society, 
Kensington, S. W., November 21, 1881. 

Dear Sir : I had the gratification, as Foreign Secretary, to read 
your letter of the 17th ult. to the Rev. George Henslow, Librarian 
of the Lindley Library, to the Council of the Society at its last 
meeting, and I was instructed in reply to express the cordial 
thanks of the Council of the Society and of the Trustees of the 
Lindle} r Library for j T our valuable donation of books. The 
Council is touched at the cordial manner in which }ou are pleased 
to speak of the Society and its past work, and is anxious to main- 
tain and develop friendly relations with your Society. A new 
part of the Journal will be sent to }T>u shortly, and I am to bring 
under your notice the fact that the Society is in a position to sup- 
ply you with grafts (at the proper season), tubers of begonias, and 
roots and seeds of other ornamental and useful plants. Applica- 
tion for these should be made to the Superintendent of the Society's 
Garden, at Turnham Green, near London. 

Five volumes of the New Series of the Journal have been pub- 
lished ; Vol. 1, 1866; Vol. 2, 1870; Vol. 3, 1872; and Vols. 4 
and 5, in 1879. Enquiries are being made for them, and if they 
can be procured, they shall be sent to you. 

' There is, I fear, little or no chance of getting the ninth part of 
the Folia Orchidacea, as the copies were, I believe, destroyed 
as waste paper. 

Dr. Masters's Teratology was published by the Ray Societ}', 
and is, I believe, out of print. There is little or no chance of 
getting it except at an auction. 

I may add that I shall be pleased to be of service to the Society 

or to yourself, and am sir, 

Faithfully yours, 

MAXWELL T. MASTERS, 

Hon. Foreign Secretary, 

Royal Hort. Society. 
To Robert Manning, Esq. 

The Secretary also announced the reception of a letter from 
Dr. Hermann Knoblauch, President of the Imperial Leopold-Caro- 
linian German Academy of Naturalists, at Halle, Prussia, asking 
an exchange of publications. 

Adjourned to Saturday, December 17. 



NATIVE PLANTS FOR WINTER CULTURE. 145 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 17, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Hon. Francis B. Hayes, in .the chair. No business 
being brought before the meeting it 

Adjourned to Saturday, December 24. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

This was opened by the reading of the following Prize Essay by 
the author : 

Our Native Plants adapted for Winter Culture for their 

Flowers. 



BY MRS. T. L. NELSON, OF WORCESTER. 



When summer flowers have bloomed and faded, and the aster 
and golden-rod are in their glor}*, — when on the hills the gorgeous 
tints of autumn are glowing and shimmering in the hazy atmos- 
phere, we begin to think of the time when there will be nothing 
outside to even remind us of leaf and flower ; and then we gather, 
if we will — for nature is lavish of her treasures, — our winter stores. 
What visions of the past rise before us, when all out-doors is bound 
in snow and ice, at the sight of a " winter greenery," as we sit 
before the fire and our gaze dreamily wanders toward the place 
where it is sitting. Again we are in the woods enjoying ourselves. 
At our feet sparkles and dashes the little brook, and, by its side, 
moss, lichen, and fern are beautiful as ever ; we hear the rustle of 
the leaves over our heads, and it seems so real that it is hard to 
break the spell. 

But all this must be gathered before it can be enjoyed. Meadows, 
swamps, fields, and woods are to be visited and carefully searched, 
for in them, oftentimes only indicated by a dried leaf or beny, are 
the plants, bulbs, and tubers which are resting, and, therefore, the 
more to be sought after for winter bloom, — for I have found, by 



146 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

carefully watching, that plants which bloom in spring and early 
summer are more to be relied upon for flowers in winter than later 
blooming ones. Of course you know that, in cultivated flowers, we 
select the largest and strongest bulbs and roots for winter blooming. 
If we wish to grow lilies for winter flowering, we select the finest 
bulbs, for in them is stored the perfect leaf and blossom. So in 
our selection of native plants — select the strongest and best, for 
some will fail. Surely no florist expects to bloom all the plants 
and bulbs that he puts in his houses ; and for some unexplained 
reason some — in fact man}' — refuse to give us flowers in winter, 
3 T et they bloom abundantly in their native soil and season. I find 
from experience that most native plants cau be grown successfully 
in light woody soil, with a mixture of meadow moss ; and also that 
flat wire baskets or dishes, not more than three inches in depth, 
lined with moss, and filled with earth, in which to set the plants, are 
better than close dishes. After they are filled set them in a dish 
or saucer with water in it. In this way, the moss acts as an 
absorbent, and supplies water as the plants require it. Moss on 
the surface, between the plants, is useful in counteracting the dry- 
ness of the air in our living rooms — for I take it for granted that 
native plants are to adorn and beautify our homes ; they are not 
often found in greenhouses. In speaking of the depth of the 
dishes, I am assuming that only small-growing plants are likely to 
be cultivated. 

And now we will take a look after plants. 

First, let us gather Epigcea repens (Trailing Arbutus) . It ought 
to be gathered as late as possible, for the buds must be formed 
before gathered, and then it is not necessary to have much root ; 
only keep the plants moist and close. I have not succeeded often 
in flowering it, except in a fernery or wardian case, but it is almost 
sure to bloom under glass, if properly gathered ; and how beautiful 
it is we all know. 

- Hepatica triloba and H. acutiloba have thick, persistent leaves, 
and also form their buds in autumn. I find them among the surest 
of winter blooming plants ; in fact, they bloom in all places — in 
ferneries or dishes, sun or shade, their pure little blossoms appear 
almost before we know, or dare expect it. 

jSanguinaria Canadensis (Blood-root) can be easily flowered, 
and although the foliage is coarse, as the flower comes before the 
leaf is grown, and as the plants can be forced but once, the foliage 



NATIVE TLAXTS FOR WINTER CULTURE. 147 

/ 

is of no consequence. The flower is pure white, and exquisitely 
beautiful. 

CcUla palustris (Water Arum), our wild calla, growing in muddy 
and swampy places, is really an attractive plant, and, having a 
tuber like Eichardia ^■Ethiopica, can be easily grown, and with 
similar treatment. In Massachusetts it is herbaceous, and blooms 
in early summer. 

Next we will look after Ariscema tripliyllum ( Jack-in-the-pulpit) , 
which forces finely. You can readily find it by its bunch of intense 
scarlet berries. On taking away the old stalk, you will find the 
bud ready to start when you are read}* to start it. I have seen 
exceedingly fine plants of it in winter ; and with their stately 
leaves and blossom, they are really very beautiful. They grow 
equally as well in open dishes or baskets as in a fernery. 

Sarracenia purpurea (American Pitcher-plant) is easily grown 
in wet, peaty moss, and, aside from the beauty of its -'pitchers" 
(which you know are really the leaves of the plant) , has a very 
curious flower. It is found in swamps and low, moist ground. 

Erythronium Americanum (Yellow Dog-tooth Violet) bears culti- 
vation well, but will not bear the sun. It is one of the earliest 
spring flowers and is desirable, as both flower and foliage are beau- 
tiful. The foliage varies in marking ; sometimes it is very much 
spotted, and again almost as entirely green. 

The lovely Houstonia ccerulea has never been sung by poets, but 
nevertheless it is lovely beyond compare. Pure and innocent, 
it raises its sweet little face to our gaze, and we think of all that 
is good as we look down upon it. I gathered u alpine daisy" on 
Mount Washington, and admired its lovely blossoms, but, at the 
time, remarked to a friend, that it was no more beautiful than our 
v little neglected Houstonia. This flower is also among the earliest 
spring flowers. What would be easier, as it grows in clumps, than 
to take up a piece or clump, and not disturb the roots, and when 
it has rested let it bloom in winter? 

Clintonia borealis has a greenish yellow, bell-shaped, lily-like 
flower, which can be cultivated with considerable success, and all 
must be pleased who do succeed. 

The Trillimns are easily grown if you mark the place where 
they are before the leaves are gone, and take them up after 
the foliage has ripened. There are at least three species, — T. 
grandijlorum, T. erythrocarpum (Painted Trillium), and T. erectum, 



148 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and they are all so beautiful it is a wonder more are not bloomed 
in winter. 

Then the Cypripediums. I have three' species growing in my 
garden, — C. parviflorum (small yellow), C. pubescens (large yel- 
low), and G. spectabile (pink, or pink and white). I have never 
flowered them in winter, but they adapt themselves so readily to 
the garden I take it for granted there can be no difficulty in so 
doing. I know that C. spectabile forms its buds late in the autumn 
under the old stalk, precisely as Arismma buds are found, and that 
shows conclusively that one can be grown as well as the other. 

Coptis trifolia (Gold-thread) is very attractive, with its dark 
green leaves that shine in the sun as if wet with dew. The flower 
is pure white, and contrasts admirably with the beautiful foliage. 

Mitchelta repens (Partridge berry) is one of the most charming of 
all our winter friends, for we get the persistent foliage, and bright 
scarlet berries ; and then it blooms finely in the fernery (and often- 
times out) , and we have a combination rarely found, and doubly 
welcome for its beauty and rarity. 

Pyrola (Wintergreen) buds in autumn, and blooms well. 

Violets are so abundant in variety, that we have only to choose 
for ourselves ; but with them, and in fact all that I have mentioned, 
we must make a study of their individual habits, and learn how 
much sun, light, moisture, etc., they require, and give them as fair 
a chance as the flowers we take from our gardens. I do not believe 
our native plants are harder to grow, or need more rest and care, 
than ordinary plants ; but do you think we should take as much 
pains to grow one of our native Cypripediums as we do some of the 
imported species that are not nearly as beautiful ? 

I have no doubt that many of our native shrubs are as well 
worth growing, both for pleasure and profit, as the Deutzias, 
Spiraeas, and Azaleas. AmelancJiier Canadensis (Shad bush) grows 
and flowers so freely, there can be no doubt about cultivating it. 

Leucothoe racemosa, if only for its mythical relation, might be 
brought into notice. And what more lovely flower in winter than 
Rhodora Canadensis, with its rose-purple flowers in umbel-like 
clusters, blooming before the leaves appear. 

," Rhodora! if the sages ask thee why 

This charm is wasted on the earth and sky, 

Tell them, dear, that if eyes were made for seeing, 

Then Beauty is its own excuse for being : 



NATIVE PLANTS FOR WINTER CULTURE. 149 

Why thou wert there, O rival of the rose ! 

I never thought to ask, I never knew : 

But, in my simple ignorance, suppose 

The selfsame Power that brought me there brought you." 

Azalea nudijlora, our pink or purple wild Azalea, grows well in 
our gardens, and blooms when the plants are small, as does, also, 
A. viscosa, the white variety. Both varieties are growing and 
blooming finely in two gardens near me, where there is more or 
less cla}', which goes to show that they are not particular as to soil. 
What, therefore, is to hinder growing them under glass as well as 
the imported species? I think, however, they should be taken up 
in the spring and grown through the summer and autumn, in order 
to obtain good results. 

Rhododendron maximum adapts itself readily to our gardens, 
grows as well as the kinds we cultivate in them, and is more hardy. 
Why not try and grow it for winter bloom ? 

And so the list might be extended to be quite as long as the list 
of the cultivated plants that will bloom well in winter. You know, 
of course, I do not mean stove plants, but only such varieties as are 
ordinarily grown in winter. Fashion is all-powerful, and if we 
could make it more fashionable to wear, or to have on our tabldte, 
native violets than the foreign varieties, how the greenhouses and 
florists' windows would overflow with the modest flowers. Or the 
beautiful Azaleas, Arbutus, or Sanguinaria, instead of Marigolds 
and Sunflowers. As it is, "somebody" starts a fashion and every- 
body follows it. All the time we look eagerly for "novelties" 
from any source, at home or abroad, and too often we pay dearly 
for very little. Why, then, do we not begin at home, and see what 
can be done with our native plants ? 

Discussion. 

Mrs. C. N. S. Horner was w called on to open the discussion on 
the essay, and said that the subject is one which has always inter- 
ested her. There are a large number of native flowers which will 
repay cultivation. The Campanida rotundifolia (Harebell) is 
easily cultivated, and flowers from June to November. The As- 
clepias tuberosa (Butterfly Weed) is very satisfactory. Among native 
plants, which she had successfully cnltivated in winter, are San- 
guinaria Canadensis, Cypripedium pubescens, Goodyera pubescens 
and G. repens, Hepatica triloba, Epigaza repens, Coptis trifolia, and 
3 



150 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Viola Canadensis and other violets. The Sarracenia purpurea 
does very nicety ; she had had a plant, cultivated in the house in 
winter, with five flowers. 

E. H. Hitchings said that many have tried to cultivate the Epi- 
gaia repens (Trailing Arbutus), but it succeeds for only a year or 
two. The Hepatica is very easily cultivated. The speaker exhib- 
ited a plant which he found in Stoneham woods on the 5th instant — 
one of five which were in flower. The plant shown had the re- 
mains of three flowers, one of which probably bloomed in October 
and the others in November, and several buds which would prob- 
ably open in a month, making the season of bloom about three 
months. Wild flowers were in bloom in the woods from April, 
1879, to November, 1880, inclusive. Some wild flowers are im- 
proved by cultivation, among which are the Sanguinaria Cana- 
densis, Lobelia cardinalis, and Trillium grandiflorum. Some, such 
as the Painted Trillium, are quite as handsome in fruit as in flow- 
er ; and the fruit of the Nodding Trillium is more beautiful than 
the flower. The Pyrolas and Chimaphilas do well in cultivation, as 
do also Goodyera pubescens and G. repens and Cypripedium spec- 
tabile. Mr. Hitchings said he had several times transplanted the 
(Jrchis spectabilis successfully, and also Tiarella cordifolia, and 
many other native plants. Liparis liliifolia is one of the most 
delicate of the orchids ; he has cultivated it in the house for sev- 
eral years, and it blooms every season. Geranium Robertianum 
does well in the house. Andromeda polifolia and Ledum latifolium 
are shrubs which succeed well under cultivation. Kalmia glauca 
is handsomer than either of the other species ; it is found growing 
with the two preceding. Hibiscus Moscheutos does well in the 
garden. Habenaria blepliari glottis, H. ciliaris, .and Calypso 
borealis have been cultivated by Dr. Walcott. Mr. Hitchings 
closed by saying that he would like to get young people interested 
in collecting and cultivating native flowers. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder expressed much pleasure in having 
the meeting opened by a lady, and hoped she would be successful 
in her efforts to inspire others with a love for the cultivation of 
native plants, that they might enjoy the pursuits in which she took 
so much pleasure. While we have collected plants from all parts 
of the world, and agents from all parts of the world have been here 
to collect our native plants, we have been tardy in cultivating them. 
The heat, light, soil, etc., wanted by these plants, are the secrets 



NATIVE PLANTS. 151 



• 



of nature, which we must learn before we can cultivate them suc- 
cessfully. He was glad to hear the essayist speak of the influence 
of fashion on the taste for flowers. Some of the most beautiful 
plants have been fashionable, and afterwards have been obliged to 
make room for other favorites. Among these is the camellia, of 
which Mr. Hovey would remember the time when a single flower 
would bring a dollar, and afterwards it was set aside as coarse, but 
it is now in favor again. The case is the same with the azalea. 
He would like to speak of the moral influence of the cultivation of 
flowers ; he hoped when done with the cultivation of flowers on 
earth, to resume it in a better world. 

Rev. A. B. Muzzey said he was much interested in the subject 
announced for today's discussion. Our native plants have been 
strangely neglected. When he was in college he took long summer 
walks in the woods and fields every Saturday with Professor Nuttall, 
who not only possessed a scientific knowledge of our native flow- 
ers, but was full of enthusiasm in their study, and felt all the 
pleasure of a boy in these excursions. Mr. Muzzey not only col- 
lected a herbarium, but brought home plants, which proved capable 
of house culture. He was amazed at the number and variety of 
flowers which the}' found. We have only to go a few miles to find 
under our feet species we. have never seen before. Wild flowers are 
common, but so is light, and it is a sin against nature to shut it 
out of our houses ; and health, which might otherwise surfer, is 
promoted by the search for these wild flowers. 

Charles M. Hovey expressed much pleasure in having the subject 
of the cultivation of native flowers brought up for discussion, and 
congratulated the Committee on their selection. He had been 
writing on the subject for the last five or six years in " The Gar- 
den." When in England a few years ago he visited George F. 
Wilson's grounds at W T eybridge three times — once in March and 
twice in April. He had been puzzled, when reading in the English 
magazines about severe frosts, to know how plants could survive 
them, but he found Cyclamen hederifolium and C. Coum, with the 
leaves and flowers frozen quite hard without injury, when the tem- 
perature was eight degrees below freezing ; and the reason that 
they were not killed was that the frost was taken out by the atmos- 
phere, under a cloudy sk}', before the sun could reach them. After 
a snow-storm, the cyclamens were just as beautiful as ever. Besides 
these plants, Mr. Wilson showed him Hepatica angulosa, and vari- 



% 152 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ons primroses ; among the latter some choice seedlings, covered with 
bell glasses, and he took more interest in these than in his collec- 
tion of greenhouse plants. At an exhibition of the London Horti- 
cultural Society, one of the most prominent objects was a collection 
of twentj'-four varieties of primroses, — Himalayan and others. 
The English love all these little plants, but here w^ want something 
large and showy, like the sunflower, which is the fashionable flower 
at Newport. The camellia lost its popularity as much by the 
peculiarities of trade as from any other cause, and the price fell 
down to a low rate. When the florists could buy pinks and similar 
flowers, which would keep several days, they did not think it worth 
while to purchase the expensive camellia ; but this helped to bring 
roses into fashion. Boston roses have heretofore supplied the New 
York market. For a long time biryers have been satisfied with 
Bon Silene and Safrano ; but now they want Marechal Niel, Perle 
des Jardins, and Gen. Jacqueminot. 

Among the native flowers mentioned b} T the essayist, there are 
but two or three which the speaker has not described. Rhexia 
Virginica, which was not mentioned, is one of the most desirable. 
The Erythronium, or Dog-tooth Violet, covers the ground in his 
nursery. The Asclepias tuberosa, Say\gu%7iaria Canadensis, and 
Hibiscus Moscheutos are easily cultivated; and are among the most 
desirable native plants. He made botanical excursions in his 
3'ounger days, influenced by Professor Nuttall, and first found the 
blood-root in 1829 or 1830 ; indeed, all these native plants passed 
through his hands, and he tried to get others to cultivate them. 
He had studied the botai:ry of the shores of Buzzard's Bay, and 
found a great variety of plants there, — in the limited space of six 
acres he found growing one hundred and sevent3*-five species and 
varieties. The native asters were not mentioned b} r the essayist, 
and have been but little cultivated. Aster spectabilis grows about 
a foot high, and is as beautiful as a Cineraria. Ferns, and the 
Mitchella repens, can be grown in the house, and are really very 
pretty objects during winter. 

William Falconer (of the Cambridge Botanic Garden), did not 
think our wild flowers, excepting the Lily of the Valley and Cypri- 
pediam spectabile, were very amenable to winter forcing. Many of 
them, as violets and hepaticas, make excellent border plants, but 
they require to be brought slowly into bloom. Speaking of Cypri- 
pediums, he mentioned that though (7. spectabile is the one usually 



NATIVE PLANTS. 153 

forced, the others are as useful in that direction ; in fact, they 
come earlier into flower. Some orchids, as Calypso, although very 
pretty, are not generally satisactor}* as out-door garden plants ; 
but, with pot culture, they are first rate. In answer to Mr. 
Hitchiugs, he said that Cypripedium acavle does well in cultivation 
for two or three 3'ears, but is liable to die out. With reference to 
Mr. Hovey's remarks about our wild asters, he said that quite a 
demand has lately arisen in Europe for American asters. He 
warmly recommended the use of our wild plants as garden flowers, 
and called attention to the handsome displays of our native lilies 
in the rhododendron beds of Mr. Sargent, at Brookline, and Mr. 
Hun ne well, at Wellesley. 

Rev. F. L. Capen said that when a boy he used, in driving the 
cows to pasture, to look out for the columbine and crowfoot. At 
Jacksonville, Florida, the number and gorgeousness of the wild 
flowers, is remarkable ; he had noticed particularly a flower of a 
purple color, but otherwise resembling a golden-rod. What we 
call native flowers are exotics abroad, and our exotics are natives 
elsewhere. When rare flowers become common the masses will 
take them. He asked if flowers of the same species were collected 
and planted together, whether they would not sport and produce 
new and fine varieties. 

Mr. Wilder said that such changes would not properly be called 
sports, but crosses. Sporting is a change of color of part of the 
flowers on the same plant, like the Abby Tryphosa Wilder camellia, 
which originated in a sport on the Mrs. Abby Wilder. The dis- 
tinction between sports and crosses, or hybrids, is often overlooked. 
As' to species, it is sometimes difficult to say what are species. 
Once it would have been thought irreverent to attempt to cross 
genera, but he had crossed the Lilium land folium with Gloriosa 
super ba. 

John B. Moore desired to suggest one practical thing, which 
was to get sweet-brier plants and pot in the spring, and bloom 
them in the winter. They must have rest, and after growing 
through the summer, should be placed in a cool cellar till about 
this time. They should have but little water until they get some 
leaves ; most amateurs injure plants by saturating the soil with 
water when there are no leaves to evaporate it. If properly 
treated, the plants will be covered with bunches of bloom, and the 
fragrance of both flowers and foliage is delightful. The plants are 
abundant in pastures ; young, vigorous ones should be chosen. 



154 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Leander Wetherell said that horticulture is the art of improving 
nature, and it has improved almost ever}' species of plant. Wild 
flowers are very beautiful ; he has often roamed over the woods in 
search of them, but he thought we have in our gardens what are 
more beautiful than natives, and that this going back to nature is 
a retrogression. He alluded to the difficulty of learning plant 
names, and said that the Society is much indebted to the ladies for 
the exhibitions of native plants. 

J. W. Manning said that he had collected in his nursery four or 
five hundred varieties of native plants, but had found little demand 
for them. The Rhododendron maximum transplants verj' easily if 
small plants are chosen, and the Kalmia latifolia also. Mr. Daw- 
son, at the Arnold Arboretum, has been successful in raising both 
these from seed. The Kalmia latifolia is common in the woods, 
but not much cultivated. It will grow in almost any soil. He 
knows a dozen plants in gardens in Reading which have been 
growing for fifteen years. 

Mr. Hove3 T said there are people who will give more for the 
eglantine or sweet-brier, than for the most improved rose. In 
Marion, there stands a cedar tree, two hundred and fifty or three 
hundred years old ; it is fifty feet high, and the arms spread fifty 
feet. He never saw anything that pleased him so much, entirely 
covered as it was, trunk and branch, with moss ; and so we love 
these wild flowers for their native and ever beautiful and varied 
forms. 

It was announced that on the next Saturday, John Robinson, Pro- 
fessor of Botany and Vegetable Physiology to the Society, would 
read a paper on u Ornamental Arboriculture." 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 24, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Hon. Francis B. Hayes, in the chair. 

John B. Moore, from the Committee on Publication and Discus- 
sion, presented the following vote : 

Voted, That there be offered a Prospective Prize of Fifty Dollars 



ORNAMENTAL ARBORICULTURE. 155 

for the best Essay on the Effect of Chemical Fertilizers on Fruits 
and Plants, as influencing their growth and quality, the essay to 
give a detailed account of actual experiments and results, during 
the next three years ; the prize to be awarded at the end of the 
year 1884. 

The vote was referred to the Executive Committee. 

Adjourned to Saturday, December 31. 



MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

This was opened by the reading of the following paper, by the 
Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physiology : 

Essay on Ornamental Arboriculture. 
By John Robinson, of Salem. 

In attempting to sketch the history of ornamental arboriculture 
in this country, it soon becomes evident that the subject will be 
exhausted for want of actual examples, rather than for lack of 
records of what has been accomplished. It is only necessary to 
read the works of Downing, or the articles in the early horticul- 
tural magazines, to discover that ornamental tree culture received 
little attention in New England, compared with that bestowed 
upon it in the vicinit}' of Philadelphia, or along the valley of the 
Hudson. This may, in a great measure, be attributed to the fact 
that the early horticulturists of this neighborhood, the founders of 
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, were chiefly interested in 
the cultivation of fruits and flowers. In organizing this Society, 
the}' formed the horticultural centre of New England, whose 
steadily increasing influence has given the key-note to the horticul- 
ture of this region. We find, therefore, established near Boston, a 
spirit of competition in fine fruits and rare flowers, to the exclusion, 
until very recently, of any attempts to learn the secrets of tree 
culture. 

The cultivation of ornamental trees has, of course, received 
occasional attention in individual cases for more than two centuries, 
as the magnificent shade trees in the streets of some of our oldest 
towns, notably those in the valley of the Connecticut river, bear 
testimonj', as well as those upon a few private estates. 



153 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The first landscape gardener to issue a special catalogue of 
hardy trees and shrubs suitable for our climate, was Andre Par- 
mentier, of Brooklyn, L. I. He also established a scientifically 
arranged garden, and was the first in the United States to form a 
plantation illustrating the natural stjie of laying out grounds. At 
the opening of the present century, among the prominent estates 
where tree culture had received special attention, were Woodlands, 
the residence of William Hamilton, near Philadelphia; Cler- 
mont, the Hudson Eiver estate of Chancellor Livingston, and 
Waltham House, near Boston, the residence of Hon. Theodore 
Lyman. A little later in this vicinity, the estates of Thomas Per- 
kins and Thomas Lee, in Brookline, and John P. dishing, of 
Watertown, were noticeable. 

Kecently, arboriculturists here have fallen into a rather too 
servile imitation of European examples, with the use of European" 
trees or plants, better suited to the climate of Europe than to our 
own, where experiments should be based upon a careful study of 
trees and methods better adapted to our climate and soil. 

To make a plantation which shall contain a desirable variety of 
trees, adapted to the situation in which they are to grow, and 
calculated to remain a lasting benefit, requires a knowledge of 
physical geograph}', especially that which relates to the influence 
of climates upon plant life. Modern science teaches us that nature 
has, in the countless ages of time, evolved for each and every 
climate a class of plants especially adapted to the influences by 
which they are surrounded. She has, in particular instances, by 
gradual and imperceptible changes, adapted groups of individuals 
of a species to flourish in a climate differing totally from that in 
which other individuals of the same species are found. Hence, 
individuals taken from one locality may be perfectly hard}', while 
other individuals of the same species, from other localities, fail 
utterly to endure our climate. For example, the small leaved 
magnolia, taken from Massachusetts or the Middle States, is per- 
fectly hardy here, while plants of the same species brought from 
Florida, would not survive a single Massachusetts winter. 

Under the present theory of the distribution of species, based 
upon a careful study of geology, our existing flora is considered, 
with a few rare exceptions, to have been disseminated from a com- 
mon centre at the north, and to be the result of the inexorable law 
of the survival of the fittest species or individuals for the places 



ORNAMENTAL ARBORICULTURE. 1£7 

the}' were forced to occupy. It is useless, therefore, to attempt to 
remove a plant from a climate to which its ancestors have, for 
ages of time, become inured, and expect it to thrive in a different 
one. We should not give a moment's thought to a proposition to 
plant the Victoria regia of the Amazon, in the pond on Boston 
Common ; yet, with the trees, attempts hardly less absurd have 
been persisted in, simply because the climatic conditions of the 
regions from which it has been attempted to introduce them, were 
not studied ; the latitude from which they were taken, only bfcing 
considered. 

A glance at a map of the northern hemisphere, shows us that 
the configuration of the east coast of the continent of Asia is quite 
similar to that of eastern North America, and that in the Pacific 
ocean, as well as in the Atlantic, a warm ocean current, commenc- 
ing at the southwest, and flowing across the ocean, disappears at 
the northeast. Therefore, the coast climate of one continent may 
be expected to closely resemble the corresponding coast climate of 
the other, which, in point of fact, it does ; the climate of north- 
eastern Asia, resembling that of New England and eastern North 
America, while that of California and Oregon is not unlike the 
climate of western Europe. There are also, in various portions of 
the globe, certain conditions which tend to produce local climates 
quite different from the surrounding regions, and, in some respects, 
not unlike our own. Some such districts are already known to us, 
and others may yet be discovered. 

Working upon these facts, we may arrange in order the regions 
from which we are obliged to select trees for cultivation in New 
England, and beyond which, unless in rare, exceptional cases, it 
is useless to go to add to our collections. 

This order is as follows : 

I. The Alleghanian region of North America, which includes 
New England and Canada, and extends southward to the moun- 
tains of northern Georgia and Alabama, and broadly to the eastern 
base of the Rocky Mountains. 

II. The eastern coast of Asia, north of about latitude 38, and 
including northern China, Manchooria, and northern Japan. 

III. Regions with climates not sufficiently differing from that 
of New England to interfere with the adaptabilit}' of the plants 
of such regions to our climate. The Central Rock}' Mountain 
region, portions of Siberia, the Caucasus, Toorkistan, and possibly 
Thibet, are illustrations. 



153 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

IV. To the plants from the regions already indicated may be 
added certain cosmopolitan species, which inhabit widely different 
localities and seem to flourish eve^where in the old world. 

To the first of these regions, the Alleghanian, too much atten- 
tion cannot be paid, for here, in a comparatively limited area, 
is found a more extensive collection, in number of species, of 
desirable forest trees than is furnished by any region of sim- 
ilar size in the temperate zone, with the possible exception of 
Japa*n. There are more species than is possessed by the whole 
continent of Europe. Neither do the trees from this region require 
to be experimented with to ascertain their fitness for cultivation in 
our grounds, for they are of our own flora. But before entering 
upon the southern Alleghany mountain region, where there are 
many species not natives of New England, we need go no farther 
than our own woods to find many of the most desirable trees to 
plant for ornament ; trees which in Europe have been eagerly sought 
for two centuries as great prizes, but which, in our own country, 
have been too long neglected for general planting. What tree is 
more desirable, in every way, than the Sugar Maple? or for single 
specimens more interesting than the Hickory? Our Oaks rank 
among the most magnificent trees in the temperate zone, while the 
Tupelo, Beech, Sassafras, Hornbeam, the Birches, and the Ashes, 
among the deciduous trees, and the White and Red Pines and Hem- 
lock, among the evergreens, are all valuable trees for ornamental 
purposes. To these may be added from among the lower growing 
species, the Hamamelis with its November flowers ; the gorgeously 
fruited Sumachs ; the Amelanchier, too often overlooked ; the Dog- 
woods, including the conspicuous Cornusflwida, and the Viburnums. 
All these grow naturally within twenty miles of this spot. There 
are, besides, in the immediate neighborhood, a number of trees, 
which, although not suited for all soils and situations, are, never- 
theless, adapted to certain localities. Among such are the Amer- 
ican Elm which flourishes best in the alluvial river meadows, and 
the true White Cedar of the low swampy lands. 

As previously stated, one of the greatest storehouses for tree 
species in the temperate zone is the region of the southern Alle- 
ghany mountains. In Pennsylvania and the mountains southward 
are nearly two-score of trees, which, although belonging to the 
same flora as our own, are not natives of Massachusetts, but are 
certain to succeed in our ornamental plantations. 



ORNAMENTAL ARBORICULTURE. 159 

There are five species of Magnolia, most of which are considered 
as rare trees in cultivation. We have the Bucke3*es — the red and 
yellow flowered larger species, and the white flowered shrubb} 7 one ; 
the Cladrastis or Yellow-wood, fine specimens of which are now to 
be seen on mam 7 of the older estates in this vicinity, and one 
magnificent specimen at the Botanic Garden, Cambridge, over 
thirty feet high, with a trunk two feet in diameter. There is the 
Red-bud, which, with its prodigality of deep pink flowers, presents 
in spring a most beautiful appearance. Among the plants of the 
Rose family are two species of Crataegus, one somewhat resem- 
bling the scarlet thorn ; and the American Crab apple, desirable for 
its fragrant flowers and marketable fruit. We have the Viburnum 
prunifolium, resembling our Sheep-berry, but a larger growing tree ; 
the Halesia or Sflver-bell tree ; and the Persimmon, whose fruit 
ripens in this vicinit}* and should be added to our garden products, 
and find the place it deserves upon the exhibition tables of this 
Society. The Virginia Fringe tree, although frequently seen in 
cultivation, should be more extensively planted, and the Winged 
and Slipper}^ Elms and the Chinquapin are not so often seen 
as they deserve to be. Of the Oaks there are a large variety. 
Besides the eight species more or less common in the woods 
of this vicinit}*, there are five others which may be added from 
the region a little south of us, that are now seldom met with 
in cultivation here, which differ in foliage and in fruit strikingly 
from onr native species. Among them are the Willow oak, the 
Pin oak, and the Burr or Over-cup oak. This last species is 
likely to prove the rival of the White oak in the value of its 
wood for mechanical purposes, on account of its durability in 
exposed situations, where it resists decay seemingly longer than 
that of any other species. Among the conifers are the Table 
Mountain Pine and the Bald Cypress, both of which are perfectly 
hard}'. To this list may, probably, be added a newly discovered 
Hemlock, with larger cones and longer leaves than our own, known 
as Tsuga^Caroliniana, and the Rhus cotinoides (somewhat resem- 
bling the European Smoke tree) which has been lately redis- 
covered in the mountains of Alabama. From the west of this 
region, and yet within the limits of its flora, are the Fraxhius 
quadrat) gulata (Blue Ash) of Michigan, a beautiful forest tree with 
valuable timber, and the Western Catalpa, but recently distinguished 
from the southern species with which it has been confused. This 



160 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

last adds to our collections, without doubt, a tree at once beautiful 
as an ornament, and of great 'value on account of its almost imper- 
ishable timber. There are also at the west the XJlmus racemosa, 
and Carya sulcata or Western Shag-bark Hickory, both fine trees. 
At the north are the Gray Pine and White Spruce, the latter one 
of the best of its class that we can cultivate. 

Were we to stop here our choice could not be considered as a 
limited one, for the trees of this, our own flora, are unequalled in 
the temperate climate for their variety, their striking beauty, and 
their lasting effect for cultivation in parks, lawns, or streets, where, 
the work of planting once accomplished, it is important that it should 
last, perhaps, for centuries. It is now a matter of general knowl- 
edge that we are indebted to native trees for the beautiful effects 
of autumnal foliage, 'while those of foreign introduction are but 
dull and sombre when our native species are in their most gorgeous 
raiment. This alone is no inconsiderable argument in favor of our 
native trees. 

The second region to which we may look with the expectation 
of adding extensively to our collections will be, as indicated pre- 
viously, Manchooria, Northern China, and Northern Japan. 

There are already in cultivation from these countries a great 
many valuable ornamental plants, but still more may be added. 
Among those familiar to us from China and Manchooria, are the 
Wistaria, Deutzia, and Weigela, all of which are now widely dis- 
tributed in our gardens, as is also, though perhaps less extensively* 
the Magnolia conspicua. Of the trees from this region, which are 
likely to find their way into general cultivation as they become 
more accessible, are several species and garden varieties of Mag- 
nolia, a Tulip tree, the Phellodendron Amurense, the Chinese Tam- 
arix, a much finer and later flowering species than the European 
tree, which is commonly met with in cultivation ; a Linden, a Horse 
Chestnut, and several Maples, one of which, a variety of Acer Tar- 
taricum, bears deliciously fragrant blossoms. There is also the 
Cladrastis Amure7isis, a relative of our well known Yellow- wood ; 
a Honey Locust, a Gymnocladus resembling the corresponding 
American species, a Hawthorn, two Plums, an Ash, two Birches ; 
a Pterocarya, which may be described as a relative of our Hickories ; 
besides an Oak and the Manchoorian Walnut. These are all 
deciduous trees. Among the conifers are the Taxodium, occasion- 
ally met with here under the name of Glyptostrobus ; the Chinese 



ORNAMENTAL ARBORICULTURE. 161 

Juniper, which much resembles our own Red Cedar ; the Pseudolarix, 
a curious relative of the larch ; and two Pines, one of which, Pinus 
Bungeana, common in the vicinity of Peking, is at once recognized 
by its white bark. To the west of this region, in Siberia, are the 
Caragana, an Elm, and Picea obovata, all of which are desirable 
trees for cultivation here. 

Japan, however, can probably furnish more desirable trees for 
New England ornamental plantations than even the continent of 
Asia. Already there are many species both of woody and herba- 
ceous plants in quite general cultivation from that country. Among 
the Japanese trees now known to succeed perfectly here, are sev- 
eral maples, including the well-named species, Acer poly morphum. 
This little tree has already won the admiration it deserves, and is 
rapidly finding its way into our collections in numerous varieties, 
some of which, when judged by the standard of beauty and their 
ability to withstand the hot summer sun, are much more desirable 
than others. Nearly allied to the maple is the Negundo cissifolium, 
and also, thoroughly tested, are the Sophora, and the curiously 
fruited, yellow flowered Koelreuteria. Two Apples and the Idesia 
are perfectly hardy, and there may also be added a Chestnut, a 
Walnut, and an Alder, which have proved satisfactory, besides the 
Phellodendron Japonicum, the Zelkowa, an Ash, two Birches, and 
more than one Oak, which, although no doubt exists regarding 
their hardiness, have not yet been in cultivation here long enough 
to be considered as tested. Among the Japanese conifers we find 
an unusually large number suitable for our purposes — far more than 
can be obtained in any other region. Of the Pines there are three 
desirable species ; one, the Pinus densiflora, has been introduced 
under the name of Pinus Massoniana, which belongs to a more 
southern Chinese species, not, probably, hardy with us. There 
are two Spruces, a Hemlock closely resembling our own, a Larch, 
and the Umbrella Pine (Sciadopitys) , already thoroughly tested 
here. We have, besides, a long list of Retinosporas which some 
recent authors have placed under the old genus, Thuja. They are 
more nearly related to our true white cedar than any other New 
England species. Many of the varieties of the Retinosporas, of 
which there are a great number in cultivation, are veiy graceful and 
interesting plants. Of the permanency of these varieties not much 
can be said. Actual observation proves many of them to be but 
juvenile forms of well known species, which, as they grow older, 



162 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

change their characters and take the normal forms. Carriere, a 
French writer on the Coniferse, has happily called them the ''larval 
forms" of the mature plants. All the Retinosporas of our gar- 
dens may probably be referred to two or three typical species, 
although some of the varieties may prove more permanent than 
others. 

The cultivation of ornamental plants has been practiced in 
Asiatic countries for a great length of time, and, hence more 
garden varieties may be expected from this region than from 
almost any other. In fact, with many plants from these coun- 
tries, it is often difficult to determine what is the typical form of 
the species, or its original habitat. 

Of the Asiatic conifers, the Gingko has probably been cultivated 
here longer than any other species, the tree on Boston Common, 
being, at least, fifty years old. It has usually been considered a 
native of Japan, but, recently, this has been doubted. Dr. Mas- 
ters, in a paper "On the Conifers of Japan" (Linn Soc. Jour., 
Bot., Vol. XV1IL, read Dec. 2, 1880), sa} T s, iu reference to the 
distribution of species : — 

" Before leaving the subject of the distribution of Japanese 
Conifers, a word may be said as to the occurrence of certain trees 
(often of peculiar organization), in the immediate vicinity of the 
temples in Japan, China, Thibet, etc. In some of these cases, the 
trees are not known in a wild state, the aboriginal stocks being 
either extinct or lurking in some of the all but unknown districts of 
the Chinese Empire, Thibet, or Central Asia. Among such may 
be mentioned, as worthy the attention of students of Buddhist lore : 
Cupressus funebris (China, Sikkim), Abies Fortunei (China), Abies 
Koempferi (China) , Cryptomeria Japonica, Sciadopitys verticillata, 
Gingko biloba, and certain species of Pinus." 

The regions thus far considered, are the ones, and the only ones 
from which we may add extensively to our collections. Among 
the regions, where a few additional species may be found — in 
some cases very valuable ones — is the Rocky Mountain region 
of Colorado. Here many species of the Pacific flora flourish in 
company with eastern species, and hence, this region may be con- 
sidered as the common meeting ground of the Atlantic and Pacific 
floras. 

From this region have come two of our most desirable ornamen- 
tal trees. These are the Blue Rocky Mountain Spruce and the 



ORNAMENTAL ARBORICULTURE. 163 

Douglas Fir. The Blue Spruce has been fairly tested here and 
proves perfectly hard}'. There are several specimens in the vicin- 
ity of Boston which have reached the height of fifteen feet, retain- 
ing a beautifully compact form. Individual specimens vary much 
in color, from a dark green to the striking glaucous blue, so much 
admired in many specimens. This tree is known most frequently 
by the incorrect name of Abies Menziesii, hastily given it by 
Colorado botanists. It should be known as Picea pungens. The 
Douglas Fir is scarcely less beautiful, and is quite as hardy, having 
been tested here equally long. From an economic point of view — 
a side of the question which should not be lost sight of even in 
cultivating trees for ornament, — the Douglas Fir is one of the 
most valuable trees now existing in North America, and may in 
the future occupy the place likely soon to be vacated by our native 
pines and spruces ; when, if forest culture is systematically con- 
ducted in Massachusetts, it will be a source of much profit to our 
people. From this Colorado region also, have been introduced, 
with success, a Hawthorn, a Poplar, the White Fir {Abies con- 
color) , Pinus jlexilis, Pinus ponderosa, and Picea Engelmannii, 
the latter resembling, but distinct from, the Blue Spruce {Picea 
pungens), and not unlike our northern White Spruce. There are, 
also, not often cultivated here, a Pine, a Larch, and a Spruce. 
The Pine {Pinus contorta var. Murray ana) has withstood the win- 
ters of late at the Arnold Arboretum, in good condition. 

The plants introduced from this region possess a remarkable 
interest, and establish beyond a doubt the value of experimental 
stations where scientific tests may be applied to tree culture. As 
has been suggested in a previous essay, the plants raised from the 
seeds of certain Colorado trees prove perfectly hardy here in New 
England, while those raised from the seeds of the same species of 
tree collected in the milder, moister climate of the Pacific slope have 
failed to endure our climate, but flourish perfectly in England, 
where most of the trees from the Pacific slope find themselves at 
home, thus proving \)j actual experiment the analogy between the 
climate of the northwestern United States and that of western 
Europe. 

Again, turning to the eastern hemisphere, among the regions 
from which we may hope to add plants for cultivation here, is 
a portion of Toorkistan, from whence, already, an Ash has been 
obtained. From Thibet, the Pinus Gerardiana promises to prove 



164 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

hard}', and similar results may be expected from some trees in por- 
tions of the Himalaya mountains. From the region of the Cau- 
casus, we have still more species — a Maple, the Zelkowa crenata, the 
Pterocarya fraxini folia, a fine specimen of which stands in the 
Botanic Garden at Cambridge ; the Carpinus Duanensis, long 
cultivated here, though not extensively ; and among the conifers, 
Abies Cilicica, Abies Nor dmanniana, and Picea orienialis. Of the last 
two species, specimens ma}' be seen on some estates near Boston, 
fifteen feet high, and of fine appearance. From the Balkan moun- 
tains of Roumelia, which is now considered its original home, though 
it was introduced here by way of Europe, we have the Horse 
Chestnut. This tree in proper situations, possesses a stateliness 
unequalled by any other, and its magnificent show of blossoms in 
the month of May, never fails to attract attention. 

As it is said that " the exceptions prove the rule," we resort to 
the exceptional species from regions, whence it is generally 
useless to attempt to introduce trees with the prospect of satisfac- 
tory results. There are certain species of trees whose geographical 
range is of such wide extent that they seem to have acquired a 
special power to adapt themselves to different climates. Among 
such are the White Willow and the European Elm. Both of these 
trees are familiar objects to us, having been brought here b}* the early 
colonists as reminders of their old homes. The European elm 
proves, for city streets, superior to the American species, which 
has unfortunate!}' been selected as the one American tree for con- 
stant service. The American elm, although of surpassing beauty 
in a moist alluvial soil and with abundant space, is usually planted 
in dry soil, where it does not flourish, and its drooping branches 
make it generally unsuitable for narrow streets, where it is fre- 
quently seen. The English elm, however, is more erect in habit, 
retains its foliage longer in the autumn, and withstands the smoky 
and dusty atmosphere of our cities far better than the American 
species. The European should, wherever possible, replace the 
American elm in our city streets. The European Larch is another 
tree of this class. Growing naturally in a dryer soil, it is much 
more suitable for our gravelly hills than the meagre foliaged 
American tree, which finds its home in low, wet grounds. The 
Norway Maple, too, in situations near the ocean, may, perhaps, 
be considered the most desirable among the foreign maples for 
general cultivation, and the conspicuous yellow blossoms, coming 
before the leaves appear, give an additional value to the tree. 



ORNAMENTAL ARBORICULTURE. 165 

The Turkey Oak, Fraxinus ornus, Tilia argentea, and Acer cam- 
pestre, may be added, as desirable, and also. Carpinus Betulus and 
Salix laurifolia, and, perhaps, also Tilia dasystylis and Quercus 
Pannow^a^ but the last two are not fairly tested. Among the 
Conifers which may receive mention here, is Thuja Wareana, 
usually called Siberian Arbor Vita?, and considered a native of 
Europe. It is, in reality, a seedling variety of our own New 
England Thvja occidentalis. From its preference for drier soils, it 
is much better adapted for cultivation than the tj-pical form, which 
flourishes only in wet or low grounds, and is of little service in 
ordinary plantations. From the Pacific slope, we have as ex- 
ceptions, the JRhamnus Purshiana, well known in medicine ; the 
Vine maple ; and, possibly as serviceable in favorable situations, a 
Hawthorn, a Crab apple, a Poplar, Abies amabilis, Abies nobilis, 
and Picea Sitchensis, but these need a more extended test. 

But here we should stop, where it is most usual to begin, with 
the ordinary European trees. To those unfamiliar with the history 
of American arboriculture, it can but seem strange that, with the 
largest supply of the most beautiful forest trees directly under our 
hands, most of our older estates are filled with European trees, 
many of which are totally unfit for cultivation in our climate, and 
are in every way unworthy to be placed beside their American 
congeners. Among the European trees most common in cultivation, 
is the Sycamore Maple, specimens of which, at fifty years of age, 
are worthless. The other European maple, the Norway, is, how- 
ever, suitable for certain situations, as alreacty stated. Neither of 
them are so beautiful as our Sugar Maple, and even the White and 
the Red Maples hold their own against them in favorable soils. 
The European Mountain Ash, more frequently seen in cultivation 
than either of the American species, seldom matures, except in a 
miserable condition, and the European Linden possesses but one 
advantage over our own, that of haying more fragrant blossoms, 
while the American tree is otherwise its superior. The European 
Ash cannot claim to even equal the American White Ash, either as 
an ornamental or as a useful tree, and neither the European Beech 
nor the Birch compares, in cultivation here, with the corresponding 
American species. Our Chestnut is superior to its Old World 
relative, and the Black Walnut, or even the Butternut, is far 
better for us than the Walnut of Europe. The English Oak fails 
here in less than fifty years, when it should be hale and hearty at 
4 



166 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

a thousand. Probably no European tree has been more exten- 
sively introduced into cultivation than the Norway Spruce, for 
ornament as specimen trees, for wind-breaks, and for hedges, and 
yet New England possesses, in the White Spruce of the^orthern 
forests, a tree every way its superior ; or, were it possible to replace 
the Norway by the Blue Rocky Mountain Spruce, which is suited 
for all purposes, the improvement would be great indeed. The same 
comparisons may be made in favor of the American Pines. The 
White Pine far surpasses either the Austrian or the Scotch Pine 
as an ornamental and useful tree. The Red Pine, which is even 
now found growing naturally in Massachusetts, while it resembles 
the Austrian Pine somewhat in appearance in the young state, is 
just beginning its maturer life when the Austrian Pine is failing, 
as it almost always does in the course of thirty years. The com- 
mon Pitch Pine, often overlooked, is for us a much more valuable 
tree for planting in a sandy soil, than either of the European spe- 
cies. Why is it, then, that we have been as it were, loaded down 
with a mass of unsuitable material, often rendering the labors of 
earnest arboriculturists of the last generation a waste ? Why is it 
that, with a vast storehouse of trees, in every way adapted to our 
wants, and directly at hand, we have persistently planted valueless 
species to the exclusion of the nearer and better ones? It is 
partly our misfortune and parti} 7 our fault. We have been too 
easily satisfied to follow foreign taste, use foreign trees, and study 
foreign books. Scientific arboriculture here has received little or 
no attention. These are our faults. Our misfortune is that we 
have not had in New England an Andrew J. Downing to influence 
the taste for arboriculture, and to guide it in its proper channels. 
Had we been so fortunate, his influence could not have failed to pro- 
duce a marked effect here, as Downing's has done in the region 
where he lived and wrote. Our nurserymen should realize the great 
importance of the position that they hold in the community, and 
the vast influence, if used in the right direction, they have upon 
the future taste for trees and the results of tree planting. In 
selecting ornamental trees the purchaser is entirely dependent upon 
the nurseryman, for a knowledge of the proper species. It is, 
therefore, very important that those who deal in trees should 
possess a fair knowledge of scientific arboriculture, in order to form 
a correct judgment in recommending trees for various situations, 
and to be of real service to the purchaser, who, in most cases, 



ORNAMENTAL ARBORICULTURE. 167 

knows nothing whatever of the subject. Good courses of read- 
ing and lectures upon structural and physiological botany cannot 
be too strongly recommended for those who intend making the 
raising or dealing in trees their business ; a careful study of the 
applicable portions of such works as Marsh's "Man and Nature" 
and Gray's " Structural Botany," will be a valuable addition to the 
practical knowledge gained in the field. 

It is a common error to suppose that by what is popular!}' known 
as acclimation, almost any plant may be made to flourish in a 
climate where it does not naturally grow, if it only can be inured 
gradually enough to the change. This theoiy has been proved 
false by actual experiments. It is not, therefore, by habituating to 
our climate plants from regions differing totally in climate from 
our own, that we should expect to add to our collections ; but by 
carefully studying the climatic conditions of all countries, and 
selecting, from such regions as seem to possess a climate resembling 
ours, plants which we can cultivate here with the prospect of suc- 
cess. Until recently there has been no authoritative source of 
correct information to guide in the selection of trees for our orna- 
mental collections. Horticulturists during the past hundred }'ears, 
or even more, have experimented almost at random with a large 
number of species, and for what is now known of the subject we 
are indebted to the enthusiasm of the pioneers of horticulture in 
this part of the country. But something more is needed in a 
country like ours, where large estates seldom remain intact for 
more than one or two generations, and where the demands for 
business purposes require us to surrender today the land which, 
but a few 3 T ears ago, was considered quite beyond their reach. It 
is therefore necessary that experiments, sufficiently continued to 
give them the highest value, should be carried on by institutions 
permanently established, where the work inaugurated by one gen- 
eration shall be steadily forwarded by the next ; for in the study of 
arboriculture, where definite results may not be reached for a cen- 
tury, patient labor and carefully recorded observations must always 
be the work of the student. We cannot, therefore, too highly 
estimate the value of the work contemplated by Harvard College 
in establishing the Arnold Arboretum. In 1874, a tract of land on 
the Bussey estate in West Roxbury, near Boston, was set apart by 
the college for the purposes of an arboretum. A collection of 
living plants was at once commenced, both of native species and 



168 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of those from other portions of the temperate zone. By a system 
of exchanges with institutions of similar character in other parts 
of the world the collection was rapidly augmented, so that at the 
present time it contains a larger number of species and varieties of 
hardy trees and shrubs than any other collection in this country. 
Experiments have been tried and are still continued with plants 
and seeds from regions where the climate is at all similar to our 
own, and even where in some cases local conditions of climate 
suggest the possibility of obtaining for cultivation here (as in the 
case of the Douglas Fir) individuals of a species which generally 
inhabits a very different climate, and one from which we should 
not expect to introduce plants with success. Although much has 
already been accomplished, a work so great as that contemplated 
must be considered as largely in the future, and as even a com- 
mencement of the final arrangements has been delaj'ed on account 
of certain plans now under consideration by the College and the city 
of Boston, the collection of living plants is still in the form of a 
nursery, and no scientific arrangement has as yet been begun. It 
is intended as soon as practicable to plant along the roadways 
the species of trees and shrubs, both native and foreign, in the 
order of their botanical sequence, and to have them so grouped 
that the plants of one family will be together and readily studied. 
All the varieties, too, of a species will find their appropriate 
places in the systematic order, that the visitor may acquaint 
himself with their position, and readily compare them with the 
species from which they are supposed to have been derived. By 
this arrangement it will at once be seen what ^species and varieties 
are most worthy of cultivation, and in what countries or portions 
of countries the plants best adapted to our wants are found. 
Those which prove failures will also be pointed out, that we may 
know what to avoid in making our selections. In other portions 
of the grounds it is intended to illustrate the methods of making 
artificial forests, and the different ways of planting trees for 
economic and ornamental purposes. A museum and herbarium 
for the benefit of those who are studying ligneous plants scientifi- 
cally, or who may desire to name specimens or to select plants 
for horticultural purposes, has been commenced. This collection 
has already become quite extensive, and besides a very good 
herbarium of the woody plants of the temperate zone, includes 
specimens of the wood of nearly all the North American forest 



ORNAMENTAL ARBORICULTURE. 169 

trees, together with a large number of foreign species. It is 
intended to include in the collection everything relating to trees 
and forests that will illustrate the subject botanically or horticul- 
tural^'. AVith these objects constantly in view, the Arboretum, 
with its collections now existing, and those which will inevitably 
follow, offers to all who desire to study the trees, whether scientifi- 
cally or in their horticultural or economic aspects, such an oppor- 
tunity as until now never has been given our people. The Arbore- 
tum is so situated, that the experiments conducted there will not 
only be of great value to this portion of New England, but will 
apply to a large part of the whole country as well. 

Arboriculture is indebted to horticulture for the production of 
mam' valuable garden varieties of trees. The magnificent variety 
of Rhododendrons and Azaleas, and the hybrid Magnolias and other 
plants, attest the zeal and success of enlightened horticulturists, 
and by the preservation of such natural sports as the Purple 
Beech and some of the cut-leaved Birches and Maples, as well as 
the finer sorts of weeping trees, horticulturists have contributed 
many valuable additions to our ornamental collections. But there 
is a tendency to overdo this as well as other branches of garden- 
ing, and we find the absurd practice too much in vogue, of saving 
and perpetuating many monstrosities which should never receive a 
place in airy collection. There are long lists of golden-leaved, cut- 
leaved, and blotched-leaved varieties, which are but diseased and 
short lived abnormal conditions and arrested growths of healthier 
plants, and are wholly unworthy of preservation. Nor can much 
more that is favorable be said of the many so-called " inverted" 
varieties of* hardy trees. This fashion is as unhealthy as the 
plants themselves, and should be as short lived. 

If one-tenth the energy which is devoted to the propagation of 
such plants were given to the study of climate, and the intro- 
duction of new species, our gardens and plantations would better 
illustrate the advances that modern science has made in botanical 
geograplry and the knowledge of plant life. Nor is it enough to 
select and secure proper trees for our plantations ; it is as neces- 
sary to properh' care for them as to plant them. Too little atten- 
tion is paid to the proper thinning and pruning of our trees. It is 
a subject little understood or practised here, although in Europe 
its importance has long been recognized, and pruning forms an 
important part of the arboriculturist's duty. The want of proper 



170 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

pruning and care is especially noticeable in our city and roadside 
trees. They are too often left to themselves, or else mutilated in 
rude attempts at unscientific pruning. To supply information on 
this important subject, the Massachusetts Society for Promo- 
ting Agriculture has recently caused to be translated from 
the French, a treatise from the pen of the Count des Cars ; a 
work which has passed through many editions in France, and 
which is of great practical value. It should be in the hands of 
every one who has charge of trees, or is interested to see them 
properly managed. Could Mons. des Cars's directions be followed, 
the trees on Boston Common, and in the parks and streets of our 
cities, would present a very different appearance, and their chances 
for long life and greater beauty would be immensely increased. 

The science of arboriculture is in its infancy here, but under the 
influence that might be exercised by such institutions as the Arnold 
Arboretum and this Society, it should not long remain so. The 
subject is one of vast importance, and, whether considered scien- 
tifically, horticulturally, or from its economic aspects, should 
receive earnest consideration ; and there is, perhaps, no better way 
of calling the attention of the community to it than by first making 
trees attractive in ornamental plantations. One of the most 
experienced and scientific horticulturists, whose name is known 
wherever the study of plants is pursued, has said : " It is the duty 
of our enlightened community to plant trees, and to so care for 
them that posterity shall not suffer ; a duty, unfortunately, too 
little regarded in our day." 

Appendix. 

List of Trees which mat be used for Ornamental Plantations in the 

Northern United States, arranged under the regions 

indicated above. 

Such as have not been thoroughly tested, but which may be 
expected to succeed, are marked by an asterisk. 

I. Appalachian, or Atlantic American. 
Magnolia acuminata (Cucumber tree) . 
" cordata. 
" Fraseri. 
" glauca (Sweet Bay) . 
" macrophylla. 
" Umbrella (Umbrella tree). 



LIST OF ORNAMENTAL TREES. 171 

Liriodendron Tulipifera (Tulip tree). 
Tilia Americana (Basswood, Linden) . 

* " heterophylla (Southern Linden). 
JEsculus flava (Sweet Bucke3*e). 

" glabra (Ohio Buckeye). 
" Pavia. 
Acer dasycarpum (White or Silver Maple). 

4 ' Pennsylvanicum (Striped Maple). 

" rubrura (Red or Swamp Maple). 

" saccharinum (Sugar Maple). 

" " var. nigrum (Black Maple). 

" spicatum (Mountain Maple). 
Negundo aceroides (Box Elder) . 
Rhus typhina (Stag-horn Sumach). 

" glabra. 

* " cotinoides. 
" copaliina. 

Robinia Pseudacacia (Locust) . 

" viscosa (Clammy Locust). 
Cladrastis tinctoria (Yellow- wood) . 
Gymnocladus Canadensis (Kentucky Coffee tree). 
Cercis Canadensis (Red-bud) . 
Gleditschia triacanthos (Honey Locust, Three-thorned 

Acacia). 
Prunus Americana (Canada Plum). 
" Pennsylvanica (Bird Cherry). 
" serotina (Black Cherry). 
Pirus Americana (American Mountain Ash). 
*' sambucifolia. 

" coronaria (American Crab Apple) . 
" angustifolia. 
Crataegus cordata (Washington Thorn) . 
" Crus-galli (Cockspur Thorn). 
" coccinea (Scarlet-fruited Thorn). 
" sub-villosa (from the Valley of the Mississippi). 
" tomentosa (Black Thorn) . 
Amelanchier Canadensis (June-berry). 
Cornus florida (Flowering Dogwood) . 
Nyssa multiflora (Tupelo). 
Viburnum Lentago (Sheep-berry) . 



172 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Viburnum prunifolium (Black Haw). 

" alternifolium. 
Ox3 T clendrum arboreum (Sorrel tree). 
Kalmia latif olia (Laurel) . 
Rhododendron maximum (Great Laurel). 
Diosp3'ros Virginiana (Persimmon). 
Halesia tetraptera (Silver-bell tree). 
Fraxinus Americana (White Ash). 
u pubescens (Red Ash). 
" quadrangulata (from Michigan, etc.). 
" sambucifolia (Black Ash) . 
" viriclis. 
Chionanthus Virginica (Fringe tree) . 
Catalpa bignonioides. 

44 speciosa (Western Catalpa). 
Sassafras officinale. 
*Ulmus alata (Winged Elm) . 
" Americana (White Elm) . 
" fulva (Slippery Elm) . 

" racemosa (Rock Elm, from the Western States). 
Celtis occidentalis (Nettle tree) . 
Moras rubra (Red Mulberry). 
Maclura aurantiaca (Osage orange) . 
Platanus occidentalis (Buttonwood) . 
Juglans cinerea (Butter-nut) . 

" nigra (Black Walnut). 
Carya alba (Shag-bark Hickory). 
" sulcata (Western Hickory). 
" amara (Bitter-nut Hickory) . 
" porcina (Pig-nut Hickory) . 
" tomentosa (White-heart Hickory) . 
Quercus alba (White Oak). 

" bicolor (Swamp White Oak). 
" coccinea (Scarlet Oak). 
* " heterophylla (from New Jersey, Delaware, etc.) 
" imbricaria (Shingle Oak). 

macrocarpa (Over-cup Oak, Burr Oak) . 
Muhlenbergii (Chestnut Oak), 
palustris (Pin Oak). 
Phellos (Willow Oak). 



u 



u 



LIST OF ORNAMENTAL TREES. 173 

Quercus Prinus (Rock Chestnut Oak) . 
" rubra (Red Oak). 
" stellata (Post Oak). 
" tinctoria (Yellow-barked Oak) . 
Castanea vulgaris, var. Americana (Chestnut) . 

" pumila (Chinquapin). 
Fagus ferruginea (Beech). 
Ostrya Virginica (Hop Hornbeam) . 
Carpinus Caroliniana (Blue Beech, Iron Wood). 
Betula alba, var. populifolia (White or Gray Birch). 
" lenta (Black or Sweet Birch). 
" lutea (Yellow Birch). 
44 nigra (Red or River Birch). 
" papyracea (Paper or Canoe Birch). 
Alnus incana (Speckled Alder) . 

" serrulata (Blunt leaved Alder). 
Salix nigra (Black Willow). 

44 corclata (Heart-leaved Willow) . 
u lucida (Shining Willow). 
Populus balsamifera. 

" " var. candicans (Balm of Gilead) . 

44 grandidentata (Large-toothed Aspen) . 
" tremuloides (American Aspen). 
" monilifera (Necklace Poplar). 
, Juniperus Virginiana (Red Cedar). 
Chamaecyparis sphseroidea (White Cedar). 
Thuja occidentalis (Arbor Vitse). 
Taxodium distichum (Bald Cypress). 
Abies balsamea (Balsam Fir). 
Tsuga Canadensis (Hemlock). 
* " Caroliniana (from North Carolina, etc.). 
Picea alba (White Spruce) . 
44 nigra (Black Spruce). 
Larix Americana (American Larch) . 
Pinus Banksiana (Gray Pine). 
44 resinosa (Red Pine) . 
" pungens (Table Mountain Pine). 
' l rigida (Pitch Pine) . 
" Strobus (White Pine). 
" inops (Jersey Scrub Pine). 



174 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

II. Northeastern Asia. 

A. China and Manchooria. 

Magnolia conspicua (Yulan). 
" stellata. 

" (garden hybrids and varieties). 
Liriodendron (species from Northern China). 
Phellodendron Amurense. 
Tamarix Chinensis (Chinese Tamarisk). 
*Tilia Mandshurica (Manchoorian Linden). 
*JEsculus Chinensis (Chinese Horse Chestnut). 
*Acer Mono. 
" Tartaricum. 

" " var. Ginnala (Fragrant Maple) 

Cladrastis Amurensis. 
Gleditschia ferox (Thorny Honey Locust) . 
*Gynmocladus Chinensis (Chinese Coffee tree) . 
Crataegus orientalis. 
Prunus Maacii. 

* " Mume. 
Cedrela Chinensis. 

*Fraxinus Mandshurica (Manchoorian Ash). 
*Pterocar}^a stenoptera. 
*Quercus Mongolica. 
*Betula Ermani. 

* " ulmifolia (Elm-leaved Birch) . 
Juglans Mandshurica (Manchoorian Walnut) . 
Taxodium heterophyllum (Glyptostrobus) . 
Pinus Bungeana (White-barked Pine) . 

" Mandshurica. 
Juniperus Chinensis. 
Pseudolarix Kaempferi. 

B. Japan. 

Tilia cordata. 
*Acer crataegifolium (Hawthorn-leaved Maple) . 

* " micranthum. 

" porymorphum (including some varieties). 
" rutin erve. 
" Japonicum. 



LIST OF ORNAMENTAL TREES. 175 

*Acer Sieboldianum. 

" pictum. 

* " tvuncatum. 

* " trifidum. 

* " diabolicum. 

* " circumlobatum. 

* " Buergerianum. 
u palm at um. 

" capillipes. 

" carpinifolium. 

* " distrlum. 

* " argutum. 

* " pycnanthum. 

* " sessilifolium. 

* " Nikoense. 
Negundo cissifolium. 

Rhus semi-alata. (R. Osbeckii of authors). 
*Phellodendron Japouicum. 
Gleditschia Japonica. 

Cercis Chinensis (C. Japonica of gardens). 
Sophora Japonica. 
Pirus Toringo. 

* " tomentosa. 

* " prsecox. 

" spectabilis. 
Koelreuteria Japonica. 
*Zelkowa Keaki. 
" stipulacea. 
Idesia potycarpa. 

Rhododendron (species and garden varieties) . 
*Fraxinus longicuspis. 

* " obovata. 

* " pubinervis. 
*Platycarpa strobilacea. 

Ulmus parvifolia. 
Morus alba. 
*Pterocaiya rhoifolia. 
Juglans Sieboldii (Japanese Walnut). 

* " cordiformis. 



176 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



*Quercus glabra. 






* " dentata. 






* " serrata. 






* " cuspidata. 






*Fagus Sieboldii. 






Castanea Japonica. 






*Betula Bhojpattra. 






* u corjifolia. 






* " Maximo wicziana. 






*Carpinus Japonica. 






* u laxiflora. 






* " erosa. 






* " cord at a. 






Alnus Japonica. 






*Thuja dolabrata. 






* " Japonica. 






* " orientalis. 






" " var. pendula. 






Chamseeyparis (Retinospora) pisifera 






a a ■ a 


var. 


squarrosa. 


a a a 


a 


leptociada. 


a tt a 


a 


plumosa. 


a a a 


a 


filifera. 


" u obtusa. 






a a a 


a 


lycopodioides 


a a u 


a 


pygmsea. 


u a a 


a 


nana. 


a a a 


a 


Keteleerii. 


u it a 


a 


breviramea. 


it it a 


a 


pendula. 


U U it 


a 


filipnirTps. 



Juniperus rigida. 

* " Nipponica. 

* " littoralis. 

* " Davurica. 
Cepbalotaxns clrupacea. 
Taxus cuspidata. 

Sciadopitys verticillata (Umbrella Pine) . 

Pinus densiflora (often cultivated as P. Massoniana). 

* " Thunbergii. 



LIST OF ORNAMENTAL TREES. 177 

Pinus parviflora. * 

" Koraiensis. 
Tsuga Japonica (Japanese Hemlock). 
Gingko biloba (Gingko tree, Salisburia). 
Larix laeptolepis. 

III. Special Regions. 
A. Rocky Mountain region of Colorado. 

Acer glabrum. 
♦Robinia Neo-Mexicana. 
•Crataegus rivularis. - 

Betula occidentalis. 

*Populus angustifolia (Narrow-leaved Poplar). 

Abies concolor (White Fir). 
* " subalpina. 

Pseudotsuga Douglasii (Douglas Fir). 

Picea Engelmaimii. 

" pungens (Blue Spruce). 

Pinus ponderosa, car. scopulorum. 

B. Siberia. 

Caragana arborescens. 
Halimodendron argenteum. 
Ulmus pumila. 
Picea obovata. 

C. Toorkistan. 
Fraxinus potimophila. 

D. Thibet. 
*Pinus Gerardiana. 

E. Caucasus. 

Acer laetum. 
Zelkowa crenata. 
Pterocarya fraxinifolia. 
Carpinus Duanensis. 
Picea orientalis. 
Abies Nordmanniana. 
" Cilicica. 



178 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

IV. Exceptional Species. 

A. Pacific Slope. 

Species of the Pacific forest of more or less wide geographical 
range, which should be tested in New England, from their more 
northern limits in the Rocky Mountains and Coast Ranges. 

Rhamnus Purshiana. 
Acer circinnatum. 

* u macrophyllum. 
^Crataegus Douglasii. 
*Pirus rivularis. 

Fraxinus Oregana. 
*Quercus Garryana. 
*Populus tricocarpa. 
*Alnus rubra. 

* " rhombifolia. 
*Salix lasiandra. 
*Torreya taxifolia. 
*Chama3C3'paris Nutkaensis. 

*Thuiopsis borealis (of gardens. Hardy in New York). 
*Thuja gigantea. 

* Abies nobilis. 

* " grandis. 

* " amabilis. 
*Tsuga Mertensiana. 

* " Pattoniana. 
*Picea Sitchensis. 
*Larix Lyallii. 

* " occidentalis. 
*Pinus albicaulis. 

* " contorta, var. Mumryana (Twisted Pine). 
" flexilis. 

* " Lambertiana. 

* " monticola. 

B. European. 

JEsculus Hippocastanum (Horse Chestnut) . 
Acer campestre. 
" platanoides (near the ocean). 



ORNAMENTAL ARBORICULTURE. 179 

Tilia argentea (Silver-leaved Linden) . 

" das3'st3'lis. 
Fraxinus ornus. 
Ulmus montana. 

" campestris. 
Qnercus cerris (Turkey Oak). 
* " Pannonica. 
Carpinus Betulus. 
Salix alba (White Willow). 

" laurifolia. 
Populus alba (White Poplar) . 
*Picea Omorika. 
Larix Europsea (European Larch) . 

Discussion. 

Charles M. Hovey, who had been appointed to lead the discus- 
sion, expressed regret that the reading of so valuable a paper 
should have been fixed for this holiday season, when there were 
comparatively few to listen to it. The subject covers a great deal 
of ground. Mr. Hovey spoke of the growth of certain trees in 
certain climates, such as the Abies Douglasii, which is found from 
the Columbia river to the Colorado. Forty 3'ears ago, he imported 
two or three dozen trees from England, but they all perished in a 
few years. He thought there was something in taking seed from 
trees growing in northern regions. He had never seen a tree of 
Abies Douglasii ten feet high in this country, except at Mr. Hun- 
newell's. 

Professor Robinson said he knew of trees of the Douglas Fir 
raised from Colorado seed, twelve feet high, and that this species 
forms an admirable illustration of the rule that trees raised from 
seed collected on the Pacific slope, are tender, while those of the 
same species from Colorado seed are hardy here. All the Califor- 
nia trees raised in England fortj r years ago were from seed col- 
lected on the Pacific slope. 

Mr. Hovey said that Mr. Hunnewell imported trees of Cedrus 
Deodara, which, though they proved tender, grew large enough 
to produce seed, and the trees raised from this seed proved hardy. 
It is not enough that trees should stand our ordinary winters ; 
the true test is a winter of unusual severity, and we have had no 



180 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

very severe winter here since 1861. From 1846 to 1857 we had 
moderate winters, and Seqnoias and Cedars of Lebanon in the 
grounds of the speaker, grew up to the height of six feet, but in 
1857 they all went down, and many others were injured in 1861. 
Trees cannot be recommended as hardy from a trial of three or 
four years under the most favorable circumstances. He knew no 
living Cedar of Lebanon or Deodar Cedar of any size here. A few 
years ago he left four camellias out-doors in the winter, with a thick 
covering of leaves and evergreen boughs among the branches, to 
test their hardiness. They remained green and healthy with the 
temperature as low as eight degrees ; after that it fell to zero with 
snow, but when spring came they were all killed down to the 
ground. The average winter temperature of the shores of Buz- 
zard's Baj' is twenty-eight degrees, which is two degrees higher 
than that of Boston. The Prinos glabra, which is there a beauti- 
ful evergreen shrub, is here so much injured as to destro}' the 
glossiness of its leaves. The American Holl} T , which grows 
around the shores of Buzzard's Bay, finds its northern limit in the 
vicinity of Bridgewater. 

Mr. Hovey said that he admired the English Elm, but objected 
to it as a street tree. The limbs grow out horizontally, and those 
on the Beacon street mall stretch almost across the street. He 
had read of elm trees in England which were dangerous, from this 
cause. The American Elm, on the contrary, grows more erect, 
does not give too much shade, and the limbs will not interfere 
with travel. The English elm holds its leaves longer than the 
American, which is an advantage. The Sugar Maple is a fine tree, 
of slow growth ; it takes about thirty years to get it thirty feet 
high, and our people are unwilling to wait for it. The same may 
be said of the Scarlet Maple. The White, or Silver Maple, is of 
more rapid growth, and a very fine tree. Its greatest fault is that 
the branches are liable to be brokea by gales, but the broken limbs 
may be cut off without material injury. The Oriental Spruce and 
Nordmann's Spruce, are two of the finest. He had raised seed- 
lings of the Salisburia, or Gingko tree, which averaged a foot of 
growth in a year. He thought the Gingko tree on Boston Com- 
mon was older than stated b} 7 Professor Robinson — probably, eighty 
or ninet}' years old. The Liquidamber, whose foliage is so beauti- 
ful in autumn, is tender here ; the speaker has trees fifteen or 
sixteen feet high, but one half the growth gets killed back every 
year, and it is very slow work getting them up. 



ORNAMENTAL ARBORICULTURE. 181 

When Mr. Hovey began cultivating trees, American trees were 
not to be had in the nurseries here or in Europe, and he employed 
a man to collect young trees of the Canoe Birch, Hop Hornbeam, 
and others, in New Hampshire ; there was, however, but little 
demand for them, and some of them are now standing on his 
ground, fine specimens, forty years old. Nurserymen cannot be 
expected to raise trees for which there is no demand, and the 
Arnold Arboretum is just what is wanted to make the public 
acquainted with these as well as the new introductions. He was 
pleased to hear Professor Robinson's views in regard to introducing 
trees from corresponding climates. It is useless to attempt accli- 
mating trees. This is shown by the rhododendron. Three 3*ears 
ago, he visited Kew Gardens, after a hard winter, when nearly all 
the rhododendrons were perfectly brown, but noticed among a 
large plantation one which was green and uninjured. He gathered 
seeds from it and brought them home and planted them, and the 
seedlings looked promising until the severe frosts, early last 
October, when the whole of the last season's growth, which was 
not quite completed, was killed. Seedlings from Rhododendron 
Cataicbiense, were uninjured. We ma}' succeed, by hj'bridizing 
with the perfectly hardy species, in raising improved hard} r varie- 
ties ; but the process must be ver3 T slow. It is, however, the only 
way to secure the finer colors ; but, in getting these we are liable 
to lose their perfect hardiness. 

Mr. Hovey said that in 1844, he received the plates of a folio 
work by Mr. Loudon, on laying out arboretums, and when he went 
to England he visited the Derby Arboretum which was laid out by 
Mr. Loudon ; but he was rather disappointed in it. An arboretum 
should be a collection of all haixty trees, planted in groups 
according to the natural system. The Arnold Arboretum is yet in 
its infancy. We should be highly pleased to see the new trees from 
Toorkistan, and other newly explored regions, but we must not be 
too sanguine of their adaptation for general planting here, or too 
quick in deciding on it. By visiting the arboretum, we shall learn 
what trees are most desirable. 

William C. Strong, said that he felt greatly indebted to Profes- 
sor Robinson for the valuable suggestions in his paper. He asked, 
in reference to the greater hardiness of trees of Picea pungens^ and 
other species when grown from Colorado seed, as compared with 
those raised from seed from the Pacific slope, whether it was not 
5 



182 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the process of acclimation continued over a long period which 
made the difference. He agreed with Mr. Hovey, that nurses- 
men could not be expected to raise trees for which there is no 
demand, but they can do a great deal to educate the public taste.' 
He had had a large quantity of the Sojyhora Japonica, which he 
endeavored in vain to induce the public to purchase, and they 
finally went on the brush heap ; but, if there were fine specimens 
of this tree (both the upright and weeping forms) at the Arnold 
Arboretum, and of other beautiful but little known trees, a better 
day would come. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder felt obliged to Professor Robinson for 
his interesting and appropriate paper, which would tend to bring 
up the public taste at the right time, just as we have organized a 
S} 7 stem of public parks, taking in the Arnold Arboretum. The 
City of Boston stands higher today in education for its action in 
regard to the Arnold Arboretum. There we shall get the knowl- 
edge of trees which former ages could not get. The speaker 
thought Messrs. Hovey and Strong's apologies for the nurserymen, 
were quite sufficient. He was pleased with Professor Robinson's 
distinction between healthy and diseased leaved trees. Though 
there may be exceptions, the taste for such trees is unnatural, and 
the speaker did not believe it would continue long. He could not 
agree with Mr. Strong in regard to acclimation, but thought it in a 
general sense, a fallacy. Soil and situation have a great deal to 
do with hardiness. He has a Cedar of Lebanon on a ledge where 
there is but six inches of soil, and neither too much nor too little 
water, which has survived when every other one in New England 
(so far as he knew) has been destroyed. He wished to give all 
honor to such men as Messrs. Hunnewell, Ha} T ,es, and Sargent, who 
are bringing all the new trees and shrubs from Japan and else- 
where, and testing them. 

Professor Robinson said that we must draw the line between 
what can be accomplished by man in a single generation, and what 
can be done by nature in the course of ages. The changes effected 
Iry nature are gradual and imperceptible. The introduction of 
hardy and tender forms of the same tree from Colorado aud Cali- 
fornia, is very different from acclimation. Both forms were probably 
disseminated from one stock at the close of the last geological epoch, 
when they were forced north, some to Colorado and some to Cali- 
fornia, — perhaps a million of years ago, — and during that time, 



ORNAMENTAL ARBORICULTURE. 183 

which cannot be computed, have gradually acquired the differences 
which now mark them. 

Mr. Hovey referred to a list published in the "Gardener's 
Monthl} 7 ," for 1876 (page 194), of one hundred and seventy-five 
varieties of deciduous ornamental trees, growing in his grounds at 
Cambridge, including ten varieties of Magnolias, seven Limes, six- 
teen Maples, eleven Horse Chestnuts, eleven Hawthorns, sixteen 
Elms, fourteen Oaks, three Larches, Koelreuteria paniculata, 
Cladrastis tinctoria ( Yellow- wood) , Caragana arborescens, Nyssa 
bijlora, Taxodium distichum, Gymnocladus Canadensis, etc. 

It was voted that the discussion be continued on the next Satur- 
day. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 31, 1881. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Hon. Francis B. Hayes, in the chair. 

No business being brought before the meeting it was dissolved. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The subject was a continuation of that of last week, viz. : 

Ornamental Arboriculture. 

J. W. Manning was first called on, and said that our native trees 
have been greatly overlooked in planting for ornament. The 
White Pine is one of the best evergreens ; it is easily transplanted, 
and makes a good wind-break, and is valuable both for timber and 
fuel. The Hemlock is in increasing demand ; it makes a good 
hedge or a fine specimen on the lawn. Though it sometimes suffers 
from severely cold winds it is found growing naturally in very 
exposed places*. The Tupelo is inclined to root deeply, and is dif- 
ficult to transplant except when it has been frequently transplanted 
in the nursery, but a fully developed specimen is very beautiful. 
The autumn foliage is very richly colored. In swampy land it 
sometimes grows to two or three feet in diameter. There is a very 
fine specimen, with an umbrella-shaped head, in Everett, near 
Bell Rock Station, on the Saugus Branch Railroad. 



184 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

President Ha} T es mentioned two very fine specimens, a hundred 
feet high, in the grounds of Robert B. Parsons, at Flushing, N. Y. 

Mr. Manning said there is a very fine one, about eighty feet 
high, on the farm of Langdon Ordway, in Bow, N. H. Concord, 
N. H., is distinguished for beautiful elm trees. He thought the 
American Elm the handsomest of all the large shade trees. 

President Ha3 T es mentioned a remarkably beautiful elm near the 
old North Church in Concord, N. H. When his namesake, the 
President of the United States, was at Concord, he visited this 
tree, and took off his hat to it. He was so impressed with its 
beauty that he asked to revisit it, which he did, and suggested that 
the land on which it stands should be purchased and a fence placed 
around it, and presented to the city, to insure its preservation. 

Mr. Manning said there are several fine elms at Newbmyport. 
One near Byfield Station measures, at two feet from the ground 
and following the ridges of the trunk, forty-two feet in circumfer- 
ence, and at five or six feet from the ground eighteen feet in cir- 
cumference. 

John B. Moore wished to speak in favor of the elm, as the finest 
street tree in New England. It has been said that it will not grow 
except in moist soils, but this is not so. Its withy limbs withstand 
gales better than those of any other tree. It is a rapid grower ; 
one which he helped to plant about fifty 3 T ears ago, now measures, 
at eighteen inches from the ground, eleven feet in circumference. 
There are many trees in Concord which he planted, now from three 
to eight feet round. Mr. Moore spoke of a Three-thorned Acacia, 
six feet in circumference ; this tree is valuable for its timber, and 
is not troubled by the borer, like the common locust. There have 
frequently been great mistakes made when planting elm trees by 
roadsides, in placing them too close. One handsome, fully developed 
tree is worth many small ones. There are many varieties of the 
American elm ; one has the limbs feathered with small branches 
nearly to the ground, and it is one of the most beautiful, if you 
can keep the ignorant persons employed to prune street trees from 
cutting them off. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder asked Mr. Moore if the elm will grow 
in a soil of all sand. 

Mr. Moore replied that it has a faculty of going through three 
or four rods of gravel to get at a good soil. This was done by 
two which he set out twenty-five or thirty years ago, and the sue- 



ORNAMENTAL ARBORICULTURE. 185 

cess of which, though he gave each a cartload of soil, seemed for 
a time rather doubtful. 

President Haj-es related an anecdote of Judge Chadbourne in his 
native town in the State of Maine, on the border of the State of 
New Hampshire, who, soon after potatoes were introduced, raised 
a barrel of them, which gave him such celebrity that he was made 
a judge. The judge planted several fine elm trees near his resi- 
dence, which were much admired, and Governor Hancock, of 
Massachusetts, hearing them praised, asked the judge to supply 
him with some like them to plant in Boston. Judge Chadbourne 
sent his negro man, Pompey, to select the trees, which were for- 
warded to Boston and planted there. Soon afterwards the judge 
missed some trees on his own grounds, which he had carefully 
reserved to adorn his mansion, and, on inquiry, it proved that 
Pompey, to make sure of giving the governor the best trees, had 
sent those which the judge had kept for himself. 

Rev. A. B. Muzzey said he felt a special interest in one branch 
of the subject under discussion. He thought the Horse Chestnut 
tree one of the most beautiful, both for its foliage and its flowers, 
the latte^ developing rapidly at a time when there are but few 
flowers. The horse chestnut tree, celebrated by Longfellow, was 
cut down, in spite of the remonstrances of those living in the neigh- 
borhood, because it interfered with the prospect from the west 
windows, of certain other persons. One tree on the same street 
was spared only because a remonstrance was made by ladies. Such 
acts are too common, even in New England. A neighbor of the 
speaker had a fine elm which was cut down in its prime because he 
wanted a little more ground on which to plant vegetables. Other 
instances might be mentioned of fine trees being cut down for a 
mere whim. These acts seem almost felonious, and the speaker 
thought it important that an influence should go forth from this 
Society to prevent such offences against good taste. 

Mrs. Mar} T E. Wellington spoke of a very fine English Elm at 
her home in Reading, one hundred and seventy-five years old, 
which branches low and spreads so wide, and casts so deep a shade, 
that the family spend much of their time in summer under it. 

AVilliam C. Strong referred to the subject of acclimation, and 
said that, though no one thinks tropical trees can be made hardj' in 
New England, there might be a question as to half-hardy trees. 
Professor Robinson's explanation of the hardiness of Picea pun- 



186 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

gens, from California seed, did not strike him as plausible. Trees 
raised from California seed are almost hardy here, and quite hardy 
in France and England ; and it is reasonable to suppose that seeds 
may have been conveyed from California into greater altitudes and 
colder regions. Corn taken from here to Canada will ripen earlier, 
and when brought back becomes a six weeks corn. The case is 
the same with the tomato. Professor Robinson's instance of the 
Magnolia glauca, which, when grown here is perfectly hardy, 
while plants of the same species brought from Florida would not 
survive a single winter, is a parallel case. The speaker thought 
plants from milder climates might be gradually accustomed to that 
of New England, and he brought up the subject because he deemed 
it of practical importance. We are introducing many new trees, 
and shall we cast away all that do not appear to stand our climate ? 
The speaker thought they might be acclimated as men are. The 
fact that men may become acclimated, encourages us to hope that 
trees may. In long extended experiments, we may not succeed 
with a majority, but with others we maybe successful. We ought 
to have institutions like the Arnold Arboretum where such experi- 
ments can be carried on. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder said that Mr. Strong's views were 
practical, but he would like to have him mention an instance where 
a tree had been acclimated. 

Mr. Strong replied that Picea Nordmanniana is of questionable 
hardiness when young, but afterwards becomes quite hard}'. 
Cnpressus Lawsoniana is hopeful ; it sometimes produces seed 
here, and the seedlings may be hardy. He had got the type up to 
eight feet in height. Many Japan plants are hopeful. With many 
plants there is no prospect of hardiness, but with others there may 
be. 

Thomas Whitaker said that the question of acclimation was an 
important one, and understanding it will unlock a door which we 
have thought closed. Professor Robinson said that a certain tree 
which would nourish in England would not flourish here, and the 
speaker thought it might be so. More trees are lost here by summer 
killing than by winter killing. A tree from Siberia will no doubt 
stand our winters, but will it stand our summers ? People talk about 
the rigors of our winters as compared with those of England, but 
he could stand a New England winter better than one in old Eng- 
land. He spoke of a trip from Bingley to Bradford, England, with 



ORNAMENTAL ARBORICULTURE. 187 

the mercury at nineteen degrees above zero, and said that when he 
got six miles the horses and men were all white with hoar frost. 
After his return he had to take a second trip, and when he got home 
at night the water was pouring off his clothes. He had ridden ten 
miles in this country with the thermometer twenty degrees below 
zero, and suffered less than during his trip to Bradford. He had 
seen in England, currant and gooseberry bushes putting out leaves 
in February, but they do not mature their fruit earlier than they 
do here. They keep their leaves green until November, making a 
growing season of eight or nine months. In New England the 
season of growth is but about three months, and in that time the sap 
must ascend the trees and deposit the matter .to form the growth 
of the } T ear. In England this process goes on slowly, but here at 
race-horse speed. It is the same with all vegetables. Can we 
expect to change the habits of trees ? A tree from England has 
not time to mature its wood in one of our short seasons, and con- 
sequently is liable to injury in winter. All plants that can mature 
their wood take a longer time there. It is important in selecting 
seed to consider where it comes from, and where it is to be sown. 
He would prefer to get seed from sandy ground to sow on sandy 
land, rather than from a muck}^ soil. The question of adaptation 
comes up in every case. He thought trees might be brought from 
England and produce seed here, that might be called native. 
Plants grown under such different circumstances might be botani- 
cally alike, but physiologically there must be a difference, and in 
order to raise trees, plants, or vegetables to as great perfection in 
one country as in another, they must not only be botanically alike, 
but also physiologically the same, and it is to do away with this 
physiological difference that acclimation becomes of so much impor- 
tance. There is no doubt we are losing vast sums of money every 
year by not paying proper attention to this subject of adaptation. 
In England, in some winters wheat hardly stops growing ; it certainly 
would commence in February. In September, we should find that 
New England wheat had been in the barn six weeks, but in old 
England it would not even be reaped. Under these circumstances 
who would think of bringing seed from there here. 

Mr. Manning thought it was not strange that trees raised from 
Colorado seed should be hardy, for in 1880 the cold at the signal 
station at Pike's Peak was 69° below zero. At Denver, the "bliz- 
zards" brought a cold of 30° or 40° below zero. He saw trees of 



188 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the Douglas Spruce at the foot of Engelmann Canyon, which had 
made two feet of growth on the 28th of June. The next day, on 
Pike's Peak, at an elevation of about 12,000 feet, spruce and pine 
trees were just budding out. At this elevation he saw Pinus arts- 
lata three feet in diameter, and spruce trees of the Engelmann type 
from one to two feet thick and from fort}' to sixt}' feet high, but 
this was in a sheltered position. On the 10th of Jul}' he walked 
from Georgetown, the terminus of the railroad, at an elevation of 
8,000 feet, up the Argentine Pass, a distance of nine miles, pass- 
ing near the Twin Lakes, to the summit of the Pass, which is 13,- 
006 feet above the level of the sea. On this route the spruces at 
the highest limit of trees (more than 12,000 feet,) were a foot and 
a half thick at the base and only six feet high, and while on the 
windward side the branches were like stag's horns, on the leeward 
side they were fifteen or twenty feet long and ver}* luxuriant. The 
same species (probably Engelmann's) at an elevation of more than 
10,000 feet, grew two or three feet in diameter, and from thirty 
to fifty feet in height. The Douglas Spruce is not found at as 
great an elevation as Engelmann's. The speaker saw trees of the 
latter from twenty to one hundred feet high, and of all shades, 
from light green to misty blue. One tree of Picea pungens, near 
the South Platte River, was of a glaucous color, and measured five 
feet in diameter, and one hundred and ten feet in height, and 
spread forty-five feet, with vigorous' branches to the ground. 

The Red Oak transplants easily, and makes a good street tree. 
The American Basswood or Linden tree makes a good shade. It 
is adapted to a great variet} T of soils, from light and dry to moist, 
and succeeds well down to the verge of tide-water. 

President Hayes spoke of a remarkably fine elm opposite his 
summer residence in Lexington, planted soon after the settlement 
of the country, on the place where John Hancock, the grandfather 
of the governor, lived. 

Leander Wetherell alluded to the remark which he made last 
season that the elm is not adapted to sandy, gravelly soils. He 
had seen it growing indigenously between Rochester and Buffalo, 
in clayey soils, and the same in Canada. His opinion still is that 
it is not adapted to gravelly soils. He agreed with Professor Robin- 
son that the Sugar Maple is one of the best shade trees, but it is 
not adapted to gravelly soils. It is a clean tree. A native of 
Hardwick, in this State, who had made a fortune in California, 



ORNAMENTAL ARBORICULTURE. 189 

when on a visit to his old home, gave a sum of money for planting 
sugar maples along the streets of the town. The speaker agreed 
with Mr. Moore that the American elm is superior to the English ; 
he takes great pleasure in looking at the length and beauty of the 
limbs, which are peculiarly graceful. It is true that the English 
elm holds its foliage later than the American, but it does not put 
out so early. The planting of trees has engaged attention from 
the earliest ages, for we find in the Old Testament the record of 
care to preserve trees. We must allow for diversity of tastes in 
regard to trees, and with the great variety all can be pleased. 
Mr. Hadwen planted his trees himself, because he could get no 
one to do it as well. The first thing to be considered is the selec- 
tion of trees, and the second is care in planting. The speaker had 
noticed in Somerset street, horse chestnut trees defoliated by cater- 
pillars four or five years in succession, with the effect of changing 
their time of flowering from spring to August. This may be an 
advantage, as flowers are scarcer at that time than in spring, — as 
canker worms have changed the bearing year of Baldwin apple 
trees from the even to the odd year, to the great advantage of the 
owner. 

Mr. Wilder desired to say to Mr. Strong — go on with your 
attempts at acclimation — " nothing venture nothing have." But 
he had tried the Cedrus Deodar a, the Cryptomeria Japonica, the 
Cupressus Lawsoniana, and the Sequoia gigantea, and, like Mr. 
Strong, had succeeded in getting them up to some height, but 
afterwards they failed. Ellwanger & Barry, of Rochester, New 
York, procured a large quantity of Sequoia seed soon after the 
tree was discovered, part of which the}?- sent to Europe, and part 
of which they planted, and raised fine trees from it, but they have 
graduallj- diminished in number, until only a very few are left. 
We cannot adapt a tree to a climate different from its own by any 
process of cultivation, but when it is raised from seed another 
element is introduced. 

Notice was given that the discussion of the subject would be 
continued after the business meeting on the next Saturday. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS, 

FOR THE YEAR 1881. 



By WILLIAM H. SPOONER, Chairman. 



As we endeavor to fulfil the requirements of our official year in 
a brief retrospect of the work of the Society in this department, 
our special duty is to transcribe the successful achievements of the 
various cultivators who make the exhibitions valuable by their 
contributions. 

NEW AND RARE PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 

The past season has been unusually prolific in the appearance of 
new, rare, and valuable plants and flowers, and we have noticed 
various seedlings of native and foreign origin which deserve atten- 
tion. 

Roses. — Hon. Francis B. Hayes, President of the Societ}', exhib- 
ited, February 5th, Hon. George Bancroft, one of the Bennett 
Seedling Pedigree Roses, — so called. Color, bright rosy crimson, 
shaded purple, with Bourbon foliage. 

March 28, John B. Moore presented the following new roses : 

Gloire de Bourg-la-Reine. — Scarlet red. 

William Warden. — Light pink, of good form. 

Ferdinand Chaffolte. — Brilliant red, shaded violet. 

Mme. Oswald de Kerchove. — Of medium size ; white shaded 
pink, centre tinted coppery ; a desirable color. 

Catherine Soupert. — White shaded rose, a new color. 

In Mr. Moore's collection on the 5th of March, we noticed the 
variety Charles Darwin, of rich brownish crimson color. 

Ellwanger & Barry, of Rochester, N. Y., presented at the Annual 
Rose Show a seedling from Gen. Jacqueminot, very much in the 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 191 



way of Francis Michelon, t)ut the flower was not in the best con- 
dition to judge of its true merits. 

New Deutzia. — The Pride of Rochester, a seedling from D. 
crenata Jiore pleno , similar to its parent, but lighter in color, came 
from Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. 

Clematis. — Februar}' 12th, we had, from President Hayes, six 
clematis in pots, in the varieties 



Edith Jackman, 
Lady Londesborough, 
Mrs!! S. C. Baker, 



Prince of Wales, 
Sir Garnet Wolseley, 
Stella. 



New Hardy Shrubs and Plants. — August 13, Jackson Dawson, 
of the Arnold Arboretum, exhibited foliage and flowers of hardy 
shrubs and plants, as follows : 

Cephalanthus occidentalis. Hypericum prolificum. 

Menziesia polifolia versicolor. Spiraea salicifolia^Wir. Billardieri. 



" " var. alba. 

Erica vagans. 

" " var. capitata. 

" " " alba. 

u tetralix. 
Calluna vulgaris. 
Oxydendrum arbor eum. 
Clethra aim 'folia. 

" acuminata. 
Hypericum Kalmianum. 
" aureum. 

" patulum. 



Lenneana. 
rosea. 



" eximia. 

Clematis Davidiana. 

" coccinea. 

" Jiammula. 

" tubulosa. 
Sambucus Ebulus. 
Robinia hispida. 
Hydrangea radiata. 
" arbor escens. 



Hardy Perennials. — June 4th, Messrs. Woolson & Co., of 
Passaic, N. J., exhibited one of the best collections of Hardy 
Perennials ever shown in our Hall, under the following names : 



Achillea tomentosa, 
JEtMonema cordifolia, 
Allium serratum, 
" cairuleum, 
Amsonia angustifolia, 



k 



it 






var. Texana, 
Tabernwmontana, 



Anchusa Italica, 
Anemone Pennsylvania, 
Anthericum Liliastrum, 
Aquilegia cwrulea, 
Arenaria graminifolia, 
Arethusa bulbosa, 
Armeria plantaginea, 



192 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



BrevOortia coccinea, 
Calochortus Jlexuosus, 

" Gunnisonii, 

Ceanotlius ovatus, 
Clematis angustifolia, 
Corydalis pallida, 
Deutzia parvijlora, 
Dianthus Caryophyllus, 
Dicentra eximia, 
Gillenia trifoliata, 
Hemerocallis Thunbergii, 
Iris Sibirica, var. sanguinea, 
Jamesia Americana, 
Lathyrus palustris, 
Liliam callosum, 

" Davuricum, 

" pulchellum, 

" Szovitzianum, 

" tenuifolium, 
Pentstemon confertum, var. ccer- 



Pentstemon ovatum, 
Pentstemons — hybrids of P. 

grandiflorum and P. Murray- 

anum, 
Phlox pilosa , 
Polygonatum vulgare, 
Psoralea esculenta, 
Rhodotypus kerrioides, 
Romulea, sp. from Asia Minor, 
Rosa alba, 

" polyantha, 
" " rugosa, 
Silene maritima, 
Spiraea Filipendula fl. pi., 
Thalictrum, sp. from Japan, 
Valeriana officinalis, 
Veronica amethystina, 

" pro strata, 
Xerophyllum asphodeloides, 
Zygadenus Nuttallii, 



uleom pur pur earn, 

and twenty-five varieties of German Iris. 

Pansies. — From E. L. Beard came the finest collection we have 
ever seen of the chaste and delicately marked variet}' of Pansy 
Odier. 

Delphiniums. — Seedlings exhibited hy Dr. H. P. Walcott, were 
remarkably fine — the best presented for many years, with spikes 
ven- large and perfect in form, and the colors clearly defined. 

E. Sheppard also exhibited new Delphiniums in improved 
varieties. 

Iris ILempferi. — June 28, we had from Messrs. V. H. Hal- 
lock, Son, & Thorpe, of Queens, N. Y., a very fine assortment of 
seedling Iris Koempferi, and varieties. 

Jury 9, Francis Parkman sent a collection of seedlings, and other, 
varieties, even excelling his own productions of former years in 
the same class of plants. 

Hollyhocks. — From John C. Hove}', July 23d and 30th, we had 
improved Seedling Japanese Hollyhocks. In two years Mr. Hovey 
has made a great improvement in his seedlings, and has succeeded 
in producing some remarkably chaste and pretty single, double, 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 193 

and semi-double flowers, mostly with fringed or serrated edges ; 
the colors varying from crimson feathered into pure white edges, 
and bright red feathered into a deep border of white, to pure white 
and deep purplish black feathered into a fringed edge of white, and 
other variations of color. The leaf is smoother than that of 
the ordinary hollyhock, and the flowers are more sparingly pro- 
duced on the stem. They will prove great acquisitions, being 
particularly hardy. 

We notice a great increase in the cultivation of hollyhocks, and 
the exhibits of this flower the past season, have been much larger 
than for many years, and wholly of seedlings ; the principal con- 
tributors have been John B. Moore & Co., E. Sheppard, James 
Nugent, Miss E. M. Harris, and John L. Gardner. 

New Lily. — President Hayes has exhibited the new Lilium 
longiflomm vai\, having a variegated leaf with the old t\'pe of 
flower. 

Gladioli. — J. F. C. Hyde has shown his seedling, Hyde's 
White, in the finest condition, and your Committee had another 
opportunity of -seeing'the plant at his grounds. Mr. Hyde has 
taken great care in the selection of the conns this season, and has 
f ully fixed the flower in its character. The plant proves even more 
vigorous than last year, throwing up a strong flower stem four feet 
in height, crowned with a remarkably full spike of very large, well 
expanded flowers, facing boldly to one side. Many of the terminal 
flowers are semi-double. The growth is peculiarly vigorous, 
giving an average of three stems to each bulb ; man}' of them have 
five, and we noticed one with seven stems, indicating a remarkably 
prolific character, which will greatly add to its favor with the pub- 
lic. Your Committee are unanimous in the opinion that it is the 
best white gladiolus yet introduced. A First Class Certificate of 
Merit was awarded* to it three years ago, and we now recommend 
that the Prospective Prize of $40, for the best Seedling Flowering 
or Foliage Plant (for which it was entered three years ago), be 
awarded to James F. C. H}de, for the Gladiolus Hyde's White. 

James Cartwright exhibited on the 30th of July, his seedling, 
No. 128. Color, ros}~ w r hite, flaked crimson, edges darkly blotched, 
a line of white running through the centre of each division ; base of 
the perianth dark purple. 

Papaver Umbrosum. — George Craft has several times shown 
this new annual. It has a single flower ; color bright rich crimson 



194 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

with a deep black spot on each petal ; a free bloomer and very 
showy, and, with the increasing taste for the single varieties of 
this plant, will prove a popular sort. 

Variegated Dianthus. — This was from Henry R. Comley. 
The leaves are half green and half white, retaining their variega- 
tion in the hottest sun. It is perfectly hardy. 

Single Dahlias. — From E. Sheppard came new single flowered 
dahlias ; particularly noticeable were Paragon (dark maroon color) , 
Cervantesii, and Lutea. 

Samuel Smith, of Newport, R. I., exhibited very choice varieties 
of the same flower. 

Hovey & Co. have also shown flowers of this class. 

Chrysanthemums. — The Seedlings from Dr. H. P. Walcott 
were noticeable as a successful experiment in horticultural science, 
and perhaps the first attainment in this direction in this country. 
Undoubtedly another year will produce results worthy of the 
highest commendation. 

Pelargoniums. — Ma}' 7th, we had from William A. Bock a 
large collection of Seedling Pelargoniums, rnan}' of them very good 
flowers. We noticed No. 1, a double, and No. 16, single flowered, 
as promising. 

June 28th, V. H. Halloed, Son, & Thorpe, of Queens, N. Y., 
exhibited a very choice collection of Double Pelargoniums, the 
greater part of them seedlings raised by Mr. Thorpe of this firm ; 
the following descriptions are by Messrs. Hallock and Thorpe. 

Mrs. E. G. Hill. — Very large trusses ; color pale blush, over- 
laid with a delicate lavender shade. 

Peter Henderson. — Color bright orange scarlet, fine shape. 

Richard Brett. — Orange color — a new shade of color among 
double varieties ; very double. 

The Blonde. — Deeply shaded orange, base of petals white ; dis- 
tinct margin of white around each. 

Remarkable. — An improved Ernest Lauth, with better shaped 
flowers and of a deeper shade. 

Hazel Kirke. — With immense trusses of rich crimson flowers; 
short jointed growth. 

Robert George. — Deep crimson scarlet; of great size; a free 
flowerer. 

Messrs. Hallock also exhibited the following varieties : 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 195 

Apple Blossom, J. H. Klippart, 

Cheerfulness, Mrs. Charles Pease, 

Effective, William Hamilton. 

Henry Cannell, 

Gloxinias. — Fine strains of seedlings have been shown by Hon. 
Francis B. Hayes and E. Sheppard. 

Alter* aktheras. — A. paronycJioides major aurea, was shown 
by E. Sheppard, August 9th. Color, rich golden yellow ; habit 
dwarf and compact. 

Henry Ross exhibited at the Annual Exhibition, the new Alter- 
nanthera latffolia aurea, raised b}' himself. Leaves broad and 
smooth, of a rich yellow color, terminated with }dlow, green, and 
orange, coloring very early ; habit, compact. A distinct and de- 
cided acquisition among bedding plants. 

Indian Azaleas. — March 5th, we had from Hon. Marshall P. 
Wilder, a seedling which indicates a new break in the character of 
this beautiful plant, with a peculiar double flower; in color, light 
rose pink, and blooming in clusters of from eight to twelve flow T ers, 
in a truss similar to that of the rhododendron, with crested petals. 
As Col. "Wilder requested the Committee to affix a name to the 
plant, they concluded to give it the name of its distinguished origi- 
nator, Marshall 1'inckney Wilder. It was in the filth year from seed. 

October 22, Hon. Francis B. Hayes presented a very attractive 
variety, producing immense trusses of semi-double flowers ; color, 
dark orange, shaded w r ith bright violet, and blotched with choco- 
late ; plant a very strong grower, and a profuse and very early 
bloomer. It w T as raised by Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, and named 
by him Mrs. Francis B. Ha}es. 

Camellias. — On Thursda}', March 3d, your Committee, by 
invitation of C. M. Hovey, visited the greenhouses of Hovey & Co. 
to look at the Camellias, which were in the best possible condition 
of bloom. The greater portion of their plants are seedlings grown 
by Mr. Hovey, who has made the cultivation of this beautiful 
flower almost a life work. As the result of his indefatigable labors, 
be had elegant plants, ten to fifteen feet high, covered with flowers 
and in fine condition, to show us. In addition to varieties men- 
tioned in reports of former years, we noticed the following, the 
descriptions being furnished by Mr. Hovey : 

Suzette Hovey. — A very distinct and most beautiful variet}', 
in color quite new, as also in shape, having the cupped form so 



196 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

well known and exemplified in the old Centfeuille rose, but double 
to the very centre ; of a peculiar bright satiny rose color, more or 
less veined with carmine, and when about two-thirds open, ex- 
tremely difficult to distinguish from the most exquisitely formed 
rose, except b}' its foliage ; petals, round, regular, and finely 
formed. The plant is also remarkable for its very dense, branch- 
ing habit, and the profusion of its flowers, which continue to open 
an unusually long period in succession. . Leaves of medium size, 
ovate, nearly flat, very dark green. 

Eva Corinne Hovey. — A very robust and vigorous growing 
variety, with large, broad, thick, handsome leaves ; of regular, 
branching habit, and remarkably stout annual shoots, terminated 
with unusually large, globular buds, which do not open, like most 
Camellias, by the gradual unfolding of the outer petals, but open 
from the centre outward, and while opening have a peculiar and 
beautiful appearance, each petal being tipped with white, as in 
some dahlias ; as the\~ gradually expand, the flowers are so full as 
to form almost a perfect ball, but keep their elegant cup shape 
until they drop. Color, light rose, tipped with white ; very large ; 
petals large and broad, incurved at the tip. A most distinct and 
separate variety, quite dissimilar to a.uy other. 

Mrs. J. R. Carter. — A very pretty flower, of a ros} T crimson 
color, with a stripe of white in the centre of each petal. Flowers, 
medium size, very double, cup-shaped, and full to the centre ; 
petals, large, round. Plant vigorous, of an erect habit ; foliage 
of medium size. A beautiful variety, somewhat in the way of 
Jeffersonii, but superior to it. 

John Cummings. — Another variety of distinct color, being dark 
ruddy scarlet, an entirely new tint. Size, medium, quite double, 
but not so high in the centre ; petals well shaped. The plant is 
moderately vigorous, erect, with rather small leaves, but flowers 
freely and abundantly. 

Messrs. Hovey 's general collection of plants was looking remark- 
ably well, and Mr. Hovey may well congratulate himself that at 
the age of three score years and ten, he retains his early enthusiasm 
for horticulture and a remarkable energy and intelligence, which 
few can hope to emulate. 

March 5th, Hovey & Co. presented an extensive display of 
seedling camellias in twenty-one varieties. 

April 2d, Hon. Marshall P. Wilder placed upon the tables his 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 197 

new seedling camellias, Mrs. Julia Wilder, Jennie Wilder, and the 
variety A. J. Downing. 

Bouvardias. — Nanz & Neuner, of Louisville, Kentucky, sent 
flowers of Bouvardia elegans rosea multiflora or Williamsomi, with 
a very large truss of flowers, color delicate rose, a lovely shade ; 
also, their bouvardia Alfred Neuner, a new pure white double 
variety ; each pip is doubled, like a tuberose ; the plant is of a 
dwarf, vigorous habit, and, apparently, a profuse bloomer. The 
flowers were received through the mail, and not in the freshest 
condition, but by placing them in water, under suitable conditions, 
we were able to judge of their character. A member of the Society 
has the Alfred Neuner growing, and speaks very favorably of it as 
being as free a grower, and as profuse a bloomer as bouvardia 
Davidson. 

New Fern. — At the Annual Exhibition, we had from Miss 
Mary Pratt the beautiful new crested fern Lastrea Richardsii mul- 
tijida. This fern was sent out b} T Messrs. Veitch, and is described 
by them as a plant having fronds three feet high, including the 
stems, which are a foot long ; the pinnae are upwards of four 
inches long in the broadest part, and terminate in a densely fringed 
tuft of about fifty long, narrow, acute divisions. Its color is 
bright green. 

Begonias. — August 13th, A. H. Fewkes showed seedling hybrid 
tuberous rooted Begonias ; these were remarkably good flowers, 
and in desirable colors. 

Eben Bacon has also contributed a very fine collection of these 
flowers. 

The variet} 7 Marie Bouchet, with semi-double flowers, exhibited 
by President Francis B. Hayes, was also noticeable. 

Dracaenas. — At the Annual Exhibition, F. L. Harris presented 
another group of his fine seedling Dracaenas — Nos. 2, 5, 10, 30, 
100, and 125. 

Epacris. — January 15, President Francis B. Hayes exhibited a 
very beautiful collection of new Epacris. 

Ericas. — At the same time, and also on the 7th of May, Presi- 
dent Hayes exhibited an equallv fine collection of Ericas. We 
are glad to notice an increasing interest in these two classes of 
plants. 

Orchids. — February 5, James Cartwright exhibited a beautiful 
specimen of Sophronitis grandijlora with twenty-one blooms, and 
6 



198 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

we doubt if it was ever shown in finer condition anywhere. On 
the 5th of March we had, from the same, a plant of Dendrobium 
Wardianum. 

Stenocarpus Cunninghamii has been exhibited by Hon. Francis 
B. Hayes several times during the season ; this is a plant not often 
found in collections, although not new. Williams describes it as 
" a slow glowing but beautiful plant. The stem is erect, the 
leaves are from twelve to eighteen inches in length, four or five 
inches broa'd in the widest part ; dark green on the upper surface. 
Flowers bright scarlet, and produced from the stem." 

Anthuihum Andreanum, from New Grenada, was exhibited by 
F. L. Ames. It is described as having leaves of deep green. The 
erect flower stalk is longer than the leaf stalk and terminates in a 
decurved spadix, ivory white at the base and }ellow at the tip, 
about three inches long and as thick as a swan's quill. 

Hymenocallis Macrostephana, of recent introduction, with a 
large cluster of pure white flowers, was also shown by Mr. 
Ames. 

Ipomjea Horsfallle is a stove climber, in bloom from Novem- 
ber to Christmas ; very free growing, from thirt3'-five to forty feet 
in length, with an evergreen leaf similar in shape to that of the 
Ampelopsis quinquefolia. Flowers, purple-crimson, in large clus- 
ters of a hundred or more in a cluster. This is not a new plant, 
but desirable in a collection. It was exhibited by Mr. Ames, with 
the two preceding, at the Chrysanthemum Show, November 9. 



AZALEA AND ROSE SHOW. 

March 17. 

Indian Azaleas were not as largely shown as in some previous 
years. Francis B. Hayes, Marshall P. Wilder, Hovey & Co., H. 
H. Hunnewell, and Norton Brothers were the contributors, with 
about the usual varieties. 

Roses were not very numerous. Francis B. Hayes, John B. 
Moore, Norton Brothers, and W. J. Vass made very good displays. 

Greenhouse Plants were contributed by Hove} r & Co. and 
Francis B. Hayes. 

The Special Prize of a Silver Cup, value $20, for twenty stove 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 199 

and greenhouse plants, distinct species, for nurserymen and florists 
only, was awarded to Hovey & Co. for 

Alocasia gigantea, Dracaena Youngii, 

Begonia rubra, Eurya laU : folia, 

Chorozema varia, La'ania Borbonica, 

Chrysanthemum Madam Far- Martinezia erosa, 

feuillon, Pandanus Javanicus var. 

Crcton Youngii, " utilis, 

Dieffenbachia Bausei, " Veitchii, 

Dendrobium nobile, Pelargonium Poll isson's Unique, 

Dracaena amabilis, Rhododendron mullijlorum, 

" Goldieana, Tropaeolum tricolorum. 
" terminalis alba, 

Orchids were exhibited hy F. L. Ames and James Cartwright. 
Forced Bulbs were shown only by John L. Gardner, but not 
of so fine quality as those he presented last season. 

The Pelargonium Exhibition, May 7th, was not a success, no 
efforts being made to compete for any of the prizes for these 
plants. 

RHODODENDRON SHOW. 
June 4 and 11. 

Owing to the backwardness of the season, the award of prizes 
for Rhododendrons was postponed for one week, to June 11th, at 
the recommendation of Mr. Hunnewell and other large contrib- 
utors. 

Mr. Hunnewell presented seventy-two named varieties which 
were very choice, but agreeably to his customary practice, they 
were not entered for competition. 

Hon. Francis B. Hayes exhibited the finest group he has ever 
shown, a list of which is appended. 

Album elegans, BlaiKtyanum, 

Alexander Dancer, Brayannm, 

Atrosanguineum, Broughtoni, 

Auguste Van Geert, Bylsianum, 

Baroness Lionel Rothschild, Caractacus, 

Baron Schroder, Charles Dickens, 



200 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Concessum, 
Correggio, 
Countess Cadogan, 
Countess of Normanton, 
Cynthia, 
Decorator, 
Delicatissimum , 
Duchess of Edinburgh, 
Duchess of Sutherland, 
Earl of Shannon, 
Everestianum, 
Fastuosum flore pleno, 
Fleur de Marie, 
Francis B. Hayes, 
Frederick Waterer, 
General Canrobert, 
George Cunningham, 
Giganteum, 
H. H. Hunnewell, 
Iago, 

James Bateman, 
James Mason, 
Jean Verschaffelt, 
John Waterer, 
Lady Annette de Trafford, 
Lad} 7 Armstrong, 
Lady Dorothy Nevill or Stand- 
ard of Flanders, 
Lady Eleanor Cathcart, 
Lady Grenville, 
Lord Selborne, 
Madame Marie Van Houtte, 
Marginatum purpureum. 



Mirandum, 

Miss Meta T. Wilson, 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, 

Mrs. John Waterer, 

Mrs. Milner, 

Mrs. Russell Sturgis, 

Mrs. Shuttleworth, 

Mrs. Thomas Agnew, 

Nero, 

Nivaticum, 

Onslowianum, 

Ornatum, 

Papilionaceum, 
Paxtoni, 

Pelopidas, 

President Van den Hecke, 

Prince Camille de Rohan, 

Princess Mar}- of Cambridge, 

Purity, 

Purpureum elegans, 

Roseum elegans, 

Roseum pictum, 

Samuel Morley, 

Scipio, 

Sherwoodianum, 

Sir Robert Peel, 

Stella, 

The Queen, 

Tippoo Sahib, 

Vand} 7 ke, 

VerscharTeltii, 

William Austin, 



Mr. Hayes was awarded the first prize for thirty-six varieties, 
for eighteen, and for twelve. He also took both prizes for three 
trusses of blooms of one. variety : the first with Lady Eleanor Cath- 
cart, and the second with Mirandum. 

Hardy Azaleas. — The prizes for Hardy Azaleas were awarded 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON" PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 201 

on the 4th of June as scheduled. Hon. Francis B. Hayes took 

the first prize for eighteen varieties with flowers of 

Adelaide, Joseph Baumann, 

Adoree, Macrantha eximia, 

Arden, Marie Verschaffelt, 

Bessie Holdaway, Mme. Marie Van Houtte. 

Brilliant, Nancy Waterer, 

Calendulacea flammea, Radiata, 

Comte de Flandre, Reine Louise, 

Cuprea, Unique, 

Graf von Meran, Saphira. 

E. Sheppard took the first prize for six varieties with 
Calendulacea elegans, Fama, 

Clemence, Graf von Meran, 

Cuprea, Pallas. 

For a cluster of trusses of one variety Benjamin G. Smith 

presented a beautiful cluster of Graf von Meran pleno. 

Francis B. Hayes was the only contributor of Azalea mollis. 
Early Clematis were not shown in as large quantities as we 

supposed they would be. Joseph H. Woodford exhibited a good 

collection on the 4th of June. 



ROSE AND STRAWBERRY EXHIBITION. 

June 28. 

The exhibition this season was by far the largest and finest ever 
made by the Society, the quality of the flowers being exceptionally 
good. Owing to the prolonged coldness of the season the date 
was changed from Thursday, the 23d of June, as fixed in the 
Schedule, to Tuesday, the 28th. 

Special Prizes. 

William Gray, Jr., for the third time competed for and was 
awarded the Challenge Cup, for seventy-two as superb roses as 
were ever seen in our Hall and which justly deserved the award. 
His competitors this year were John B. Moore and Francis B. 
Hayes, who exhibited very fine flowers. 



202 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY/. 

Mr. Gray presented the following varieties, three of each, 
Caroline cle Sansal, Marguerite Brassac, 

Comtesse d' Oxford, Marie Finger, 

Duchesse d' Aoste, Marquise de Castellane, 

Duchesse de Caylus, Miss Hassard, 

£douard Morren, Mile. Bonnaire, 

fitienne Levet, Mme. Gabriel Luizet, 

Exposition cle Brie, Mme. la Baronne de Rothschild, 

Felix Genero, Mme. Prosper Laugier, 

Francois Michelon, Mme. Victor Verdier, 

John Hopper, Perfection des Blanches, 

Mabel Morrison, Pierre Notting, 

Magna Charta, Richard Wallace. 

For the third time the special prizes of silver cups were offered, 
and the competition for them was unusually brisk. A Silver Cup, 
value $25, for the best three roses of different varieties was 
awarded to William H. Spooner, for Duke of Edinburgh, Mme. la 
Baronne de Rothschild, and Victor Verdier. 

A Silver Cup, value $25, for the best six roses of different varie- 
ties to J. S. Richards. The list of varieties was not furnished. 

A Silver Cup, value $25, for the best twelve roses of different 
varieties to William Gray, Jr., for 

Andre Dunancl, Magna Charta, 

Charles Lefebvre, ' Marie Beauman, 

fidouard Morren, Mile. Eugenie Verdier, 

Thomas Mills, Mrs. Baker, 

Jean Soupert, Thomas Mills, 

Mabel Morrison, W. Wilson Saunders. 

A Silver Cup, value $25, for the best three roses of one variety, 
to John B. Moore & Co., for Duke of Edinburgh. 

A Silver Cup, value $25, for the best six roses of one varietj' , to 
Norton Brothers, for Mme. la Baronne de Rothschild. 

A Silver Cup, value $25, for the best twelve roses of one 
variet} T , to John C. Chaffin, for Mme. la Baronne de Rothschild. 

Society's Prizes. 

Hardy Perpetual Roses. For six new varieties sent out since 
1876, the first prize was awarded to John B. Moore & Co., for 
Alfred K. Williams, Doctor Sewell, 

Barthelmy Joubert, Grand Due Nicolas, 

Boieldieu, Princesse Blanche d'Orleans. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 203 

For the best twenty-four varieties, three of each, to John B. 
Moore & Co. for 

Abbe Bramerel Marguerite de St. Amand, 

Charles Lefebvre, Marie Beauman, 

Duke of Wellington, Marquise de Castellane, 

Dupu} 7 Jamain, May Turner, 
Ferdinand de Lesseps, Mile. Bonnaire, 

Fisher Holmes, Mme. Nachury, 

General Fore}*, Mme. Victor Verdier, 

General Jacqueminot, Paul Neron, 

John Hopper, Peach Blossom, 

Jules Margottin, Richard Wallace, 

Kate Hausberg, Thomas Mills, 

Lyonnaise, Vicomtesse de Vezins. 

For twelve varieties, to John L. Gardner, and for the best six 
varieties, to the same. No list was furnished of either of these 
two. 

For three varieties, to John B. Moore & Co., for Perfection des 
Blanches, Mrs. Laxton, and Duke of Edinburgh. 

Moss Roses. For the best six varieties the first prize went to 
John B. Moore & Co. for 

Comtesse de Murinais, Prolific or Gracilis, 
Lancel or Etna, Violacee, 

Lanei, Zaire. 

For three varieties, to John B. Moore & Co., for Gloire des 
Mousseuses, Crested, and Quatre Saisons. 

It will be noticed that the two fine old varieties Duke of Edin- 
burgh and Mme. la Baronne de Rothschild still maintain their char- 
acter as grand exhibition Roses. 



o' 



Special Prize for Stove and Greenhouse Plants. 

The Silver Cup of the value of $20, for the best Group of twent}' 
Stove and Greenhouse Ornamental Foliaged Plants, was awarded 
to S. R. Pay son, for 

Adiantum Farleyense, Bertolonia Van Iloultei, 

" gracillimum, Caladium Chant inii, 

Alocasia Sedeni, " Herold, 

" Thibautiana, " Souvenir de Mme. 

Artocarpus Cannonii, Andre" , 



204 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Cocos Weddelliana, Draccena Baptistii, 

Croton Lord Derby, " Goldieana, 

" Queen Victoria, " Leopoldii, 

" Williamsii, Hydrangea Japonica var., 

Cyanophyllum magniftcum, Pandanus Veitchii. 

Dieffenbachia Bausei, 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 
September 13, 14, 15, and 16. 

This presented special attractions from the fact that the Ameri- 
can Pomological Societ}*, by invitation, made its exhibition in our 
Halls, while the display of plants and flowers was held at Music 
Hall. The latter was somewhat differently arranged from the 
usual plan, and with excellent effect, having through its centre a 
platform containing about eight hundred square feet of surface 
upon which were grouped b} r H. H. Hunnewell and Samuel R. 
Payson splendid collections of plants, arranged with artistic skill, 
and blending their varied hues with perfect success. On each 
side were two smaller platforms filled with plants from F. L. Ames, 
Hovey & Co., J. Warren Merrill, Hon. Francis B. Hayes, John 
L. Gardner, and Miss Pratt; these were choice in qualit} r ,' though 
not all as large as those in the central group, which together with 
them, filled the body of the Hall with a mass of beautiful foliage. 
Upon the stage in front of the organ, William Gray, Jr., placed 
some fine tropical plants, and on the front edge were ranged a row 
of caladiums from Messrs. Hovey & Co., and Edwin Sheppard. 
At the sides of the Hall were stands filled with cut flowers by Mrs. 
A. D. Wood, Mrs. E. M. Gill, Messrs. Hovey & Co., C. W. 
Ross, J. W. Manning, William S. Ewell, James Nugent, and 
others, reflecting the greatest credit on all concerned in the display, 
which was the finest we have ever seen. 

The seats were removed from the front lower gallery, and two 
rows of stands for flowers placed there, which were filled with fine 
collections of gladioli from James Cartwright, Norton Brothers, 
and A. McLaren ; native flowers from Mrs. C. N. S. Horner and 
Miss M. E. Carter ; and foliage and flowers of rare hardy trees and 
shrubs from the Arnold Arboretum and W. C. Strong & Co. Under 
the gallery Mr. Manning arranged a large assortment of evergreens, 
and baskets filled with plants from Mr. Ewell, were suspended 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 205 

from the front, where there was also a display of orchids from Mr. 
Ames. 

Special Prizes. 

Stove and Greenhouse Plants. S. R. Paj-son was awarded 
the Silver Cup of the value of $40, for twelve Ornamental Foliaged 
Stove and Greenhouse Plants. They were 

Alocasia gigantea, Dracama Hendersonii, 

Anthurium cry stall inum, Erythrina marmorata, 

Cocos Weddelliana, Maranta Van den Heckei, 

Croton fasciatus, Pandanus Veitchii, 

" Veitchii, Phyllotoenium Lindeni, 

Dracama Baptist ii, Sphazrogyne latifolia. 

The second prize for the same, a Silver Cup of the value of $25, 
was awarded to F. L. Ames, for 

Adiantum Farleyense, Curculigo recurvata variegata, 

Alocasia Sedeni, Dracama Baptistii, 

'* zebrina, Ficus Parcelli, 

Ceroxylon niveum (Wax Palm) , Maranta Lindeni, 
Croton angusti folium, " virginalis, 

u variabilis, Nepenthes distillatoria. 

F. L. Ames took the Silver Cup of the value of $40, for ten 
Stove and Greenhouse plants' — five foliage, and five in bloom, 
with the following : 

Foliage Plants. 

Adiantum amabile, Cyanophyllum magnificum, 

Areca lutescens, Dracama Hendersonii, 

Croton Queen Victoria, 

Flowering Plants. 
Allamanda Schottii, Ixora Williamsii, 

Begonia rubra, Odontoglossum grande. 

Dipladenia Brearleyana, 

The second prize for the same, a Silver Cup of the value of $20, 
was awarded to H. H. Hunnewell, for the folio wins : 

Foliage Plants. 
Areca crinita, Maranta fasciata, 

Croton fasciatus, Sphairogyne latifolia, 

Dracama Bella, 



206 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Flowering Plants. 
Anthurium Scherzerianum, Ixora Amboinensis, 
Begonia rubra, Nerium Oleander album Jlore 

Cleroden drom fallax, pleno . 

Dahlias. The Subscription Prize, a Piece of Plate of the value 
of $10, for the best twenty-four dissimilar blooms, was awarded to 
E. Sheppard, for 

America, John MacPherson, 

Annie Neville, John Wyatt, 

Charles Leicester, King of Primroses, 

Constanc}', Letty Coles, 

Duke of Connaught, Michael Saunders, 

Emily Edwards, Mrs. Hodgson, 

Henry Glascock, Mrs. Swan, 

Hercules, Paul of Paisle} r , 

James Cocker, Picotee, 

J. C. Reicl, Prince Bismark, 

John Bennett, Stafford Gem, 

John Lamont, Vivid. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOW. 

November 9. 

Although very good, this was not as large as in some former 
3 T ears, the frost early in October undoubtedly injuring the plants 
to a certain extent. The contributors of plants were Dr. H. P. 
Walcott, H. L. Higginson, and Norton Brothers. Cut blooms were 
shown by Dr. Walcott, E. W. Wood, B. G. Smith, Mrs. E. M. 
Gill, and E. Sheppard. 

Orchids were shown by F. L. Ames, in his usual choice kinds. 

Miss E. H. Craft presented for the third time a design of 
autumn flowers, excelling her previous efforts. The design was the 
object of universal admiration for its beauty of form and exquisite 
combination of colors. 

MISCELLANEOUS EXHIBITS. 

President Francis B. Hayes has been a constant contributor 
throughout the season, his exhibits being peculiarh' valuable, and 
in variety of flowers embracing a wide range from week to week, 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 207 

seldom duplicating his previous shows, and thereby adding greatly 
to the life and variety of our weekly displaj'S. 

Cut Flowers. — The shows during the season have been re- 
markably good ; Mrs. A. D. Wood, Mrs. E. M. Gill, James 
Nugent, Mrs. L. P. Weston, George Craft, and E. Fewkes, com- 
peting for the prizes. 

Vases of Flowers. — A\ r e notice a great improvement in these. 

Annuals. — The prizes for Annuals, such as Petunias, Phlox 
Drummondii, Sweet Peas, Tropaeolums, Double Zinnias, Dianthus, 
and Marigolds, have found a large competition, and the displays 
were remarkably good. 

Perennial Phloxes from John B. Moore & Co. were notice- 
ably fine. 

Gladioli have not been shown in as large quantities as last 
season, but very good flowers have appeared from time to time. 
August 20th, J. F. Marble was awarded the first prize, for twenty 
named varieties in excellent flowers; George Craft, the first for 
ten spikes ; R. T. Jackson, for six spikes, and Franklin Batcheller 
the prize for a single spike, the variety being Baroness Burdett 
Coutts — a very large and beautiful flower; color, delicate lilac 
tinged with rose. It is of veiy vigorous growth. 

The exhibitors for the general display were James Cartwright, 
George Craft, and Herbert Gleason. 

Nymph.eas. — August 20th, Edward Haskell, of New Bedford, 
presented a fine assortment of Nymphozas in the varieties rubra, 
rosea, alba, and cmrulea. Mr. Haskell is a very successful culti- 
vator of this beautiful genus, and his collection is perhaps un- 
equalled in this section of the country. 

Native Flowers have not been shown as frequently as in 
former years, but on the Gth of August, the collections of Mrs. C. 
N. S. Horner and Mrs. A. J. Dolbear were very large, embracing 
a great variet}*, with the names attached. 

On the 7th of May, E. H. Hitchings presented several rare 
varieties, viz. : — Nardosmia palmata (never shown here before), 
Viola Canadensis, V. rostrata, Asarum Canadense, and Gaultheria 
procumbeus var. 

June 28th, the following Alpine Plants, collected on the Craw- 
ford bridle path, Mount Washington, N. H., by Edwin Faxon, 
were shown : 



208 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Arctostaphylos a Ip in a , Potentilla frig ida , 

Azalea procumbens, Rhododendron Lapponicum, 

Diapensia Lapponica, Rubus Chamcemorus. 
Empetrum nigrum, 

August 27th, Charles E. Marsh and Charles E. Pecker presented 
a new variety of Nymphaia (Pond lily) , three weeks earlier than 
the common white. It was found two miles from the Kennebec 
river. 

September 3, O. M. Holmes exhibited Nelumbium luteum, a 
very rare native species. 

At the Annual Exhibition we had from Mrs. Catherine Starbuck, 
of Nantucket, a collection of plants ; among them the following, 
which have never been shown here before : — Hypericum adpressum, 
Sabbat ia gracilis, Spiranthes simplex, and Erythrcea spicata. 

The amount of money prizes and gratuities awarded, is $1,494, 
out of the appropriation of $1,500. 

Prizes have been awarded from the Hunnewell fund to the 
amount of $64. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 



Wm. H. Spooner, 

E. H. HlTCHINGS, 

J. XL Woodford, 

F. L. Harris, 
James Cartwright, 
Patrick Norton, 
Charles W. Ross, 



Committee 
on 

Plants and 
Flowers. 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR PLANTS 

AND FLOWERS. 



January 1. 

Gratuity : — 

Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, $1 00 

January 8. 

Gratuities : — 

Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, 1 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " «• " 1 00 

John L. Gardner, Erica Willmorei, . . . . . . . 2 00 

January 15. 

Gratuities : — 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display of Flowers, 1 00 

W. C. Strong, Moss Rose in pot, 1 00 

January 22. 
Gratuity : — 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Display of Flowers, 1 00 

January 29. 

Gratuities : — 

Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, . . . . . . 2 00 

James O'Brien, Dendrobium nobile and Lilacs, . . . . 1 00 

Henry L. Higginson, Bougainvillea and Bignonia, . . . . 1 00 

February 5. 

Gratuities : — 

Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, 2 00 

W. C. Strong & Co., Cut Roses, 3 00 

11 " " " Rose in pot, 2 00 

Hovey &Co., Camellias, 1 00 

February 12. N 

Gratuities : — 

John E. Peabody, Collection of Plants, 5 00 

Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, . . . . . . 2 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " " 1 00 

W. C. Strong & Co., Hybrid Perpetual Roses, 2 00 



210 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



David Allan, Clianthus Dampieri, . . . . . . . $1 00 

John L. Gardner, Violets, 2 00 

Hovey & Co., Large Display of Camellias, 5 00 

February 19. 

Gratuity : 

Hovey & Co., Camellias, 2 00 



February 26. 

Gratuities : — 

Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, 
Benjamin G. Smith, Carnations, . t 

Hovey & Co., Camellias, . 
Joseph H. Woodford, Hyacinths, 
C. B. Gardiner, Cyclamen, 



2 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 
1 00 



March 5. 

Gratuities : — 

John B. Moore, Hybrid Perpetual Roses 
Hovey & Co., Camellias, . 
Henderson Inches, Hyacinths, . 
Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, 



3 00 
2 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 



March 12. 

Gratuities : — 

Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, 
Hovey & Co., Camellias, .... 



2 00 
1 00 



AZALEA AND ROSE SHOW. 

March 17. 
Special Prize. 

OFFERED BY A MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY. 

For Nurserymen and Florists only. 

Group of twenty Stove and Greenhouse Plants, distinct species, 
grown in pots not over eight inches in diameter, six to be in 
bloom, Hovey & Co., Silver Cup, value, .... 

Society's Prizes. 

Indian Azaleas, Six named varieties, in pots, Francis B. Hayes, . 

Two named varieties, H. H. Hunnewell, 

Specimen Plant, Norton Brothers, ...... 



$20 00 



$12 00 
8 00 
5 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 2 J 1 

Four named varieties, in not exceeding ten-inch pots, Marshall 

P. Wilder 

Single plant, in not exceeding a six-inch pot, Hovey & Co., . 
Hybrid Perpetual Roses. — Single plant. Francis B. Hayes, . 
Twelve cut blooms, of six named varieties, John B. Moore, . 
Six cut blooms, of four named varieties, John B. Moore, 
Second, John B. Moore, . . . . ... 

Single bloom, John B. Moore, ....... 

Second, Norton Brothers, ........ 

Tender Roses. — Display in dish, basket, or vase, William J. Vass, 
Third prize to Norton Brothers, ...... 

Greenhouse Plants. — Specimen, in bloom, other than Azalea or 
Orchid, Hovey & Co., ........ 

Second, Francis B. Hayes, ....... 

Orchids. — Three plants, in bloom, F. L. Ames, .... 

Second, James Cartwright, ....... 

Single plant in bloom, F. L. Ames, ...... 

Second, F. L. Ames, ......... 

Cyclamens. — Six plants, in not over eight-inch pots, in bloom, C. B. 
Gardiner, .......... 

Heath. — Single plant, in bloom, John L. Gardner, .... 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 

Primulas. — Three plants, single flowered, in bloom. John L. Gard- 
ner, ........... 

Three plants, double flowered, in bloom, Hovey & Co., . 
Violets. — Six pots, in bloom, John L. Gardner, .... 

Hyacinths. — Twelve bulbs, in pots, John L. Gardner, 

Six bulbs, in pots, John L. Gardner, ...... 

Single bulb, in pot, John L. Gardner, ...... 

Tulips. — Six, in pots, John L. Gardner, ...... 

Narcissus. — Four six-inch pots, John L Gardner, .... 

Camellias. — Display of named varieties, cut flowers with foliage, 
not less than twelve blooms, Hovey & Co., .... 

Second, Hovey & Co., ........ 

Six cut blooms, Hovey & Co., ....... 

Second, John L. Gardner, ........ 

Cut Flowers. — Display filling 50 bottles, not including Roses, Mrs. 

E. M. Gill, 

Second, Mrs. A. D. Wood, 

Hand Bouquets. — Pair, James Nugent, 

Basket of Flowers. — Best arranged, the second prize to Mrs. E. 

•M. Gill, 2 00 

Gratuities : 

« 

Marshall P. Wilder, Azaleas in pots, 4 00 

Francis B. Hayes, " " " 4 00 



m 


00 


4 


00 


5 


00 


6 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


5 


00 


3 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


10 


00 


6 


00 


5 


00 


3 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


3 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 



212 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



William J. Vass, Hybrid Perpetual Roses, 

Norton Brothers, " " " 

W. C. Strong & Co., " " " in pots, 

Mrs. A. D. Wood, Basket of Flowers, 

Hovey & Co., Display of Camellias, . 

E. Sheppard, Pansies, . . 

" " Display of Flowers, 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, " 

Francis B. Hayes, " " " . 

" " " Rhododendrons and Azaleas, 
" " " Camellias, .... 

James Cartwright, Orchids, .... 

Norton Brothers, Plants, 

Hovey & Co., " 



March 28. 
Gratuities : — 

John B. Moore, Hybrid Perpetual Roses, . . . 

W. C. Strong & Co., Mme. la Barorme de Rothschild Roses, . 

Hovey & Co., Camellias, 

Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, ..... 

April 2. 

Gratuities : — 

Francis B. Hayes, Azalea Charmer, 

Hovey & Co., Camellias, . . . . . . 

Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, . • 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " ** ..... 

April 9. 
Gratuities : — 

Francis B. Hayes, Heaths and Amaryllis, 
John E. Peabody, Plants, . 
" " Orchids, 

John L. Gardner, Polyanthus, . 
Hovey & Co., Camellias, . 

" " Azaleas, 

" " Epidendrums, 

" " Lily of the Valley, 

Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers 

April 16. 
Gratuity : — 

Francis B. Hayes, Display of Plants and Flowers, 

April 23. 

Gratuities : — 

John L. Gardner, Plants, . . • . 

Francis B. Hayes, Ericas, .... 



$2 00 
2 00 

2 00 
1 00 

3 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
2 00 

2 00 
1 00 
5 00 

4 00 

3 00 



1 00 

1 00 

2 CO 
2 00 



1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 



2 00 
5 00 
2 00 
2 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 



2 00 



10 00 
2 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 213 



Hovey & Co., Camellias, .... 
Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " " 

' April 30. 

Gratuities : — 

Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, 
Mrs. L. P. Weston, " 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, 
Hovey & Co , " 

Mrs. A. D. Wood, 

(( (c a 

B. G. Smith, Pansies, 



$1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



Flowers, 






1 00 


(< 






1 00 


(< . 






1 00 


" and Plants, 






1 00 


<< 






1 00 


Lilies in pots, 






1 00 


..... 






1 00 



PELARGONIUM EXHIBITION. 

May 7. 

Calceolarias. — Six varieties in pots, John E. Peabody, 

Second, John E. Peabody, ...... 

Single Plant, John E. Peabody, ...... 

Table Design, other than a Basket of Flowers. — Mrs. A. D. Wood 
Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 

Gratuities : — 

Hovey & Co., Pelargoniums in pots, 
William A. Bock, Seedling Pelargoniums, 
John Parker, Pelargonium Peter Grieve, . 
B. G. Smith, Pansies and Andromedas, 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, Plants and Flowers, 
Mrs. A. D. Wood, " " " 
Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, 
Hovey & Co., " " " 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, " " " 
E. H. Hitchings, Native Plants, 



Gratuities : — 

E. Sheppard, Cattleya Mossice, 

" Hydrangea Otaksa, 

" Pelargoniums, 



May 14. 



May 21. 

Gratuities : — 

Francis B. Hayes, Erythrina Crista-galli, 
Mrs. A. D. Wood, Display of Flowers, 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " " 

E. H. Hitchings, Native Flowers, 
George E. Davenport, Native Flowers, 
7 



|5 


00 


3 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


3 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



2 00 
1 00 
1 00 



1 00 

2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
1 00 



214 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



RHODODENDRON SHOW. 

June 4. 

Hunnewell Premiums. 

Hardy Azaleas. — Eighteen named varieties, Francis B. Hayes, 

Six named varieties, E. Sheppard, 

Second, B. G. Smith, 

Cluster of trusses, of one variety, B. G. Smith, . 



Society's Premiums. 

Tree Peonies. — Six named varieties, Marshall P. Wilder, 

Second, Marshall P. Wilder, 

Cut Elowers. — Display, filling 100 bottles, W. K. Wood, 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 

Hardy Flowering Shrubs. — Twelve named varieties, B. G. Smith, 

Native Plants. — Display of named species and varieties, Mrs. C. 
N. S. Horner, ; 

Clematis. — Early named Varieties, display of cut blooms, Joseph 
H. Woodford, .......... 

Table Design, other than a Basket of Eiowers, Mrs. A. D. Wood, 

Gratuities : — 

Francis B. Hayes, Ericas, 

John B. Moore, Clematis, Iris, etc., 

Joseph Tailby, Carnations, 

B. G. Smith, Pansies, 

H. H. Hunnewell, Display, 

Francis B. Hayes, " 

John L. Gardner, " 

E. Sheppard, " 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, " 

James Nugent, ' ' 

Hovey & Co., 

B. G. Smith, 

June 11 



$12 00 
4 00 
3 00 
2 00 



Azalea Mollis. — Six trusses, of different varieties, Francis B. Hayes, 2 00 



3 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 00 

3 00 

4 00 



3 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 



Hunnewell Premiums. 

Hardy Rhododendrons. — Thirty-six named varieties, one truss 

each, Francis B. Hayes, . . . . . . . . 15 00 

8 00 
G 00 
6 00 
4 00 
2 00 



Eighteen named varieties, Francis B. Hayes, 

Second, John L. Gardner, 

Twelve named varieties, Francis B. Hayes, . 

Three trusses of blooms, of one variety, Francis B. Hayes. 
Second, Francis B. Hayes, 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 215 



Gratuities : — 

H. H. Hunnewell, Rhododendrons, ..... 
Hovey & Co., Rhododendrons, Azaleas, and Clematis, 
Mrs. L. P. Weston, Display of Flowers, .... 
Edwin. Faxon, Native Flowers from the White Mountains, 
Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, ... 
E. Sheppard, " " " .... 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " " .... 

W. K. Wood, " .... 





$6 


00 




3 


00 




1 


00 




2 


00 




3 


00 




2 


00 




1 


00 




1 


00 



ROSE SHOW. 

June 28. 
Special Prizes. 

Hybrid Perpetual Roses. — Twenty-four varieties, three specimens 

of each, William Gray, Jr., a Challenge Cup, value, . . $150 00 
Three roses, of different varieties, William H. Spooner, Silver 

Cup, value, 25 00 

Six Roses, of different varieties, J. S. Richards, Silver Cup, 

value, 25 00 

Twelve Roses, of different varieties, William Gray, Jr., Silver 

Cup, value, . . . . . . . . . . 25 00 

Three Roses, of one variety, John B. Moore & Co., Silver Cup, 

value, 25 00 

Six Roses, of one variety, Norton Brothers. Silver Cup, value, . 25 00 
Twelve Roses, of one variety, John C. Chaffin, Silver Cup, 

value, 25 00 

Society's Prizes. 

Hardy Perpetual Roses. — Six new varieties, sent out since 1876, 

John B. Moore & Co., 6 00 

Twenty-four distinct named varieties, John B. Moore & Co., . 20 00 

Second, Warren Heustis, 15 00 

Twelve distinct named varieties, John L. Gardner, . . 10 00 

Second, Francis B. Hayes, 8 00 

Third, John B. Moore & Co., . . ' 6 00 

Six distinct named varieties, John L. Gardner, . . . . 6 00 

Second, John B. Moore & Co., 5 00 

Third, J. S. Richards, 4 00 

Three distinct named varieties, John B. Moore & Co., . . . 4 00 

Second, Francis B. Hayes, 3 00 

Third, Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y., . . . . 2 00 
Moss Roses. — Six named varieties, three clusters of each, John B. 

Moore & Co. 5 00 

Second, John B. Moore & Co., 3 00 



216 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Three named varieties, three clusters of each, John B. Moore 

&Co., 

Second, William H. Spooner, 

Tea and Bourbon Roses. — Twelve cut blooms, Norton Brothers, 
General Display, of all classes, Norton Brothers, 

Second, W. C. Strong & Co.., 

Third, J. S. Richards, 

Special Prize. 

offered by a member of the society. 

Group of twenty Stove and Greenhouse Ornamental Foliaged Plants, 
S. R. Payson, Silver Cup, value, ...... 

Society's Prizes. 

Stove and Greenhouse Flowering Plants. — Six distinct varieties, 
in bloom, F. L. Ames, ........ 

Second, John L. Gardner, ........ 

Specimen Plant. — Regard being had to new and rare varieties, F. 
L. Ames, ........... 

Second, John L. Gardner, ........ 

Herbaceous Peonies. — Ten named varieties, Hovey & Co., . 
Sweet Williams. — Thirty trusses, of not less than six distinct 

varieties, E. Sheppard, 

Second, A. McLaren, ........ 

Third, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 

Summer Herbaceous Plants. — Display of named species and va- 
rieties, filling twenty-five bottles, Hovey & Co., 
Second, James Nugent, . > . 
Vase of Flowers. — Best arranged, in one of the Society's glass 
vases, James O'Brien, ........ 

Second, Mrs. A. D. Wood, , 

Third, Francis B. Hayes, 



Gratuities : — 

» 

Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y., Display of Roses, 

William H. Spooner, " " " 

O. B. Hadwen, " " " 

Norton Brothers, Basket of Roses, . 

Patten & Co., Tender Roses, .... 

E. Sheppard, Tuberous Begonias, and other plants, 

Ellwanger & Barry, Trees and Shrubs, 

James Cartwright, Orchids, .... 

John C. Hovey, Paeonies and Pyrethrums, 

Miss E. M. Harris, Paeonies, .... 

William S. Ewell, Display, .... 

Mrs. A. D. Wood, " .... 



$3 00 

2 00 

3 00 
10 00 

8 00 
5 00 



20 00 



10 00 


8 


00 


6 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


3 


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2 


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1 


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4 


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5 


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4 


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3 


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10 00 


3 


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1 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


10 


00 


o 
O 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 217 



Mrs. L. P. Weston, Display, 
Francis B- Hayes, " 

E. Sheppard, " 

Hovey & Co., " 

Miss A. C. Kenrick, " 



July 2. 
Hybrid Perpetual Roses. — Twenty-five blooms, John B. Moore 

&Co., 

Second, John B. Moore & Co., .._.... 
Cut Flowers. — Display, filling 100 bottles, W. K. Wood, 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 

Third, James Nugent, ........ 

Table Design. — Best arranged, James O'Brien, .... 

Gratuities : — 

Francis B. Hayes, Display of Roses, ...... 

" of Clematis, 

B. G. Smith, Roses and Peonies, ....... 

Mrs. E. S. Joyce, Display of Flowers, ...... 

July 9. 

Lilium Candidum. — Twelve spikes, Herbert Gleason, 

Second, B. G. Smith, ........ 

Vase of Flowers. — Best arranged, in one of the Society's Glass 
Vases, James O'Brien, ........ 

Second, Mrs. A. D. Wood, 



Gratuities : — 

Jacob W. Manning, Iris Kcempfei'i, . 

" " " Display of Flowers, 

Francis B. Hayes, 
W. K. Wood, 
Miss E. M. Harris, 
Mrs. E. S. Joyce, 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, 

July 16. 

Hollyhocks. — Twelve blooms, of twelve distinct colors, John L. 

Gardner, 

Six blooms, of six distinct colors, John B. Moore & Co., 

Second, Hovey & Co., • . . . . . \ . 

Three blooms, of three distinct colors, E. Sheppard, 

Single spike, John B. Moore & Co., 

Second, John B.. Moore & Co., ...... 

Cut Flowers.— Display, filling 100 bottles, W. K. Wood, 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, # 

Third, Mrs. L. P. Weston, 



$2 00 
2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



5 


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2 


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4 00 

2 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



218 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Gratuities : — 

Herbert Gleason, Lilium candidum, . . . . . $2 00 

E. Sheppard, Hollyhocks, 1 00 

" " Pelargoniums, ........ 1 00 

Hovey & Co., Display of Flowers and Foliage, . . . . 2 00 

George Craft, " " " 2 00 

J. W. Manning, " " " 1 00 

Mrs. E. S. Joyce, " " " 1 00 



July 23. 

Perennial Phloxes. — Six distinct named varieties, one spike of 

each, the second prize to E. Sheppard, 

Pelargoniums. — Twelve double and single varieties, E. Sheppard, 
Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 

Gratuities : — 

John B. Moore & Co., Hollyhocks, 

Miss E. M. Harris, " 

James Nugent, " . 

E. Sheppard, " . . 

John L. Gardner, Erica Parmentieriana rosea 

Edwin Fewkes, Petunias, .... 

George Craft, Sweet Peas and Nasturtiums, 

" " Display of ,Flowers, 

Francis B. Hayes, " " " 

W. K. Wood, " " " 

J. W. Manning, " " " 

Mrs. E. S. Joyce, " " " 

E. H. Hitchings, Native Plants, 



2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


2 


03 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



July 30. 

Hybrid Perpetual Roses. — Twenty-five blooms, Francis B. 
Hayes, ........... 

Cut Flowers.— Display, filling 100 bottles, Mrs. E. M. Gill, . 

Second, George Craft, 

Third, W. K. Wood, ........ 

Collection of not less than eighteen named species of Annuals and 
Herbaceous Perennials, Mrs. E. S. Joyce, .... 

Second, George Craft, 

Vase or Flowers. — Best arranged, in one of the Society's glass 

vases, Mrs. A. D. Wood, 

Second, James O'Brien, 

Gratuities : — 

Francis B. Hayes, Hydrangeas, . . q 

John B. Moore, Phloxes and Hollyhocks, 



00 



4 


00 


3 


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2 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


1 


00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 219 



Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, 

E. Sheppard, " " " . 

George Craft, " " " 

R. B. Cummings, Bouquets of Native Flowers, 



$2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



August 6. 

Perennial Phloxes — Ten distinct named varieties, one spike each, 
John B. Moore & Co., 

Second, John B. Moore & Co., 

Petunias. — Collection, filling 30 bottles, Edwin Fewkes, 

Second, James Nugent, ........ 

Third, George Craft, 

Cut Flowers.— Display, filling 100 bottles, Mrs. E. M. Gill, . 

Second, W. K. Wood, 

Third, C. W. Ross, 

Native Flowers. — Collection, Mrs. C. N. S. Horner, . 

Second, Mrs. A. J. Dolbear, . 

Gratuities : — 
J. S. Richards, Gladioli, ..... 
Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, 
Hovey&Co., " " " . 

E. Sheppard, " " " 

Mrs. E. S. Joyce, " " " . . 

R. B. Cummings, Bouquet of Native Flowers, . 



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August 13. 

Phlox Drummondi. — Fifty bottles, not less than six varieties, 
James Nugent, ......... 

Second, James Cartwright, ....... 

Cut Flowers. — Not less than eighteen named species of Annuals 
and Herbaceous Perennials, Hovey & Co , 
Second, George Craft, ........ 

Gratuities : — 
John L. Gardner, Orchids, 
George Craft, Gladioli, 
Henry R. Comley, Dianthus, 
John B. Moore & Co., Gladioli, 
J. W. Manning, Phloxes, . 
E. Sheppard, Dahlias, .... 
A. P. Calder, Nymphcea odorata, var. rosea, 
Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " 

W. K. Wood, " " 

Miss E. M. Harris, Design of Ferns and Native Flowers, 



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220 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



August 20. 

Asters. — Large Flowered, or Victoria, — Thirty blooms, not less 

than ten varieties, John L. Gardner, . . . . $4 00 

Second, James Nugent^ . . . . . . . . 3 00 

Third, Francis B. Hayes, 2 00 

Chrysanthemum. — Thirty blooms, not less than eight varieties, 

John L. Gardner, 4 00 

Victoria, or Chrysanthemum, or both. — Six plants in pots, John L. 

Gardner, 4 00 

Pompon. — Six plants in pots, F. Skinner, Jr., . . . . 4 00 

Sweet Peas.— Display, filling 25 bottles, Mrs. A. D. Wood, . . 3 00 

Second, George Craft, 2 00 

Basket of Flowers. — Best arranged, Mrs. E. M. Gill, . . . 2 00 

Gratuities : — 

Francis B. Hayes, New Begonias, ....... 2 00 

" " Display of Flowers, 3 00 

John B. Moore & Co., « " " 2 00 

B. G. Smith, " " 1 00 



August 20. 

Gladioli. — Twenty named varieties, in spikes, J. F. Marble, . 
Ten named varieties, in spikes, George Craft, , 

Second, John B. Moore & Co., 

Six named varieties, in spikes, R. T. Jackson, .... 
Single spike, named, Franklin Bacheller, ..... 
Display of named and unmamed varieties, filling 100 bottles, 

James Cartwright, 

Second, George Craft, 

Third, Herbert Gleason, 



Gratuities : — 

E. Sheppard, Dahlias and Pelargoniums, 
John L. Gardner, Dahlias, 
Mrs. A. D. Wood, Display of Flowers, 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " " 

Hovey&Co., " " " 

Mrs. E. S. Joyce, " " " 



6 00 



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August 27. 

Trop^eolums. — Display filling 25 bottles, William H. Spooner, 
Second, Francis B. Hayes, 

Cut Flowers. — Display filling 100 bottles, Mrs. E. M. Gill, . 
Second, Edwin Fewkes, ....... 

Third, Mrs. A. D. Wood. 



3 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 00 
2 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 221 



Gratuities : 
James Cartwright, Gladioli, 
George Craft, " . 

John L. Gardner, Asters, 
James Nugent, Asters and Tropasolums, 
E. Sheppard, New Dahlias and Phloxes, 
Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, 
John B Moore & Co., " " 
Miss M. E. Carter, Native Flowers, 



£2 00 
2 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
2 00 
2 00 
1 00 



September 3. 

Hybrid Perpetual Roses. — Twenty-five blooms, Francis B. Hayes, 3 00 

Double Zinnias. — Twenty flowers, not less than six varieties, Fran- 
cis B. Hayes, .......... 4 00 

Second, George Craft ........ 3 00 

Third, James Nugent, 2 00 

Dianthus. — Annual and Biennial varieties, — collection filling 50 bot- 
tles, Henry R. Comley, . . 3 00 

Second, Hovey & Co., 2 00 

Marigolds. — Twenty-five bottles, three flowers in each, Hovey & Co., 3 00 

Second, Francis B. Hayes, ....... 2 00 

Third, George Craft, 1 00 

Clematis. — Display of cut blooms, Francis B. Hayes, . . . 3 00 

Gratuities : 

George Craft, Gladioli, 2 00 

Mrs. A. D. Wood, Display of Flowers, 2 00 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, " " " 1 00 

Mrs. C. N. S. Horner, Native Flowers, 2 00 



ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

September 13, 14, 15, and 16. 
Special Prizes. 

OFFERED BY A MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY. 

Twelve Stove and Greenhouse Plants. — Ornamental Foliage, 

in not over twelve-inch pots, S. R. Payson, Silver Cup, value, $40 00 
Second, F. L. Ames, Silver Cup, value, 25 00 

OFFERED BY AN AMATEUR. 

Ten Stove and Greenhouse Plants. — Five foliage and five in 
bloom, in not over ten-inch pots, not more than one orchid 
admissible, F. L. Ames, Silver Cup, value, . . . . 40 00 
Second, H. H. Hunnewell, Silver Cup, value, . . . 20 00 



222 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



H. Hunnewell 



Subscription Prize. 
Dahlias. — For the best twenty-four dissimilar blooms, E. Sheppard 

& Son, Piece of Plate, value, $10 00 



Society's Prizes. 

Greenhouse Plants. — Twelve Greenhouse and Stove Plants of dif- 
ferent varieties, one Dracaena and one Croton admissible, H 
H. Hunnewell, ........ 

Second, S. R. Payson, ....... 

Specimen Flowering Plant. — Francis B. Hayes, . 

Second, John L. Gardner, 

Variegated Leaved Plants. — Six varieties not offered in the col 
lection of greenhouse plants, Dracaenas not admissible, H 
H. Hunnewell, ..... 

Single specimen, not offered in any collection, H 
Second, John L. Gardner, . . 

Caladiums. — Six varieties, E. Sheppard & Son, 
Second, Hovey & Co., .... 

Ferns. — Six named varieties, J. Warren Merrill, 
Second, F. L. Ames, .... 

Adiantums. — Six varieties, S. R. Payson, 

Second, Hovey & Co., 
Tree Fern. — Single Specimen, J. Warren Merrill, 
Second, Francis B. Hayes, .... 

Lycopods. — Four named varieties, William Gray, Jr., 
Dracaenas. — Six named varieties, H. H. Hunnewell, 
Palm. — Single specimen, F. L. Ames, 

Second, H. H. Hunnewell, 
Nepenthes. — Three plants, named, F. L. Ames, 
Agaves. — Six distinct varieties, John C. Hovey, 
Second, Hovey & Co., .... 

Cacti. — Twelve species and varieties, Benjamin Gray, 
Succulents. — Collection, of twelve species, other than Agaves 

Yuccas, or Cactj, John C. Hovey, . 
Begonias. — Tuberous-rooted, — Six named varieties, Francis 
Hayes, .......... 

Gladioli — Best display, and best kept during the exhibition, of 
named and unnamed varieties, filling 100 bottles, James Cart- 
wright, ........... 

Second, A. McLaren, 

Dahlias. — Twelve named varieties, John L. Gardner, 

Second, S. G. Stone, 

Six named varieties, James Nugent, ...... 

Second, S. G. Stone, 

Third, O. B. Hadwen, 

Single named flower, Fancy or Self, John L. Gardner, . 

Second, James Nugent, 



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PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 223 



Liliputian Dahlias. — General display, filling 25 bottles, J. F. 

Marble, 

Second, S. G. Stone, ......... 

Cut Flowers. — Best display, and best kept during the exhibition, 

filling 100 bottles, Mrs. A. D. Wood, 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 

Third, Hovey & Co., 

Basket of Flowers. — Best arranged and best kept during the 
Exhibition, Mrs. E. S. Joyce, . 

Gratuities: — 

Francis B. Hayes, Collection of Plants, 

H. H. Hunnewell, " " " 

Miss Pratt, " " " 

John L. Gardner, " " " 

William S. Ewell, " " " 

Hovey & Co., " " " 

Benjamin Gray, Nymphneas, 

E. Haskell, " 

Arnold Arboretum, Foliage of Hardy Trees and Shrubs, 

John L. Gardner, Caladiums, 

Hovey & Co., Succulents, . 

Norton Brothers, Gladioli, 

L. W. Goodell, Dahlias and Gladioli, 

Samuel G. Stone, Dahlias, 

Edwin Sheppard, " . 

O. B. Hadwen, " . 

William S. Ewell, Hanging Baskets, 

Cut Flowers, 
Miss A. C. Kenrick, Dish of Flowers, 
Miss E. M. Harris, Stand of Flowers, 
Henry R. Comley, Dianthus, 
Robert Manning, Comus mascvla, 
Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, 
C. W. Ross, " " 

James Nugent, " " 

Hovey & Co., " " 

J. W. Manning, " " 

Mrs. A. D. Wood, " " 

Miss M. E. Carter, Native Flowers, 
Mrs. C. N. S. Horner, " 
Mrs. Catherine Starbuck, Native Plants, 
E. H. Hitchings, " " 

October 1. 

Dahlias — Twelve named varieties, E. Sheppard, 
Second, John Parker, .... 

Third, Hovey & Co., .... 



$3 00 
2 00 

1G 00 
14 00 
12 00 

5 00 



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224 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



Six named varieties, James Nugent, 
Second, E. Sheppard, 
Third, Miss C. Smith, 
Vase of Flowers. — Mrs. E. M. Gill, 
Second, Mrs. A. D. Wood, 



$3 00 

2 00 
1 00 
4 00 

3 00 



CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOW. 

November 9. 

Chrysanthemums. — Six Large Flowered, or Chinese, H. L. Higgin- 

son, 8 00 

Second, H. P. Walcott 6 00 

Six Japanese varieties, H. P. Walcott, 8 00 

Second, H. L. Higginson, ........ 6 00 

Four Pompon varieties, H. L. Higginson, . . . . . 4 00 

Second, H. P. Walcott, 3 00 

Six Large Flowered, or Chinese, in six-inch pots, H. L. Higgin- 
son, ........... 5 00 

Second, Patrick Malley, 3 00 

Specimen Plant, Large Flowered, or Chinese, H. L. Higginson, 4 00 

Second, H. P. Walcott, 3 00 

Specimen Plant, Japanese, H. L. Higginson, . . . . 4 00 

Second, H. P. Walcott, 3 00 

Specimen Plant, Anemone Flowered, H. L. Higginson, . . 3 00 

Second, H. P. Walcott, 2 00 

Specimen Plant, Pompon, H. L. Higginson, . . . . . 3 00 

Second, H. P. Walcott, 2 00 

Twelve Cut Blooms, Large Flowered, or Chinese, H. P. Walcott, 4 00 

Second, E. W. Wood, 3 00 

Six Cut Blooms, Large Flowered, or Chinese, Benjamin G. Smith, 3 00 

Second, H. P. Walcott, . 2 00 

Twelve Sprays of Pompons, H. P. Walcott, . . . . 2 00 

Second, E. W. Wood, 1 00 

Six Sprays of Japanese, H. P. Walcott, . . . . . 3 00 

Second, E. W. Wood, 2 00 

Display of named varieties of any or all classes, 30 bottles, H. 

P. Walcott, 4 00 

Second, E. W. Wood, 3 00 

Orchids. — Three varieties, in bloom, F. L. Ames, . . . . 8 00 

Second, F. L. Ames, . - 6 00 

Single plant, in bloom, F. L. Ames, . . . . . . 4 00 

Second, John L. Gardner, . . . . . . . 3 00 

Hand Bouquets. — Pair, James Nugent, . . . . . . 2 00 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 225 



Gratuities : 
Norton Brothers, Chrysanthemum Plants, 
H. L. Higginson, " " 

E. Sheppard, " Flowers, 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, 

Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, . 

F. L. Ames, Plants, ..... 

November 26. 
Gratuity : 

H. L. Higginson, Eucharis Amazonica, . 

December 17. 
Gratuity : 

Francis B. Hayes, Display of Flowers, 



$6 00 
5 00 
1 00 
1 00 
5 00 
5 00 



3 00 



2 00 



SILVER MEDALS. 

January 15. Francis B. Hayes, Collection of Epacris. 
February 5. John L. Gardner, Collection of Primulas. 

" " James Cartwright, Sophronitis grandiflora. 
March 5. James Cartwright, Dendrobium Wardianum. 
Azalea and Rose Show, March 17. F. L. Ames, Orchids. 
May 7. Francis B. Hayes, Collection of Ericas. 

Rhododendron Show, June 4. Woolson & Co., Collection of Herbaceous 
Plants. 
" " E. L. Beard, Odontoglossum Roezlii. 

Rose Show, June 28. V. H. Hallock, Son, & Thorpe, Seedling Double 
Pelargoniums. 

July 9. Francis Parkman, Iris Kcempferi in variety. 
July 23. John C. Hovey, Seedling Japanese Hollyhocks. 
August 13. Jackson Dawson, New Shrubs. 
August 20. E. Haskell, Nymphseas in variety. 

Annual Exhibition, September 13-1G. William H. Spooner, Collection of 
Nasturtiums and Tropasolums. 
" " David Allan, gardener to Miss Pratt, Lastrea Rich 

ardsii multifida. 
" " F. L. Harris, Seedling Dracaenas. 

" " Jacob W. Manning, Collection of Evergreens. 

Chrysanthemum Show, November 9. F. L. Ames, Anthurium Andreanum. 

" " Miss E. H. Craft, Design of Autumn Flowers. 

December 3. John L. Gardner, Odontoglossum grande. 

BRONZE MEDALS. 

June 18. Francis B. Hayes, New Rhododendrons. 

Annual Exhibition, September 13— 1G. W. C. Strong & Co , Collection of 
Hardy Trees and Shrubs. 
" " Samuel Smith, Collection of Single Dahlias. 



226 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

FIRST CLASS CERTIFICATES OF MERIT. 

February 5. Francis B. Hayes, New Rose, George Bancroft. 

February 12. " " " Clematis in Pots. 

March 5. Marshall P. Wilder, Seedling Azalea, Marshall Pinckney Wilder. 

" " Jackson Dawson, Andromeda Japonica. 
Azalea and Rose Show, March 17. Hovey & Co., Seedling Azaleas. 
March 28. John B. Moore & Co., New Roses. 

" " Hovey & Co., Chrysanthemums. 
April 2. Jackson Dawson, Rosa multiflora. 
April 30. E. L. Beard, Pansy Odier. 
June 28. Francis B. Hayes, Rhododendrons and Roses. 
Rose Show, June 28. V. H. Hallock, Son, & Thorpe, Iris Kcempferi in 

variety. 

" - " " " F L. Ames, Cypripedium superciliare. • 

11 " " " Eben Bacon, Tuberous-rooted Begonias. 

" " " ll J. Warren Merrill, New Ferns. 
July 9. Edwin Fewkes, Chrysanthemum carinatum. 
" " H. P. Walcott, Seedling Delphiniums. 
" " Francis B. Hayes, Lilium Takesima. 
July 23. " " " Tuberous-rooted Begonias. 

" " " " " Lilium longiflorum var. 

" u " " " Seedling Gloxinias. 

August 6. John B. Moore & Co., Seedling Phlox, No. 12. 
August 13. A. H. Fewkes, Seedling Hybrid Begonias. 

" " E. Sheppard, Seedling Delphiniums. 
August 20. J. W. Manning, Trees and Shrubs. 

" " E. Sheppard, Seedling Gloxinias. 
August 27. Hovey & Co., Fifty species and varieties of Trees and Shrubs. 

" " W. C. Strong & Co., Foliage of Hardy Plants. 

" " Francis B. Hayes, Rhododendron Princess Helene. 

" " George Craft, Papaver umbrosum. 
September 3. O. W. Holmes, Nelumbium luteum. 

Annual Exhibition, September 13-16. Henry Ross, Altemanthera latifolia 
a urea. 

" " Hovey & Co., New Single Dahlias. 

" " M. H. Simpson, Seedling Coleus. 

October 1. Francis B. Hayes, Stenocarpus Cunninghami. 
Chrysanthemum Show, November 9. F. L. Ames, Ipomcsa Horsfallice. 
" " H. P. Walcott, Seedling Chrysanthemums. 

PROSPECTIVE PRIZE. 
James F. C. Hyde, Hyde's White Gladiolus. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



Committee on Fruits, 



FOR THE YEAR 1881. 



By E. W. WOOD, Chairman. 



In reviewing the fruit exhibits of the past year, we can hardly 
claim that the result has realized the expectations which the open- 
ing season promised. Suffering from extreme cold during the 
winter of 1880-81 less than almost any other portion of our coun- 
try, with the ground covered with snow continuously from Novem- 
ber till March, a condition most favorable to the roots of fruit 
bearing plants, we found in the opening spring there had been little 
injury in the fruit gardens. The only cases reported were among 
peach trees in exceptionally unfavorable locations. 

The season was later than usual, and the first unfavorable re- 
ports of the fruit crop came from various parts of the State, that 
the rust was more or less severely affecting the strawberries, some 
varieties suffering much more severely than others planted side by 
side under the same conditions. 

Strawberries. — The Strawberry Exhibition, so far as quantity 
and appearance were concerned, was fully up to the standard of 
previous exhibitions, but in quality it was decidedly inferior ; owing 
to the cool and cloudy weather while the fruit was maturing, it was 
wanting in that peculiar flavor which is the charm of this delicious 
fruit. 

Several new varieties were shown, but none of marked promi- 
nence either for size or beauty, and the Committee hardly feel 
warranted in expressing an opinion as to quality until tried under 
more favorable conditions. The Sharpless, a comparatively new 



22S MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

beriy, was shown in larger quantity than any other variety. Owing 
to its peculiar and unattractive form, and the objection made to 
some extent that it does not ripen evenly, it may be too eav\y to 
express a decided opinion as to its desirability for general cultiva- 
tion, but the fact that it will doubtless be more generally cultivated 
in this vicinitj' in the immediate future than any other of the new 
varieties, will soon secure for it its true relative position. 

Cherries. — Owing to wet weather at the time of ripening, this 
fruit was shown in limited quantity and was confined to varieties 
previously exhibited. 

Currants. — This fruit has been abundant and of good size and 
qualhVv ; the exhibits have been fully up to previous 3*ears in quan- 
tity and quality, but confined more exclusively to the two varieties, 
La Versaillaise and Dana's White Transparent; these- are now 
very generally grown and may be considered the best representa- 
tives of the red and the white currant. 

Raspberries. — The exhibits of tin's fruit were not up to the 
average of previous years, either in quality or quantity. The 
Franconia was the leading variety shown. This fruit deserves 
more attention from our small fruit growers ; it is of easy culture 
and meets with a ready sale at good prices, there being little or 
no competition from distant growers, as it does not bear transpor- 
tation long distances. 

Blackberries. — This fruit was unusually late the past season, 
none being shown at either of the exhibitions when prizes were 
offered, though some very good specimens were subsequently 
shown. Many who formerly grew this fruit to a greater or less 
extent have given it up on account of the uncertainty of a crop, 
from the canes being killed during the winter. This fact suggests 
the inquiry whether we cannot, by crossing the Wachusett, or 
some other hardy variety, with the Dorchester or Kittatinny, secure 
the hardiness of the former combined with the size and flavor of 
the latter. Such a result would be a valuable acquisition to our 
small fruits. 

Gooseberries were shown in about the usual quantity ; the 
prizes for natives were awarded to Smith's Seedling and Downing's 
Seedling. Of foreign varieties, B. G. Smith showed some fine 
specimens. 

Plums. — The continued increase in the number of varieties and 
quantity of this fruit, shows that more attention is being given to 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS. 229 

its cultivation, and with good results. Many have been deterred 
from growing the plum on account of the frequent loss of the trees 
by the black wart, and the more frequent loss of the fruit by the 
curculio ; but, as the means of combatting these enemies are becom- 
ing better known and more generally practised, we ma}' reasonably 
expect an increase in this desirable fruit. 

Peaches. — The Garden Committee, the past season, offered 
prizes for the best Peach Orchards, and as a result received invita- 
tions from growers in widely different localities, and will give you 
in their report the results of their examinations. The Fruit Com- 
mittee can only supplement their report by saying that, while but 
few of the larger growers have been exhibitors, the quantity shown 
has been considerably in excess of that in previous years. One 
objection made by growers to going more extensively into peach 
culture, is the difficulty in getting healthy young trees. It is the 
exception rather than the rule to find a nursery of young trees one 
year old from the bud, where more or less are not affected with the 
yellows. This would suggest a more careful selection of seed and 
a more careful selection of buds with which to inoculate the stocks. 

Grapes. — The past season has been the most unfavorable for 
this fruit known for many years. At the Annual Exhibition there 
were but three dishes of grapes shown in competition for the six- 
teen prizes offered. They were so severely injured by mildew 
that in many places the more hard}' kinds — among them the Con- 
cord — dropped from the vines before maturing. Of the three 
varieties shown at the Annual Exhibition, but two were considered 
deserving a first prize ; these were Moore's Early and the Cottage. 
At the exhibition on the 1st of October, first prizes were taken by 
the Concord, Delaware, Isabella, Moore's Early, and Francis B. 
Hayes. At this exhibition C. E. Grant showed a superior dish of 
the Catawba. 

Foreign grapes were shown in about the usual quantity ; there 
w T ere some larger bunches than have been recently exhibited, but 
size had been secured at the expense of color. II . L. Higginson 
showed some finely colored fruit, and there were also well ripened 
bunches from John L. Gardner. A. W. Mckerson showed the 
largest clusters, and had they been w r ell colored they would have 
been superior to any exhibited for several years. 

Pears. — We have had more than an average crop of this fruit 
the past season, and the exhibits, taken as a whole, have been 



230 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

above the average ; but the Annual Exhibition being held at an 
earlier date than for several years, and the season being later than 
usual, the show of the later and larger varieties was far below the 
average. The October and November exhibitions were among the 
best we have ever had. 

Apples. — This being the off year for this fruit, it was not ex- 
pected the exhibits would compare favorably with those of last 
year, which was one of great abundance ; but it is gratifying to 
be able to report the amount shown as considerably in excess of 
that exhibited in previous odd years. The great difference in the 
quantity of this fruit, with such unfailing regularity, upon the odd 
and even 3-ears, would suggest the inquiry whether by removing 
the blossoms from 3'oung trees on the even year, and selecting 
scions and buds from trees whose habit is to produce their fruit on 
the odd 3'ear, a greater equality cannot be secured. 

Oranges, etc. — On the 9th of April we had a display of fruits, mostly 
of the genus Citrus, sent b) T the Southern California Horticultural 
Society, at the suggestion of Lucius G. Pratt, one of our mem- 
bers, when on a visit to California. They included oranges of 
several varieties, lemons, limes, shaddocks, and raisins, the last 
made from Muscat of Alexandria grapes, grown without irrigation, 
and of extra fine quality'. The oranges, etc., though not as fresh 
as if they had not been exhibited in California, were of good ap- 
pearance and fair quality, and the w r hole exhibit was of much in- 
terest. We have had no such display since April 11, 1840, when 
Charles W. Dabney, United States Consul at Fayal, an Honorary 
Member of the Society, sent from his own garden, where only in 
the islands some of them could be found, twelve varieties of 
citrons, oranges, lemons, and limes. A First Class Certificate of 
Merit was awarded by the Committee to Warren Kimball, of Na- 
tional City, Cal., for a Collection of Oranges, Prunes, and Raisins, 
and the same to R. G. Clark, of San Diego, for Raisins. 

At the Annual Exhibition, D. S. Marvin, of Watertown, N. Y., 
entered his seedling grape, the Centennial, for the Prospective 
Prize for grapes. Of those previously entered for this prize, the 
Haj'es was the only one to which the attention of the Committee 
was called. 

Of the $950 placed at the disposal of the Committee for prizes 
and gratuities, they have awarded $749, leaving an unexpended 
balance of $201. The Committee felt bound to keep within their 
appropriation, and in offering their prizes adopted substantially 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS. 231 

t 
the list of former } T ears under the same appropriation, and the 
reason for this unusually large unexpended balance is found in the 
comparatively small number of prizes awarded for grapes and apples. 

Owing to the lateness of the season, the Committee voted, in 
conjunction with the Vegetable Committee, to postpone the award 
of all prizes one week, beginning with the exhibition of July 23, 
and including the last show before the Annual Exhibition. This 
step resulted in a decided improvement in the exhibitions. 

The Secretary of the Society has kindly given the Committee the 
benefit of his experience by furnishing descriptions of new fruits, 

which will be annexed to this report. 

* 

Onr fruit growers were sadly disappointed that, at the Annual 
Exhibition, our Grapes, Apples, and Pears, to a considerable ex- 
tent, were shown under so unfavorable conditions ; especially as 
that exhibition was held in connection with that of the American 
Pomological Societ}', whose exhibits embraced the fruits from widely 
different sections of our country, including those from California, 
in great variety. It would have been gratif ying to our own exhib- 
itors could they have shown to the large number of visitors from 
the different States what our fruit gardens and orchards produce 
in a favorable season. 

The fact that more than usual disappointment has attended the 
efforts of fruit growers in this vicinity the past season should not 
discourage those engaged in fruit culture. These unfavorable cli- 
matic influences are exceptional and less liable to occur than dis- 
appointment in almost airy other pursuit. Remembering that our 
fruits already form an important article in domestic econonry and 
furnish a luxury for our tables through the entire } T ear, we may 
reasonably expect that with enlarged and more s\*stematic methods 
of cultivation, improved means for shipping our fruits to foreign 
markets, a home market constantly increasing, and a location the 
most favorable for export trade, fruit growing will become one of 
the important industries of the State. 

Respectfully submitted, 

E. W. Wood, 

Benj. G. Smith, 

Warren Fenno, [ Fruit 

C. F. Curtis, / Committee. 

P. B. IIOVEY, 

Jacob W. Manning. 



NOTES ON NEW FRUITS. 



By Robert Manning, Secretary. 



Apple. Highland Beauty. — A seedling from the Lady apple, 
raised by E. P. Roe, of Cornwall-on-the-Hudson, N. Y., and 
exhibited by Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, February 5. Small, flat- 
tened, somewhat irregular and angular, but hardly ribbed ; one 
side higher than the other. Skin clear, smooth 3-ellow, thinly 
dotted with irregular russet specks ; toward the sun brilliant car- 
mine, dotted with obscure fawn-colored dots, the yellow ground 
showing distinct and well defined where overlaid by a leaf. Skin, 
thin ; flesh, white, tender, not very juicy, very mild sub-acid ; qual- 
ity, "good," but probably the specimens were a little too ripe to 
show its best. In size it surpasses its parent, but not in quality. 

Pears. Earle's Bergamot. — A seedling raised by the late Hon. 
John Milton Earle, of Worcester, Mass. ; exhibited by Edward W. 
Lincoln, at the Annual Exhibition, September 13-16. Medium size, 
globular obtuse pyriform. Skin, thick ; color, dull green, — some- 
times yellow, — with a dull brownish red cheek, and patches of bronzy 
russet in the sun ; in the shade, thinly sprinkled with russet dots 
of varying size. Flesh, greenish white, very melting and juicy, 
with a rich and pleasant flavor. " Very good." 

Clapp's Seedling, No. 107. — From Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, 
October 22. Large, oblong pyriform, somewhat irregular and 
variable. Color, pale yellow ; general appearance not unlike that 
of the Bartlett. Flesh, very fine grained and juicj", acidulous, not 
high flavored. It has a fragrance resembling that of the Lawrence. 

Grape. Duchess. — Grown by A. J. Caywood, Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y. ; presented by Hon. Marshall P. Wilder. The bunches 
shown were small, and pretty compact ; berry of small or medium 
size, round ; color, pale green, in specimens exposed to the sun 
inclining to amber, with a decided bloom. Texture "meaty" or 
sometimes with a little pulp, juicy, and sweet throughout the pulp, 
in the last point showing a decided step in advance. The skin is 
thick, and it would probably keep and carry well. 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR FRUITS. 



February 12. 

Gratuity : — 
Warren Fenno, Josephine de Malines Pears, ..... 

March 17. 

Winter Pears. — Any variety, Warren Fenno, Josephine de Malines, 
Second, Warren Fenno, Duchesse de Bordeaux, 

Winter Apples. — Any variety, W. T. Hall, Northern Spy, 

Second, Warren Fenno, Northern Spy, ..... 

Gratuities : — 

A. D. Capen, Collection of Pears, 
S. Hartwell, 
George Craft, 

B. G. Smith, 

C. E. Grant, 
R. Manning, 



" Apples, . 

< (< 

< «« 
' " and Pears, 

< It (( << 

June 11. 



Gratuity : — 
John C. Gray, Apricots, 



June 18. 



Gratuity : — 
Aaron D. Capen, Strawberries, 



June 25. 

Gratuity :. — 

Charles Garfield, Hervey Davis Strawberries, . 



$1 00 



3 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


2 00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



3 00 



1 00 



1 00 



ROSE AND STRAWBERRY SHOW. 

June 28. 

Strawberries. — Four quarts of any variety, J. F. C. Hyde, 

Sharpless, Silver Cup, value, $25 00 

Four quarts Charles Downing, William Doran & Son, . . . 3 00 

Second, Aaron D. Capen, 2 00 

Cumberland Triumph, J. B. Moore & Co., 3 00 

Horvey Davis, J. B. Moore & Co., 3 00 



234 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



President Lincoln, J. B. Moore & Co., $3 00 

Sharpless, Warren Heustis, 3 00 

Second, J. F. C. Hyde, . . 2 00 

Triomphe de Gand, the second prize to Charles Garfield, . . 2 00 

Two quarts Brighton Pine, Warren Fenno, . . . . . 2 00 

Caroline, C. E. Grant, 2 00 

Charles Downing, Warren Heustis, 2 00 

Second, Stanley Seaverns, ....... 1 00 

Cumberland Triumph, J. B. Moore & Co , 2 00 

Second, Horace Eaton, . . . . . . . 1 00 

Cutter's Seedling, E. W. Wood, 2 00 

Duchess, Joseph D. Fitts, Providence, R. I., . . . . 2 00 

Hervey Davis, the second prize to Charles Garfield, . . . 1 00 

Jucunda, C. E. Grant, 2 00 

Miner's Great Prolific, J. B. Moore & Co., 2 00 

Second, Aaron D. Capen, ........ 1 00 

Pioneer, Marshall P. Wilder, 2 00 

President Wilder, Marshall P. Wilder, 2 00 

Sharpless, L. W. Weston, . 2 00 

Second, J. F. C. Hyde, 1 00 

Any other variety, Joseph D. Fitts, Champion, . . . . 2 00 

Collection, not less than six varieties, one quart each, Hovey & Co., 4 00 
Two new named varieties, not previously exhibited, G. H. & J. H. 

Hale, South Glastonbury, Conn., 3 00 

Second, Hovey & Co., 2 00 

Fifty berries, any variety, Warren Heustis, Sharpless, . . . 2 00 

Cherries. — Two quarts of any variety, Isaac P. Langworthy, . 2 00 

Second, C. E. Grant, 1 00 

Gratuities : — 

J. B. Moore & Co., Collection of Strawberries, . . . . 2 00 

C. E. Grant, " . " " 2 00 



July 2. 

Cherries. — Two quarts Black Eagle, C. E. Grant, 
Black Tartarian, C. E. Grant, 
Coe's Transparent, Thomas S. Lockwood, 
Any other variety, C. E. Grant, Black Heart, 
Second, C. E. Grant, Elton, 
Strawberries. — Two quarts, any late variety, Warren Heustis, 
Second, Horace Eaton, 



Gratuities : — 
M. W. Chadbourne, Collection of Strawberries, 
C. E. Grant, " " . 

Warren Fenno, " " " . 

B. Q. Smith, " " " and Cherries, 



2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



235 



A. D. Capen, Collection of Cherries, $1 00 

John C. Gray, Peach tree in fruit, 3 00 

July 9. 

Currants,. — Four quarts, B. G. Smith, Dana's Transparent, . . 2 00 

Gratuities : — 

Charles Garfield, Triomphe de Gand Strawberries, . . . . 1 00 

Thomas S. Lockwood, Collection of Cherries, 2 00 

Horace Partridge, " " " 1 00 

July 16. 

Raspberries. — Two quarts, any variety, B. G. Smith, Franconia, 2 00 

Second, William Doran & Son, 1 00 

Currants. — Two quarts Dana's Transparent, Mrs. E. M. Gill, . 2 00 

Second, M. W. Chadbourne, . . * 1 00 

La Versaillaise, B. G. Smith, 2 00 

Second, William Doran & Son, 1 00 

Victoria, B. G. Smith, • 2 00 

Black Naples, B. G. Smith, 2 00 

Cherries. — Any variety, Charles F. Curtis, Hyde's Seedling, . 2 00 

Second, C. E. Grant, Downer's Late, . . . . . 1 00 

Gratuities : — 

Warren Fenno, Collection of Cherries, Currants, and Raspberries, 1 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, Currants, 1 00 

July 23. 
Gratuities : — 

Horace Partridge, Cherries and Pears, . . . . . . 1 00 

C. N. Brackett, Seedling Cherries, 1 00 

N. B. White, Currants, 1 00 

C. E. Grant, " 1 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, Currants, 1 00 

Charles Garfield, " 2 00 

William Doran & Son, " and Raspberries, . . . . 2 00 

Aaron D Capen, Raspberries 1 00 

Warren Fenno, " 1 00 

J. B. Moore & Co., Gooseberries, ....... 1 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " and Currants, . . . . 2 00 

Alexander Dickinson, Doyenne d'Ete Pears, . . . . . . 1 00 

Marshall P. Wilder, Amire Joannet Pears, . . . . . 1 00 

B. G. Smith, June Berries, ........ 1 00 

July 30. 

Gooseberries. — Two quarts Native, B. G. Smith, Smith's Seedling, 2 00 

Second, Warren Fenno, Downing's Seedling, . . . . 1 00 

Pears. — Doyenne d'Ete, Warren Heustis, 2 00 

Second, B. G. Smith, 1 00 



236 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Gratuities : — 

Charles Garfield, Raspberries, Gooseberries, and Currants, . $1 00 

George Craft, Gooseberries, ........ 1 CO 

William E. Coffin, Peaches, 1 00 

F. J. Dutcher, Apricots, 1 00 

Francis B. Hayes, Black Hamburg Grapes, . . . . 2 00 

R. P. Walsh, Figs, 1 00 

Edwin Fewkes, Pineapple, 2 00 



August 6. 

Pears. — Any variety, Alexander Dickinson, Beurre Giffard, . 

Second, Warren Fenno, " " 

Gooseberries. — Two quarts Foreign, B. G. Smith, Whitesmith, 

Second, B. G. Smith, Bang-Up, ...... 

Gratuities : — 

Charles Garfield, Currants, Raspberries, and Gooseberries, 

Warren Fenno, Gooseberries, . 

Horace Eaton, " and Peaches, 

A. S. Mcintosh, Dorchester Blackberries, 

James Nugent, " " 

Miss Sarah M. Yose, " " 

T. Putnam Symonds, Alexander Peaches, 

C. E. Grant, Peaches, .... 

Francis B. Hayes, Black Hamburg Grapes, 



2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


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1 


00 


1 


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1 


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1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 



August 13. 

Pears. — Beurre Giffard, Mrs. Mary Langm aid 

Second, W. S. Janvrin, 
Apples. — Early Harvest, Horace Eaton, 

Second, Warren Fenno, 
Red Astrachan, Horace Eaton, 

Second, J. T. Foster, 
Large Yellow Bough, Warren Heustis, 

Second, Warren Fenno, 
Williams, Warren Heustis, . 

Second, B. G. Smith, 

Gratuities : — 

Charles Garfield, Blackberries, 

James Nugent, " . 

A. S. Mclptosh, " . 

A. M. Davenport, Alexander Peaches, 

C. E. Grant, Hale's Early and Amsden Peaches, 

Samuel Hartwell, Early Beatrice Peaches, 



2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



237 



August 20. 

Pears. — Clapp's Favorite, John C. Park, 

Second, W. S. Janvrin, .... 
Any other variety, C. N. Brackett, Brandywine, 
Second, Hovey & Co., Supreme de Quimper, 

Figs. — Any variety, R. P. Walsh, . 

Gratuities : — 

J. B. Johnson, Blackberries, .... 
Warren Fenno, Pears, ..... 

Hovey & Co., " 

Mrs. Mary Langmaid, Pears, .... 
M. W. Chadbourne, " and Apples, 

J. T, Foster, Apples, 

C. C. Shaw, " 

Caleb Bates, Hale's Early Peaches, . 



2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



August 27. 

Pears. — Bartlett, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 
Second, Alexander Dickinson, . 
Manning's Elizabeth, Charles Bird, 

Second, Alexander Dickinson, 
Rostiezer, John C. Park, 
Second, Horace Eaton, 
Tyson, John C. Park, 
Second, A. S. Mcintosh, 
Plums. — Any variety, Richard Walsh, Washington, 

Second, D. Tucker, Bradshaw, . 
Peaches. — Any variety, Richard Walsh, Dr. Hogg, 
Second, A. M. Davenport, Early Rivers, . 

Gratuities : — 

Warren Fenno, Apples, Peaches, and Apricots, 
B. G. Smith, Pears and Apples, . 



2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


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1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


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1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



September 3. , 

Apples. — Any variety, B. G. Smith, Williams, 

Second, Warren Fenno, Gravenstein, 
Pears. — Bartlett, Alexander Dickinson, . . . 

Second, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, .... 
Any other variety, Warren Fenno, Brandywine, . 

Second, Hovey & Co., Doyenne Boussock, 
Plums. — Collection, not less than four varieties, Mrs. H. V. Draper 

Second, Horace Eaton, ..... 
Any one variety, Mrs. H. V. Draper, Washington, 

.Second, H. M. Wiswall, Bradshaw, . 



2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


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1 


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2 


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1 


00 


", 3 


00 


2 


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2 


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00 



238 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Gratuities : — 

A. S. Mcintosh, Collection of Pears, $1 00 

A. M. Davenport, Hale's Early Peaches, 1 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, Peaches and Pears, 1 00 

September 10. 

Apples. — Foundling, the second prize to Warren Fenno, . . 1 00 

Gravenstein, the second prize to Warren Fenno, . . . . 1 00 
Any other variety, the second prize to Warren Fenno, for Maiden's 

Blush, 1 00 

Pears. — Andrews, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 2 00 

Second, T. M. Davis, 1 00 

Doyenne Boussock, Charles Bird, . 2 00 

Second, Warren Fenno, 1 00 

Any other variety, M. W. Chadbourne, Souvenir du Congres, . 2 00 

Second, Warren Fenno, ........ 1 00 

Peaches. — Any variety, A. S. Mcintosh, Crawford's Early, . . 2 00 

Second, J. B. Moore & Co., 1 00 

Gratuities : — 

F. J. Dutcher, Collection of Plums, 1 00 

Horace Partridge, Bradshaw Plums, . . . . . . 1 00 



ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 



September 13, 14, 15, and 16. 

Special Prizes. 

Twelve Bartlett Pears, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, . . . 

Twelve Gravenstein Apples, C. C. Shaw, 

Twelve Peaches, of any variety, F. Bayer, Crawford's Early, . 
Twelve Bunches of Native Grapes, J. B. Moore & Co., Moore's Early, 

Regular Prizes. 

Apples. — Baldwin, J. T. Foster, 

Second, C. C. Shaw, . 
Danvers Winter Sweet, C. C. Shaw, 

Second, J. T. Foster, 
Dutch Codlin, B. F. Hunt, Jr., 

Second, B. G. Smith, 
Foundling, Warren Fenno, . 
Garden Royal, C. C. Shaw, . 
Golden Russet, " " . 

Second, Warren Fenno, 
Gravenstein, William T. Hall, 

Second, C. C. Shaw, . 



5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


CO 


5 


00 


2 


00 


1 


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2 


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1 


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1 


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2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


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1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



239 



Hubbardston Nonsucb, M. W. Chadbourne, 

Second, J. T. Foster, 
King of Tompkins County, Hovey & Co., 

Second, C. C. Shaw, .... 
Lady's Sweet, Jthe second prize to Warren Fenno, 
Leicester Sweet, 0. B. Hadwen, . 
Lyscom, O. B. Hadwen, 
Maiden's Blush, Warren Fenno, 

Second, C. C. Shaw, .... 
Mother, John Cummings, 
Northern Sp}', C. C. Shaw, . 

Second, Warren Fenno, 
Porter, A. S. Mcintosh, 

Second, M. W. Chadbourne, 
Rhode Island Greening, A. S. Mcintosh, 

Second, John L. D'Wolf, . 
Roxbury Russet, John L. D'Wolf, 

Second, C. C. Shaw, .... 
Talman's Sweet, J. T. Foster, 

Second, Josiah Crosby, 
Washington Strawberry, John C. Park, 

Second, Warren Fenno, 
Crab Apples. — Hyslop, M. W. Chadbourne, 

Second, B. F. Hunt, Jr., . 
Transcendent, B. F. Hunt, Jr., 

Second, Warren Fenno, 
Any other variety, Warren Fenno, Dartmouth, 
Pears. — Bartlett, Alexander Dickinson, . 

Second, John L. Bird, 
Belle Lucrative, John C. Park, 

Second, Horace Partridge, 
Beurre d'Anjou, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, . 

Second, William T. Hall, . 
Beurre Bosc, John L. Bird, . 

Second, Horace Partridge, 
Beurre Clairgeau, William T. Hall, 

Second, Charles Bird, 
Beurre Hardy, Warren Fenno, 

Second, Marshall P. Wilder, 
Beurre Superfin, John C. Park, 

Second, Warren Fenno, 
Dana's Hovey, Hovey & Co., 

Second, B. G. Smith, 
Doyenne Boussock, E. W. Wood, 

Second, John Cummings, . 
Doyenne du Cornice, Warren Fenno, 

Second, William A. Crafts, 



$2 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
2 00 
2 00 

1 00 

2 00 
2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 
. 1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 



240 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Duehesse d'Angouleme, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 

Second, Warren Fenno, 
Goodale, C. E. Grant, . 

Second, Warren Fenno, 
Howell, John Cummings, 

Second, John C. Park, . . . 
Lawrence, Horace Partridge, 

Second, William T. Hall. . 
Louise Bonne of Jersey, John McClure 

Second, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, . 
Marie Louise, John L. D'Wolf, 

Second, S. G. Damon, 
Merriam, A. S. Mcintosh, 

Second, William A. Crafts, 
Onondaga or Swan's Orange, Horace Eaton, 

Second, Warren Fenno, 
Paradis d'Automne, Marshall P. Wilder 

Second, John L. Bird, 
Seckel, C. E. Grant, 

Second, Alexander Dickinson, . 
Sheldon, Mrs. Mary T. Goddard, . 

Second, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, . 
Souvenir du Congres, Horace Eaton, 

Second, Warren Fenno, 
St. Michael Archangel, W. C. Eustis, 

Second, Marshall P. Wilder, 
Urbaniste, Horace Partridge, 

Second, E. W. Wood, 
Vicar of Winkfield, the second prize to 
Winter Nelis, John L. Bird, . 

Second, John C. Park, 
Any other variety, Marshall P. Wilder, 

Second, Moses Darling, Jr., Kingsessing, 
Peaches. — Four varieties, the third prize to Alexander 

Fourth, Samuel Hartwell, . 
Any one variety, A. S. Mcintosh, . 

Second, J. B. Moore & Co., 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, 
Orchard House Culture, Richard Walsh, 

Second, Richard Walsh, 
Nectarines. — Any variety, Warren Fenno, 
Plums. — Any variety, Mrs. H. V. Draper, 

Second, B. G. Smith, 
Native Grapes. — Delaware, the second prize to J. B. Moore & Co. 
Moore's Early, J. B. Moore & Co., 
Any other variety, J. W. Talbot, Cottage, 



W. C 



Clapp 



. Eustis, 



's Favorite 



Dickinson 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



241 



Foreign Grapes. — Four varieties, two bunches each, H. L 
ginson, ........ 

Two varieties, two bunches each, A. W. Nickerson, 

Two bunches of any Black Grape, H. L. Higginson, 

Second, A. W. Nickerson, .... 

Third, J. L. Gardner, 

Two bunches of any White Grape, J. L. Gardner, 
Second, H. L. Higginson, 



Hig- 



Gratuities : — 

C. C. Shaw, Collection of apples, 

Stephen Salisbury, Dix Pears, . 

Marshall P. Wilder, Collection of New Pears, 

C. N. Brackett, Collection of Pears, 

M. W. Chadbourne, " " 

B. F. Hunt, Jr., " " 
Horace Partridge, " " 
Francis B. Hayes, " " 

C. E. Grant, " " 
John Ward, " " 
J. C. Lovell, Peaches, .... 

E. P. Walsh, Plums, Nectarines, and Peaches, 

J. C. Lovell, Worden Grapes, . 

Francis B. Hayes, Figs, .... 

September 24. 

Gratuities : — 

C. N. Brackett, Pears, .... 
N. D. Harrington, Pears and Peaches, 
C. E. Grant, Grapes, Pears, and Peaches, 
Samuel Hartwell, Peaches, 
J. B. Moore & Co , Peaches and Grapes, 
Charles Garfield, " 

October 1. 

Pears. — Beurre Bosc, Horace Partridge, 

Second, John L. Bird, 
Beurre Clairgeau, William T. Hall, 

Second, Jesse Haley, 
Beurre Diel, Alexander Dickinson, 

Second, T. M. Davis, 
Beurre Superfin, Warren Fenno, 

Second, Mrs. H. P. Kendrick, . 
Doyenne du Cornice, Warren Fenno, 

Second, W. S. Janvrin, 
Duchesse d'Angouleme, John McClure, 

Second, Alexander Dickinson, . 
Frederick Clapp, Marshall P. Wilder, . 



.$8 00 
4 00 
4 00 

3 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 00 



3 00 
1 00 



2 


00 


3 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


CO 


Q 

o 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 



1 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


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1 


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2 


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1 


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2 


00 



242 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Louise Bonne of Jersey, John McClure, 

Second, T. M. Davis, . 

Sheldon, Mrs. H. P. Kendrick, 

Second, John McClure, ........ 

Urbaniste, Horace Partridge, ....... 

Second, A. S. Mcintosh, 

Any other variety, S. & C. Cummings, Seckel, .... 

Second, Warren Fenno, Beurre Hardy, ■...'. 
Apples. — Gravenstein, William T. Hall, 

Second, Warren Penno, . . . . * . 
Porter, M. W. Chadbourne, 

Second, A. S. Mcintosh, . . . . . . . . 

Any other variety, Warren Fenno, Washington Strawberry, 

Second, Moses Darling, Jr., Maiden's Blush, . 
Quinces. — Any variety, B. G. Smith, 

Second, Horace Eaton, ........ 

Native Grapes.v — Six bunches of Concord, William Doran & Son, 

Second, Charles Garfield, ........ 

Delaware, S. G. Damon, ........ 

Second, Horace Eaton, ........ 

Diana, the second prize to S. G. Damon, ..... 

Isabella, J. W. Wellington, 

Massasoit, the second prize to Joseph S. Chase, .... 
Moore's Early, J. B. Moore & Co., 

Second, Charles Garfield, ........ 

Any other variety, J. B. Moore & Co., Francis B. Hayes, 

Second, C. E. Grant, Catawba, 

Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches, any variety, E. W. Wood, Black 
Hamburg, .......... 

Second, B. G. Smith, Muscat Hamburg, 

Gratuities : — 

C. E. Grant, Collection of Pears, 

William T. Hall, " 

C. N. Brackett, " 

Horace Partridge, " 

Warren Fenno, " 

Jesse Haley, " 

B. F. Hunt, Jr., " 

Aaron D. Capen, Pears, 

S. G. Damon, " 

B. G. Smith, " 

M. W. Chadbourne " 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " 

T. M. Davis, " 

Charles Bird, " 

E. G. Tutein, 



and Apples, 



$2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


9 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



243 



N. D. Harrington, Pears, . 

A. S. Mcintosh, " and Apples, 

Marshall P. Wilder, Seedling Pears, 

A. S. Mcintosh, Peaches, 

Samuel Hartwell, " 

J. B. Moore & Co., " 

Mrs. M. T. Goddard, " 

M. Darling, Jr., " 

A. M. Davenport, " 

"VVarren Fenno, " 

Charles Garfield, Seedling Peaches, 



$1 00 
2 00 
2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



October 8. 
Gratuities : — 
O. B. Had wen, Pears, 
N. D. Harrington, Peaches and Pears, 
R. P. Walsh, Peaches and Nectarines, 
Charles H. Parker, Peaches, 
W. W. Nichols, Seedling Peaches, . 
Samuel Hartwell, Peaches, 



1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



October 15. 
Gratuities ; — 
J. Gardner, Pears, ..... 

A. S. Mcintosh, " 

C. E. Grant, Grapes, Pears, and Peaches, 
M. Darling, Jr., Peaches, 



October 22. 
Gratuities : — 
M. W. Chadbourne, Pears, 
N. D. Harrington, Pears and Quinces, 
C. E. Grant, Collection of Grapes, . 



October 29. 



Gratuities : — 
Mrs. H. V. Draper, Pears, 
Walter Channing, " 
Nathaniel Rudd, Peaches, 



November 9. 



Pears. — Beurre d'Anjou, Warren Fenno, 
Second, William T. Hall, . 

Beurre d'Aremberg, Aaron D. Capen, 
Second, Marshall P. Wilder, 

Beurre Langelier, Jacob Eaton, 
Second, T. M. Davis, 



1 00 

2 00 
2 00 
1 00 



1 00 
1 00 

1 00 



1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 



244 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Dana's Hovey, Hovey & Co., 

Second, A. S. Mcintosh, . 
Doyenne du Cornice, Warren Fenno, 

Second, George S. Harwood, 
Glout Morceau, A. S. Mcintosh, . 

Second, Samuel Mcintosh, 
Josephine de Malines, Warren Fenno, 

Second, John L. Bird, 
Lawrence, W. S. Janvrin, 

Second, Jesse Haley, 
Vicar of Winkfield, W. P. Walker, 

Second, A. S. Mcintosh, 
A\ inter Nelis, T. M. Davis, . 

Second, Jacob Eaton, 
Any other variety, Warren Fenno, 

Second, M. Darling, Jr., . 



French Premiums 

Apples. — Baldwin, J. T. Foster, 

Second, M. W. Chadbourne, 
Danvers Winter Sweet, J. T. Foster, 

Second, C. C. Shaw, .... 
Hubbardston Nonsuch, M. W. Chadbourne 

Second, C. C. Shaw, .... 
King of Tompkins County, Hovey & Co., 

Second, C. C Shaw, .... 
Lady's Sweet, Warren Fenno, 
Northern Spy, C. C Shaw, 

Second, Warren Fenno, 
Rhode Island Greening, the second prize to A 
Roxbury Russet, M. W. Chadbourne, . 

Second, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, . 
Talman's Sweet, J. T. Foster, 

Second, M. Darling, Jr., 



Mcintosh, 



Gratuities : — 

C. E. Grant, Collection of Pears 
Marshall P. Wilder, •' 

A. S. Mcintosh, Pears, . 

B. G. Smith, 
T. M. Davis, " 
Lemuel Clapp, " 
M. W. Chadbourne, " 
George S. Harwood, " 
Horace Partridge, " and Grapes, 
Warren Fenno, " " Apples, 

C. C. Shaw, Apples, . . 

B. G. Smith, Lady Downes Grapes, . 



$2 CO 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 



2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



2 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 
3 00 

2 00 
1 00 
1 00 

00 
00 
00 
00 



1 
1 
1 

2 

1 00 



00 
00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 245 



FIRST CLASS CERTIFICATES OF MERIT. 

April 9. Warren Kimball, National City, Cal., Collection of Oranges, 
Prunes, and Raisins. 

April 9. R. G. Clark, San Diego, Cal., Raisins. 

Rose and Strawberry Show, June 28, E. S. Durand, Irvington, N. J., Jer- 
sey Queen Strawberries. 

July 30. William C. Strong, Gregg (Black Cap) Raspberries. 

August 20. H. H. Hunnewell, Stanwick Nectarines. 
9 ' 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES. 

FOR THE YEAR 1881. 



By CHARLES N. BRACKETT, Chairman. 



The season of 1881 has proved one of a peculiar character, and 
will long be remembered by cultivators of the soil on account of 
its many changes and surprises. 

The spring was remarkably cold, wet, and backward, and vege- 
tation came forward with a slow, and somewhat uncertain pace. 
Many of the more tender varieties of vegetable and other seeds, 
owing to unpropitious weather at the time of planting, failed to 
germinate, and necessitated replanting, thereby causing delay, 
loss, and disappointment to the cultivator. In many localities the 
crops of squashes, melons, etc., were total failures. In other 
sections acres of growing crops were severely damaged, and in 
some instances totally ruined, b} T heav} T showers accompanied by 
wind and hail, which also did more or less injury to the fruit crop. 

The effects of weather, so unfavorable to vegetation, could 
scarcely fail to be noticed in our weekly exhibitions, which have 
during the past year, notwithstanding the persevering efforts of 
contributors, been inferior to those of the two previous seasons. 

From the commencement of the year to the Azalea Exhibition, 
March 17, gratuities were awarded for vegetables grown under 
glass, to Josiah Crosby, Henry R. Comle\ T , John B. Moore, Cephas 
H. Brackett, and W. H. Richardson, who were the only contri- 
butors of forced vegetables for a period of over three months. 
To those exhibitors who still persevere in their efforts to keep 
alive this interesting feature of our exhibitions during the winter 
and early spring months, the thanks of the Society are due, while 
from those who appear from some cause to have lost their interest, 
or have become discouraged, and have dropped away, we must 
hope for better things in the future. 

The weekly shows were affected in a marked manner by the 
lateness of the season. Tomatoes, which are usually exhibited in 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES. 247 

perfection during the month of Juty, when prizes are first offered, 
were this season not shown until the middle of August, and no 
really fine specimens were seen before August 13. Greenflesh 
melons were called for by the Schedule on the 6th of August, but 
none were shown until September 3. Sweet corn, beans, etc., 
were also nearly two weeks behind the usual time. 

By the middle of July it was found that few if any of the prizes 
offered would be awarded unless the dates in the Schedule were 
changed so as to conform more nearly to the requirements of the 
season. Consequently the Fruit and Vegetable Committees, after 
consultation, voted to change the dates of the Schedule in their 
respective departments, making them one week later for the 
remainder of the season, commencing with July 23, and so on, up 
to the Annual Exhibition. Contributors were accordingly notified. 
This change as anticipated had the desired effect, and a decided 
improvement was noticeable thereafter in all the exhibitions. 

The shows of Peas although somewhat later than usual have 
been fine. In addition to old and standard kinds, some of the 
most promising of more recent introduction were to be seen on 
exhibition. A new variety, the Marvel, shown by CM. Atkinson, 
Jul} 7 16, attracted much attention. Mr. Atkinson says of this 
variety, u it was sown on the 30th of April ; it is a sturdy grower, 
an enormous cropper, of a beautiful color when boiled, and of most 
delicious flavor. I am impressed that it is the very best pea for 
mid-season supply." Very fine specimens of Omega were shown 
on the same date by James Cartwright. At the Rose Show the 
first and second prizes for peas were awarded to Samuel G. Stone, 
and Samuel Hartwell for Kentish Invicta. 

May 7 and 14, James Bard, gardener to Harvey D. Parker, 
exhibited a new variety of Tomato, which originated with him, 
called the Parker House Favorite. The specimens were unusually 
choice and beautiful ones, and attracted particular notice on this 
account. Mr. Bard says it is the best variety of all for forcing, 
and a very heavy cropper. For the season of the year at which 
the}- were shown, they were decidedly the best specimens we have 
ever seen on exhibition. 

At the Annual Exhibition some very fine specimens of Living- 
ston's Perfection, were shown by George H. Rich, who took the 
first prize for the best three varieties ; and a new variety, the 
Mayflower, from B. K. Bliss & Sons, took the first prize for any 
other variety than those named in the Schedule. The Mayflower 



245 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

is a large, handsome, solid variet}', somewhat after the style of 
the Paragon, but said to be earlier than that variety. The shows 
of tomatoes, at the weekly exhibitions and at the annual, were 
remarkably full and fine. The Acme has been the leading variety, 
while the Paragon, Emery, and other favorites have been well 
represented. 

The improvement which the past few years have wrought in this 
popular vegetable has been both striking and gratifying, and by 
contrasting the hollow and wrinkled specimens which we used to 
see offered for prizes ten or twelve years ago, with the perfect and 
very beautiful specimens to be seen this season at our exhibitions, 
its extent will in some degree be appreciated. 

These remarks apply equally well to other of our garden vege- 
tables, especially to the potato, and the various root crops, where 
equal progress has been made. 

The display at the Annual Exhibition surpassed expectation, it 
being thought the unpropitious season would tell severely upon the 
various crops, and, as a natural consequence, affect unfavorably 
the Annual Show. In a partial degree this was the result, but not 
to the extent anticipated. 

Notwithstanding the unfavorable season the display of Potatoes 
at the Annual Exhibition was superior to that of the previous year, 
the varieties being more select, and the specimens better grown. 
The main crop however was seriously injured, during the month of 
August, by blight, which from all accounts appears to have been 
general throughout the country. The loss accruing from this 
cause, must in the aggregate, have been very great. Early planted 
varieties, however, escaped the blight, which would seem to be a 
sufficient argument in favor of early planting. 

We are indebted toE. S. Brownell, of Essex Junction, Vermont, 
for a collection of new seedling potatoes, exhibited b}* him at the 
Annual Exhibition, under numbers running from 50 to 55 inclu- 
sive, three of which have been named b} T the originator, and will 
be introduced to the public the coming season. We append the 
following description of them, as furnished b} 7 Mr. Brownell : 

BrownelVs Early Telephone (No. 52), I consider one of the best 
potatoes that I have ever raised. The vines are light green, stocky, 
of medium height, somewhat bushy. The tubers are white, smooth, 
of good size, and grow compactly in the hill, with few small ones, 
and cook well. Quality excellent, and it is very productive. 

BrownelVs Best (No. 50). Stalks medium, color dark green ; 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES. 249 

tubers white, somewhat flattened ; eyes nearly even with the sur- 
face. The tubers grow compact!}' in the hill, and are of good 
size. It is early and verj 7 productive. It cooks evenly through, 
is very white and flouiy, and in quality not excelled. 

Broivnell's Early Mayflower (No. 54) is a variet}- of superior 
qualUy and very productive. The vines are short, thick and 
stocky ; foliage a bright green color. The tubers are oblong in 
shape, large size, white, and cook very dry and floury. It is a 
vigorous and healthy grower. 

Medals were awarded Mr. Brownell for the above-named varie- 
ties, at the New York State Fair, the past season. He is certainly 
entitled to great credit for his efforts and endeavors to originate 
new and improved varieties of this valuable esculent. It is only 
after four or five years' cultivation that the true character of a new 
seedling can be well ascertained ; and when it is well established 
in the mind of the cultivator,' it requires nearly as many years 
more to convince the public of it, so that establishing the reputa- 
tion of a potato is, after all, a work of many years. Mr Brownell 
has, we understand, many other seedlings, which, if they shall 
prove on further trial equal to expectations already entertained of 
them, will be properly named, and in due time introduced to the 
public. Your Committee awarded Mr. Brownell, for six varieties 
of new seedling potatoes, the Society's Silver Medal. 

Having thus briefly alluded to some of the most noticeable 
features of our exhibitions during the past year, we close our 
report with the annexed list of awards. 

The amount appropriated for prizes and gratuities was $500 00 

Income from the Whitcomb Fund, . . . . 30 00 



$530 00 
Amount awarded in prizes and gratuities, . . . 476 00 



Leaving an unexpended balance of . . . $54 00 

All of which is respectfull} T submitted. 

C. N. Brackett, 

Josiah Crosby, 

Walter Russell, Committee 

George W. Pierce, ) on 

Samuel Hartwell, \ Vegetables. 

C. E. Grant, 

M. W. ClIADBOURNE, 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR 

VEGETABLES. 



January 29. # 

Gratuity : — 

Josiah Crosby, Celery, $1 00 

February 12. 

Gratuities : — 



Henry R. Comley, Radishes, 1 00 

John B. Moore, Mushrooms, 1 00 

February 19. 
Gratuity : — 

C. H. Brackett, Tomatoes and Rhubarb, 2 00 

February 26. 
Gratuity : — 

W. H. Richardson, Pierson's Long Green Cucumber, . . . 1 00 

AZALEA AND ROSE EXHIBITION. 

March 17. 

Radishes. — Four bunches Turnip Rooted, Josiah Crosby, . $3 00 

Cucumbers. — Pair of White Spine, C. H. Brackett, . . . 3 00 

Lettuce. — Four heads of Tennisball, J. Crosby, . . . . 3 00 

Second, H. R. Comley, • . . 2 00 

Gratuity : — 

C. H. Brackett, Rhubarb and Tomatoes, 2 00 

March 26. 

Gratuity : — 

Josiah Crosby, Lettuce and Radishes, . . . . . . 1 00 

April 9. 

Gratuities : — 

Henry R. Comley, Lettuce, . 1 00 

E. W. Wood, " 1 00 

April 16. 

Gratuities ; — 

Henry R. Comley, Lettuce, I 00 

Josiah Crosby, " ........ 1 00 

George W. Pierce, " 1 00 

Charles Garfield, " 1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES, 



251 



May 7. 
Gratuities.: — 

J. Crosby, Collection, $2 00 

Aaron D. Capen, Rhubarb, ........ 1 00 

Charles Garfield, Lettuce, 1 00 



May 14. 

Gratuities : — 

M. W. Chadbourne, Asparagus, 

J. Crosby, Radishes, .... 

Marshall P. "Wilder, Sion House Cucumber, 

John B. Moore, Asparagus, (new hybrid), 

Samuel Hartwell, Asparagus, . 

James Bard, Tomatoes, (new hybrid, very fine), 



1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



May 21. 
Gratuity : — 

James Bard, Parker House Favorite Tomatoes, 



1 00 



June 4. 

Carrots. — Twelve Short Scarlet, J. Crosby, . 
Radishes. — Twelve Turnip Rooted, J. Crosby, 
Asparagus. — Four bunches, J. B. Moore, . . 

Second, L. W. Weston, 

Cucumbers. — Pair, C. H. Braekett, 

Second, Josiah Crosby, . . . . 
Lettuce. — Four heads, Josiah Crosby, Tennisball, 

Second, Josiah Crosby, Boston Curled, 
Rhubarb. — Twelve stalks, John C. Hovey, Monarch, 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, Victoria, . 

Gratuities : — 
Cephas H. Braekett, Collection, .... 
Charles Garfield, " .... 
M. W. Chadbourne, Rhubarb, 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



Gratuity : — 
Josiah Crosby, Collection, 



June 11. 



2 00 



June 25. 



Gratuities : — 

Samuel Hartwell, Challenge Peas, 
M. W. Chadbourne, Peas, 



1 00 
1 00 



252 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ROSE AND STRAWBERRY SHOW. 

June 28. 

Beets. — Turnip Rooted, Walter Russell, $2 00 

Second, J. Fillebrown, 1 00 

Egyptian, J. Crosby, . . . 2 00 

Second, S. G. Stone, 1 00 

Carrots. — Intermediate, J. Crosby, 2 00 

Second, W. Russell, . . . 1 00 

Onions. — Twelve, J. Crosby, 2 00 

Second, J. Fillebrown, . 1 00 

Cucumbers. — Pair of White Spine, J. Crosby, . . . . 2 CO 

Second, C. H. Brackett, 1 00 

Cabbages. — Four, Walter Russell, 2 00 

Second, Josiah Crosby, ........ 1 00 

Lettuce. — Four heads, George W. Pierce, 2 00 

Second, Walter Russell, 1 00 

Peas. — Peck, S. G. Stone, Kentish In victa, 2 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, " " . ' . . . . 1 00 

Gratuities : — 

Samuel Hartwell, Challenge Peas, 1 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, Peas, . . 1 00 

C. E. Grant, " , 1 00 

C. H. Brackett, Cucumbers, 1 00 

George W. Pierce, Lettuce, 1 00 

J. Crosby, Collection, 1 00 

July 2. 

Peas. —Peck, S. G. Stone, Invicta, 2 00 

Second, " " Laxton's Alpha, 1 00 

July 9. 
Gratuities : — 

M. W. Chadbourne, Collection, . . . . . . 1 00 

Samuel G. Stone, " ....... 2 00 

Josiah Crosby, Portugal Onions, 1 00 

July 16. 
Gratuities : — 

Josiah Crosby, Summer Squashes, 2 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, Beauty of Hebron Potatoes, . . . . 2 00 

C. M. Atkinson, Marvel Peas, 1 00 

James Cartwright, Omega Peas, 1 00 

Samuel G. Stone, Collection of Beans, 1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 253 

July 23. 

Gratuities : — 

Marshall P. Wilder, Cucumbers, . . . . $1 00 

C. E. Grant, Marblehead. Corn, 1 00 

W. H. Spooner, Wax Date Beans, 1 00 

S. G. Stone, Collection, 3 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, Collection, . , 2 00 

July 30. 

Squashes. — Four Marrow, J. Crosby, 3 00 

Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears, Samuel G. Stone, Marblehead, . . 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, Narragansett, . . . . . 2 00 

Third, C. E. Grant, Marblehead, 1 00 

Gratuities : — 

C. E. Grant, Squashes, 1 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, Clark's No. 1 Potatoes, 1 00 

Josiah Crosby, Onions, ......... 1 00 

James Comley, Laxton's Supreme and Blue Peter Peas, . . . 1 00 

August 6. 

Squashes. — Four Marrow, Josiah Crosby, . . i . . 2 00 

Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears, Josiah Crosby, 2 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, . . . . . . . . 1 00 

Tomatoes. — Gen. Grant, M. W. Chadbourne, . . . . 2 00 

Gratuities : — 

L. W. Weston, Collection, . . . . . . . . 2 00 

C. E. Grant, Sweet Corn, 1 00 

J Crosby, Beauty of Hebron Potatoes, . . . . . . 1 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, Clark's No. 1 Potatoes, 1 00 

August 13. 
Gratuities : — 

Samuel Hartwell, Burr's Corn, ........ 1 00 

L. W. Weston, Weston's Early Corn, . . . . . . 1 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, Crosby " 1 00 

C. N. Brackett, Acme and Emery Tomatoes, . . . . . 2 00 

Samuel G. Stone, Collection, 3 00 

C. E. Grant, " 2 00 

August 20. g 
Gratuities : — 

M. W. Chadbourne, Collection, 2 00 

S. G. Stone, " ....... 2 00 

Samuel Hartwell, Corn, 1 00 



254 MASSACHUSETTS HOKTI CULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Charles Garfield, Tomatoes, $1 00 

C. N. Brackett, Acme Tomatoes, . 1 00 

Warren Heustis, " " , 1 00 

August 27. 

Potatoes. — Peck of any variety, S. Hartwell, Beauty of Hebron, . 2 00 

Second. C. N. Brackett, Clark's No. 1, 100 

Beans. — Large Lima, C. E. Grant, 3 00 

Second, B. G. Smith, 2 00 

Gratuities : — 

George Hill, Greenflesh Melons, ...... . 2 00 

Samuel Hartwell, Burr's Corn, 1 00 

C. N. Brackett, two varieties Tomatoes, 1 00 

Samuel G Stone, Collection, 3 00 

C. E. Grant, " 2 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, " 2 00 

Charles Garfield " 1 00 

September 3. 

Greenflesh Melons. — Four specimens, George Hill, . . . 3 00 
Gratuities : — 

Josiah Crosby, Peppers and Corn, 2 00 

C. N. Brackett, Beans and Tomatoes, 1 00 

George Craft, Marty nias, 1 00 

C. E. Grant, Collection, 2 00 

S. G. Stone, " 2 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, " 1 00 

Charles Garfield, " 1 00 

September 10. 
Gratuities : — 

C. N. Brackett, Emery Tomatoes, ....... 1 00 

Samuel Hartwell, Lima Beans, ........ 1 00 

C. E. Grant, Collection, 1 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, " 1 00 

S. G. Stone, " 1 00 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

September 13, 14, 15, and 16. 

Special Prizes. 

Cauliflowers. — Best four specimens, J. Cummings, 
Celery. — Four specimens, Josiah Crosby, .... 

Regular Prizes. 

Beets. — Twelve, J. Crosby, ....... 

Second, George P. Stone, . . . . . . 

Third, Walter Russell, 



15 


00 


5 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



255 



Carrots. — Twelve Long Orange, W. W. Rawson, . . . $3 00 

Second, John L. D'Wolf, . 
Third, Walter Russell, 
Twelve Intermediate, J. Crosby, . 
Second, W. Russell, . 
Third, John Curamings, 
Parsnips. — Twelve Long, J. L. D'Wolf, 
Second, Walter Russell, 
Third, M. W. Chadbourne, 
Potatoes. — Four varieties, one peck each, C. N. Brackett, 
Second, Samuel Hartwell, . 
Third, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, 
Early Rose, C. B. Lancaster, 
Second, George W. Pierce, 
Third, L. W. Weston, 
Snowflake, J. L. D'Wolf, 

Second, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, 
Any other variety, C. B. Lancaster, Clark's No. 1 
Second, J. L. D'Wolf, Beauty of Hebron, 
Third, C. N. Brackett, Mammoth Pearl, 
Collection of new Seedling varieties, E. S. Brownell, the Society's 
Silver Medal. 
Salsify. — Twelve specimens, J. L. D'Wolf, . 
Second, Walter Russell, .... 
Third, M. W. Chadbourne, 
Turnips. — Twelve Swedish, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, 
Onions. — Peck of Danvers Yellow, J. Crosby, 
Second, Walter Russell, 
Third, J. CunJmings, . 
Red, Walter Russell, 
Second, J. Cummings, 
Third, S. Hartwell, . 
White Portugal, Josiah Crosby 
Second, Walter Russell, 
Third, S. Hartwell, . 
Greenflesh Melons. — Four, George Hill, 
Second, I. P. Dickinson, 
Third, John L. D'Wolf, 
Muskmelons. — Four, I. P. Dickinson, 
Watermelons. — Pair, I. P. Dickinson, Round Solid 
Second, I. P. Dickinson, Black Spanish, 
Third, I. P. Dickinson, Peerless, 
Squashes. — Four Canada, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, 
Second, Josiah Pratt, . 
Third, Warren Fenno, 
Hubbard, George Hill, . 
Second, Samuel Hartwell 
Third, John Cummings, 



2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 



256 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Marblehead, John Cummin gs, 
Marrow, George Hill, 

Second, John Cummings, 
Turban, John Cummings, 
Second, Samuel Hartwell, 
Cabbages. — Three Drumhead, J, Cummings, 
Second, J. B. Tilley, . 
Third, Samuel Hartwell, 
Eed, John Cummings, . 
Second, C. N. Brackett, 
Third, M. T. Goddard, 
Savoy, J. Cummings, 

Second. Samuel Hartwell, 
Third, W. D. Forbes, 
Cauliflowers. — Four, W. W. Rawson, 
Second, Walter Russell, 
Third, John Cummings, 
Celery. — Four roots, W. W. Rawson, 

Second, Josiah Crosby, 
Endive. — Four heads, George W. Pierce, 
Horseradish. — Six roots, W. W. Rawson, 

Second, Walter Russell, 
Lima Beans. — Two quarts, Samuel G. Stone, 
Second, Benjamin G. Smith, 
Third, C, E. Grant, . . . . 
Corn. — Sweet, twelve ears, John Cummings, 
Second, Robert Elder, 
Third, Samuel Hartwell, 
Yellow or Field, twenty-five ears, Mrs. M. T. Goddard 
Second, C. N. Brackett, 
Third, Robert Elder, . 
Egg Plant. — Four Round Purple, Walter Russell, 
Tomatoes. — Three varieties, George H. Rich, 
Second, C. N. Brackett, . 
Third, S. G. Stone, .... 
Acme, Twelve specimens, John Cummings, 

Second, George W. Pierce, 
Boston Market, J. Cummings, 

Second, Walter Russell, 
Emery, J. Cummings, .... 

Second, George W. Pierce, 
Gen. Grant, John Cummings, 

Second, C. E. Grant, .... 
Any other variety, B. K. Bliss & Sons, Mayflower, 
Second, John Cummings, Paragon, 
Martynias. — Twenty-four, George W. Pierce 
Second, M. W. Chadbourne, 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



257 



Peppers. — Twenty-four, George F. Stone, $3 00 

Second, Josiah Crosby, ........ 2 00 

Third, Walter Russell, . . 1 00 

Cranberries. — Half-peck, O. M. Holmes, 2 00 

Gratuities : — 

I. P. Dickinson, Melons, ......... 2 00 

A. T. Brown, Egg Plants, . . 1 00 

Henry R. Comley, Parsley, ........ 1 00 

John Cummings, Collection, ........ 4 00 

George W. Pierce, " . . ... . . . 300 

Walter Russell, " ...... . . . 3 00 

Samuel Hartwell, " 2 CO 

C. E. Grant, " 2 00 

L. W. Weston, " - 1 00 

W. D. Forbes, . " ........ 1 00 

George Craft, " 1 00 

September 24. 

Gratuities : — 

Samuel G. Stone, Collection, 2 00 

C. N. Brackett, " 1 00 

C. E Grant, " 1 00 



October 1. 

Salsify. — Twelve specimens, M. W. Chadbourne, . 
Brussels Sprouts. — Half-peck, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, 
Cabbages. — Three Drumhead, John Cummings, 
Second, W. S. Janvrin, 
Red, John Cummings, .... 

Second, C. B. Lancaster, . 
Savoy, John Cummings, 
Cauliflowers. — Four, John Cummings, 
Celery. — Four roots, Josiah Crosby, 

Gratuities : — 

B. G. Smith, Lima Beans, 
A. W. Nelson, Strawberry Tomatoes, 
Samuel G. Stone, Collection, 

C. E. Grant, " ... 
Samuel Hartwell, " ... 
C. N. Brackett, " ... 



2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


:'» 


00 


2 


00 


l 


CO 


l 


00 



October 8. 



Gratuity : — 
Samuel G. Stone, Collection, 



2 00 



258 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

October 15. 
Gratuity : — 
C. E. Grant, Collection, . . . $2 00 

October 21. 
Gratuity : — 

Josiah Crosby, Celery, , . 2 00 

November 5» 

Gratuity : — 

Josiah Crosby, Celery, 1 00 

CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOW. 

November 9. 

Celery. — Four roots, Josiah Crosby, $2 00 

Cauliflowers. — Four, John L. Gardner, 2 00 

December 3. 
Gratuity : — 

Josiah Crosby, Celery, 1 00 



REPORT 



OP THE 



Committee on Gardens, 



FOR THE YEAR 1881. 



By JOHN G. BARKER, Chairman. 



Although the results of our efforts to awaken a more general 
interest in this department of the Society's work have not been 
altogether what we hoped for, the past season has shown a 
marked increase over the previous in the number of places to which 
the attention of the Committee has been called, and we trust the 
record of our doings, whicn we now present to you, will prove to 
be of sufficient interest to cause still greater activity on the part 
of all the members of the Society, and that each will do his best 
to facilitate the efforts of the Committee in obtaining any informa- 
tion that may be worthy of record, and may have a tendency 
to advance our cause. We call especial attention to the Hunne- 
well Triennial Premiums, and also to the Society's Prizes for the 
year to come, with the sincere hope that there may be an earnest 
competition for them all. 

Pine Hill, the Residence of Hon. Francis B. Hayes. 

Our first visit was on the 23d of June, to Lexington, upon invi- 
tation of our worthy President, to visit his extensive grounds. 
The day was all that could be desired, and in addition to the mem- 
bers of the Committee, we were honored with the presence of 
many of our distinguished horticulturists, and we noted with plea- 
sure that of our worthy Ex-President, the Hon. Marshall P. 
Wilder, President of the American Pomological Society, whose 
kind and enthusiastic words proved to us that, while advancing in 
years, he is as young as ever in his zeal for the promotion of the 



260 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

cause of horticulture, which has been to him one of the dearest 
objects of his life. 

We hardly need to mention that we were received in the most 
generous and hospitable manner, of which many have had per- 
sonal experience, more than once repeated. After a delightful 
repast prepared for us at the mansion house, we were escorted to 
the principal object of our visit, the Rhododendron tent, a struc- 
ture fifty feet square, arranged in an artistic manner, and planted 
with the hybrid varieties of the Rhododendron. The eight stand- 
ards were very conspicuous, the varieties being Lady Eleanor 
Cathcart, Concessum, Joseph Whitworth, Jean Verschaffelt, Van- 
dyck, The Queen, Mrs. Milner, and Fastuosum flore pleno. These 
.fine plants were among the most ornamental on the grounds, as all 
must admit, and standing as they did conspicuously above the 
dwarf varieties, with their well formed heads of beautiful flowers, 
they were objects of great admiration, and indeed when not in 
flower the beautiful glossy foliage is very effective. In addition to 
the standards there were over one hundred varieties of dwarf 
plants, man}' of them quite new and flowering for the first time in 
this country, in all shades of color, from a rich deep scarlet to 
pure white. We also noticed fine specimen plants in tubs of the 
beautiful Bougainvillea glabra, which were laden witlr lovely pink 
bracts. It deserves a place as a decorative plant in any choice 
collection. There was a very fine specimen of Dracaena Draco, a 
highly ornamental plant which may be brought out from the green- 
house among the earliest of plants ; also a fine plant of Alsophila 
excelsa, one of the most beautiful greenhouse tree ferns ; and an 
Azalea Exquisita, a very large specimen plant, probably the larg- 
est in this country, and a mass of bloom. But space forbids 
enumerating all the wealth of plants, beautiful in flower or foliage, 
with which the tent was crowded. 

The general improvements on the whole estate since the Com- 
mittee last visited the grounds, when the Hunnewell Triennial Pre- 
mium was awarded, are very marked. A large conservatory, forty 
by sixty-five feet, has been erected, in the centre of which are 
three large camellias from the collection of the Hon. Marshall P. 
Wilder ; the varieties are Alba flore pleno and Feastii. A fine 
specimen plant of the showy Allamanda Schottii was very noticeable. 
Also the beautiful Nympliaia coerulea, N. flava, and JST. Devoniensis, 
and Aponogeton distachyon, all of which can be grown in pots 
and tubs as well as in a tank, and are of very easy culture. It is 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 261 

impossible to niake more than brief mention of the objects that 
attracted our notice ; there was a large collection of choice Azaleas 
selected with much care, and many other species and varieties that 
go to make up a choice collection of plants. We were informed 
that in future this conservatory will be used for the cultivation of 
rare summer flowering plants, and being situated very near the 
mansion house, it will undoubtedly be an interesting feature of the 
estate. The workmanship of the building is of the very best ; in 
the arrangement there is no stage in the centre, it being filled with 
large plants ; on the sides there is only low shelving, while at one 
end is a raised platform (access being had at either end by steps) 
on which are placed settees, where the visitor can sit down and 
look on the plants, the only way to see them properly. Connected 
with the conservatory is the vinery, where the vines were already 
in bearing, and their excellent condition was good proof of skilful 
cultivation received. We also noticed, near by, a small span-roofed 
house intended for growing roses, and numerous pits and frames, 
in which many of the Indian Azaleas are kept during winter, and 
which are alwa}'s valuable adjuncts to a well ordered place. 

Our attention was also directed to the pit, forty feet square, 
built in the woods ; the sides are of stone, with large double doors 
in one end, which in winter 'are closed up tight, access being had 
through one of the skylights in the roof. In this pit are kept the 
Hybrid Rhododendrons, Indian Azaleas, Hollies, and all half-hardy 
plants. During the winter of 1880 the temperature was carefully 
looked after, and was kept at an average of 38° ; two thermometers 
were hanging up, one at each end, showing that the temperature did 
not vary four degrees all through the season. Ventilation was given 
freely every mild day. This has proved a very gratifying success, 
and demonstrated the fact that it is not necessary to have exten- 
sive green and hot houses in order to grow and keep plants for 
summer decorative purposes. 

In addition to what we have already noticed, we desire to 
mention some of the evergreens which have been planted out over 
two years, and have proved perfectly hardy. 
Abies alba gloriosa. 

Abies Engelmannii. — Indigenous to the higher parts of the Rocky 
mountains, and a very pretty species. 

Abies or ientalis. — Already known as a fine lawn tree, but of 
somewhat slow growth. 
10 



262 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Abies macropliylla . — Mr. Hayes considers this one of the hard- 
iest and best ; it is very beautiful. 

Abies pendula. — Certainly a very peculiar plant, but by no 
means handsome ; it is perfecth' hard}', and should have a place 
among evergreens. 

Abies pyramidalis. 

Abies Alcoquiana. — A splendid tree, and yet scarce. 

Abies diffusa. 

Picea Pichta. — A rather small species, with peculiar dark foli- 
age ; very hardy, and can be highly recommended for general cul- 
tivation. 

Petinospora orgentea. — A very distinct and desirable variety. 

Petinospora filifera. — Also desirable; both this and the pre- 
ceding were introduced from Japan. 

Petinospora pisifera aurea, in a bed planted two years, produced 
a very pleasing effect. It is a beautiful plant, of compact habit, 
with branchlets of a bright golden color. 

Among dwarf evergreens which attracted our attention more par- 
ticularly were the three following varieties : Abies nigra purnila, 
A. Hudsonia, and A. Gregoryana.* 

Another evergreen of great merit, that has stood the test of 
several winters, is Sciadopitys verticillata, the Umbrella Pine of 
Japan, which bids fair to become one of the most popular orna- 
mental evergreen trees. 

Of deciduous trees, the curious Aralia (Dimorplianthus) Mands- 
churica, a perfectly hardy tree, with palm-like habit, is a remark- 
able novelty and will prove of great value in ornamental gardening. 

Betula purpurea, the Purple Birch, is always very effective. 

Magnolia hypoleuca is new. 

Magnolia Alexandrina closely resembles M. Soulangeana. 

Magnolia slellata (Hall's Japan Magnolia) , Mr. Hayes informs 
us is the earliest and one of the best. 

Pirus Malus floribunda. 

Acer Negundo foliis aureo variegatis, the golden variegated 
Negundo. 

Acer Negundo variegata. This is one of the most beav+iful 
variegated treej, especially when so planted that evergreens form 
the background ; Mr. Hayes's largest specimen is twelve feet high, 
and was spoken of by Mr. Parsons as one of the best he knew, 
and worth a journey from New York to see. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 263 

Of the new Japan Maples the following varieties, which have 
been planted out three years and have proved thoroughly harcty, 
seem to be among the valuable plants for future ornamental pur- 
poses, although in many localities it is far from settled what 
varieties will prove hardy. 

Acer polymorphum reticulatum. 

u albo variegatum. 

" palmati 'folium roseo pictis. 

44 versicolor. 

44 sanguineum. 

44 roseo marginatum. 

" pabnatifidum. 

44 pinnatifidum atropurpureum : 

44 palmatvm. 

44 sanguineum variegatum. 

4 ' aureum. 

4 4 atropurpureum . 

44 polymorphum. 

Japonicum. 

Of over fifty varieties of Clematis we noted the following six as 
most striking. 

Froebel. Prince of Wales. 

Jackmanni (intense violet Sieboldii. 

purple). William Bull. 

James Bateman. 
Of Hybrid Perpetual Roses, about sixteen hundred plants, in 
two hundred of the most select varieties are cultivated. 

Of flowering shrubs, we noticed the justly popular Hydrangea 
paniculata grandijiora in the highest perfection, both as standards 
and bushes. Exoclwrda grandijiora was very fine ; JSpirwa Thun- 
bergii very delicate, and one of the best of the genus ; Weigela 
Lavalleei, is an excellent variety, and Viburnum plica turn is one 
of the very best of the genus, the habit being particularly fine ; 
Buist's Variegated Althaea, is very striking and effective, holding 
the variegation excellently, and must prove very useful. Bignonia 
grandijiora proecox is a magnificent pl°nt, producing a great 
abundance of large deep coppery crimson flowers ; very valuable 
and thoroughly hardy. 

Having made special mention of such trees, shrubs, and plants as 
seem most desirable, we would add that the general improvement 



264 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of the entire estate is ver}- noticeable. The avenue leading to the 
Pinetum has been planted on either side with choice evergreens, 
and in the grove, over two hundred of Van Houtte's seedling 
rhododendrons have been planted under the partial shade of the 
large trees. Returning by Maple Avenue we noticed that numer- 
ous beds had been cut out and planted with rhododendrons, and 
the choicest varieties of hardy shrubs, and it is only a matter of 
time when these beautiful avenues will be a very attractive feature 
of the place. The large masses of hardy rhododendrons near the 
entrance to the grounds were in fine order, as were also the hardy 
azaleas. The wide extent of lawn with a very commanding view 
of the pine woods from the piazza of the mansion house was 
exceedingly delightful. The neatly trimmed hedges which shut off 
the rear of the house from view, were in splendid condition. It 
was noticeable that there were but few beds of plants of the 
modern style, but here and there was a bed of Cannas, and then 
one of Geraniums and Coleus sd placed as to give enchantment to 
a distant view. The fine sub-tropical bed at the front of the house 
deserves especial mention. It was composed of Musas, Phormium 
tenax variegatum, P. Colensoi, P. atropurpu.reum, Flcus ela.stica, 
Grevillea robubta, Pandanus utilis, Agave Americana, and Yucca 
variegata, the whole bed being carpeted with Coleus and Achyran- 
thes, and edged with Agave Americana variegata. We also 
noticed in suitable places with good effect on the lawn, a fine pair 
of plants of Fourcroya Lindeni; also Araucaria Cookii and A. 
excelsa, Musa ensete and Beaucamea glauca. 

In selecting what we have for special notice, in a place so large, 
and where there is so much to attract attention, and all worthy of 
note, we trust that we have done no injustice to what remains 
unmentioned. We all admire the enthusiasm of our honored 
President, and we wish to record our thanks for what he has done 
for the advancement of the most beautiful of all arts, horticulture ; 
and our earnest wish is that his life may long be spared to enjoy 
the fruits of his labors. 

The Chairman also wishes to record his thanks to Mr. Comley, 
the accomplished and skilful gardener, to whom on a subsequent 
visit he was much indebted for the information obtained, and which 
has helped very much to make up this report. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 265 

Thomas C. Thurlow' s Peach Orchard. 

On the 27th of July the Committee visited the Peach Orchard 
of Thomas C. Thurlow, at West Newbury. The land selected for 
the orchard is the southern slope of a high hill and is not valued 
at over fifty dollars per acre ; the space occupied being about three 
acres. The trees are eighteen feet apart each way and were 
planted in the spring of 1875, and at the time of planting a quart 
of wood ashes was worked in the ground around each tree. Mr. 
Thurlow thinks it essential that a vigorous growth should not be 
encouraged until the trees begin to bear. All the trimming that 
has ever been done was in the last of May or the first week in 
June, and consisted chiefly in cutting out dead wood. But a small 
quantity of fertilizing material has been used ; half a ton of 
Pacific guano and a small quantity of the Darling fertilizer was 
applied this year, the whole not costing over fifty dollars. The 
cultivation has been done with the horse, and the ground has been 
hoed by hand but once. 

The Committee were much pleased with the appearance of the 
trees ; the growth and color of the wood, together with a moderate 
setting of fruit gave promise of a very fine crop, which we antici- 
pated would give the most satisfactory results. At this time we 
could see but two trees that had any appearance of the yellows. 
But in a subsequent letter from Mr. Thurlow, under date of 
August 3d, we learned that the eight or ten trees of the early 
varieties were nearly a failure. The Alexander's Early ripened first, 
but nearly all rotted before they were full} 7 ripe. Then one or two 
each of Early Louise and Early Rivers went about the same wa}\ 
The Early Beatrice, which Mr. Thurlow considers the best early 
peach he has, was less affected by rot. In seeking to account for 
the rot, it was thought that the unusually wet weather at the time 
of ripening, together with the bees and other insects, was the 
cause. Mr. Thurlow has noticed large numbers of honey bees 
endeavoring to extract the juice from the fruit, and from that 
single spot on the fruit the rot set in and eventually the fruit 
would drop off the tree. 

Under the same date, Mr. Thurlow informed us that the yellows 
had unfortunately broken out in the middle of the orchard, where 
the very best trees were situated ; and that two 3'ears ago it broke 
out in the same wa}', and by then cutting down and carrying off 



266 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

some twenty-five or more trees he had hoped that it was eradicated, 
but to his great disappointment it broke out this year immediately 
adjoining where it was in 1879, and thirty more of the ver} 7 best 
trees have been sacrificed. Immediately after the removal of the 
trees, lime was put over the stumps of the same, and around 
them, and having attended to the liming very thoroughly, 
Mr. Thurlow hopes that he has now succeeded in checking this 
great scourge to the peach trees. He intends to lime his whole 
orchard next spring, besides putting ashes around each tree. 

After all that has been written about the yellows, and a very 
thorough search for any information that could possibly be of any 
value on this point, we must confess that, like many others, we 
have not yet found the preventive or the remedy ; but, if it is 
caused by a fungus, as many think it is, lime, in a caustic state, 
may prove beneficial, and, perhaps, if properly applied from the 
time of planting, may be a preventive. Mr. John Rutter, of 
Pennsylvania, a successful peach grower, and author of a work 
on peach culture, advocates such an application. 

The committee again visited Mr. Thurlow on the 21st of Sep- 
tember, and, although they did not find so much of a crop as might 
have been expected, the}' desire to mention the Crawford's Early as 
being particularly fine, and altogether the best flavored fruit ; but, 
if nothing further happens to the trees, it seems highly probable 
that a good crop may be expected another season, as the wood was 
well ripened and in good bearing order. At that time the Craw- 
ford's Late also promised well. On the 4th of October Mr. 
ThurlOw T wrote that he had two trees of Osgood's Yellow, which 
were nice, and were full without rotting, promising much better 
than the Crawford's Late. 

In the cultivation of this orchard Mr. Thurlow saj'S, that if all 
the trees are destroyed now he is amply paid for the trouble he has 
been at, and has demonstrated the fact that peaches can be raised 
at little expense, and on land that would be of little or no value for 
anything else, as the following facts illustrate : The third year 
from planting, the fruit realized $100 ; the fourth year, $600 ; the 
fifth year, $50, and the sixth, $400 ; in fact, Mr. Thurlow is so 
sanguine in regard to cultivating peaches successfully and profit- 
ably, at a price that will bring them within reach of the masses, 
that he proposes to buy quite a farm on elevated ground, and 
devote it entirely to peach culture. The Committee award to Mr. 
Thurlow the first premium for the best peach orchard. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 267 

We desire, also, to mention the very excellent-condition of Mr. 
Thurlow's nursery, and his systematic method of naming trees and 
shrubs, using every means to give the purchaser just what he 
orders, and the best that can be grown. We were much pleased 
with his fine bed of Lilium longijlorum, which at the time of our 
first visit was in full bloom, and was estimated to have at least 
two thousand flowers. It was well worth a trip to West Newbury 
to see. 

Marshall Miles*s Peach Orchard. 

On the 24th of September the Committee visited the orchard of 
Marshall Miles, at Concord, Mass., which was, unfortunately, 
entered too late for premium. Mr. Miles has, how aver, at the 
request of the Chairman, transmitted an interesting statement, 
which is appended to this report. 

As far as obtaining a crop is concerned, the trees in Mr. Miles's 
orchard were all very heavily laden with fruit, and each was a 
perfect picture, and the crop, as a whole, was such as we never saw 
before. Although Mr. Miles informed us that he had thinned out 
considerable, evidently too much was left on the trees for their 
future good, and flavor was largely sacrificed to abundance of crop. 
The cultivation is so well explained in Mr. Miles's statement, that 
it is not necessary to speak on that point. The appearance of the 
trees was good evidence of the success obtained. The Crawford's 
Early were being picked ; the Crawford's Late promised well, but 
the Committee were of the unanimous opinion that the Oldmixons 
were by far the best. The visit to Mr. Miles was very gratif}'ing 
to the Committee, inasmuch as he has, b\ T energ} 7 and perseverance, 
fully proved that peaches can be successfully raised in our uncer- 
tain climate, and the Committee unanimously award to him a 
gratuity of $15 for successful cultivation of the peach. 

John B. Moore's Peach Orchard and Vineyard. 

The same day the Committee visited the grounds of John B. 
Moore, and it is needless to speak of the very excellent condition 
in which everything was found, as all who know Mr. Moore are fully 
aware of the superior methods of cultivation adopted by him, which 
his exhibits full}- attest ; the whole place was a model of neatness 
and good order. The young peach orchard promises much for the 
future, and the Crawford's Early, in size, and particularly iu flavor, 



268 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

were the best we, have seen and tasted. The vineyard was in good 
order also. The Moore's Early grapes were particularly notice- 
able ; the fine bunches and highly colored fruit were ample evi- 
dence that the value of this grape has not been over-estimated. 
The fine collection of hardy plants, particularly the Phloxes and 
Hybrid Perpetual Roses, was in excellent condition. 

We desire to express our thanks to Mr. Thurlow for his unbounded 
kindness and hospitality ; also to Mr. Moore and Mr. Miles for 
attentions shown the Committee.* 

Our thanks are also due to Major Ben : Perle} 7 Poore, of Indian 
Hill Farm, West Newbury, on the occasion of our second visit to 
Mr. Thurlow, for kind attention in showing the Committee what he 
had been able to accomplish on a waste, barren hill, where once 
hardly a blade of grass would grow, but which is now covered with 
a luxuriant growth of a great variety of forest trees, both deciduous 
and evergreen. We hope at some future time to be able to make 
a more extended report of this interesting place. Mr. Poore was 
some years ago awarded the premium of $1,000, by the Massa- 
chusetts Societ}' for Promoting Agriculture, for the best plantation 
of oak trees. 

In conclusion, we would suggest that the Committee be instructed 
to visit such places as contain objects of interest, from time to time, 
as they see fit, if not invited formally by the proprietors, and to 
make such reports as may be of interest to the Society, and pro- 
mote the art of horticulture. 

John G. Barker, 

Geo. S. Harwood. 

E. W. Wood. 

Henry Ross. ) Committee. 

John C. Hovey. 

C. N. Brackett. 

Wm. H. Spooner. 



STATEMENT OF MARSHALL MILES. 

Gentlemen : — 

The cultivation given the orchard I desire to enter for premium 
is as follows : 

The land selected five years ago for my peach orchard consists 
of three and a half acres, entirely free from stones, the surface 
crowning in the centre, thus giving a gentle slope to nearl} 7 every 
point of the compass. The soil is a sandy loam, slightly alluvial, 
intermingled with clay to a depth of fifteen inches ; the whole 
resting upon a subsoil of yellow loam. This land had been culti- 
vated with crops in rotation, including grass, for many years, and 
had been manured with barnyard manure, but not liberally. 

In preparation for setting the trees, the land, which was in grass, 
was ploughed in the fall, and again in the spring, and thoroughly 
pulverized. The four hundred trees, divided between the Craw- 
ford's Early, Crawford's Late, and Oldmixon Freestone, when 
set, were one year from the bud, and were set about the middle of 
May, six to ten inches deep, and twenty feet apart each way, so 
as to allow the sun access to the roots even when fully grown. 
Great care was used in placing the roots naturally and putting the 
earth in firm contact with every fibre. No manure of sany kind 
was applied at the time of setting, but potatoes were immediately 
planted, manured with barnyard manure quite liberally, and hoed 
three times ; they produced four hundred bushels of good pota- 
toes. No other manure was applied to the trees the first year, but 
they were carefully trimmed and headed back sharply, so as to 
produce a good shape. This heading in has been continued in 
September every year. As soon as the ground was frozen, I 
mulched the trees with meadow ha} T , covering out beyond all the 
roots, carefully keeping the mulching in its place during the win- 
ter and until the season was confirmed, thus ensuring the protec- 
tion of the buds from too early development. This mulching was 
renewed during midsummer, serving as a protection from drought 
while modifying the heat of the sun. 

The second year I raised a. crop of two hundred bushels (in the 
ear) of pop corn. It was manured with barnyard manure spread 
broadcast and ploughed in. No manure was applied directly to 



270 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the trees. The growth of the trees at this time was most vigor- 
ous, and they were carefully trimmed back. 

The third year I raised a crop of white beans, which was ma- 
nured in the hill with a little hen manure composted liberally with 
muck, producing fifty-one bushels of beans. During the season, 
which was a very unpropitious one, the trees grew rapidly, produc- 
ing ten bushels of fruit. Great pains was taken to keep the 
growth shapely. 

The fourth year the orchard was ploughed but not planted. 
About the 15th of May thirt} 7 bushels of air-slacked lime was dug 
in about the outer circle of the branches, thus reaching the small 
roots. In June a mixture of saltpetre waste and wood ashes was 
applied in the same manner. The crop set so abundantly that 
fearing to tax the trees too much, what would have been equiva- 
lent to one hundred bushels of fruit was picked off in a green 
state. The peach crop for that year was seventy- five bushels of 
very fine fruit. 

Last year the crop of corn, potatoes, and beans, was manured 
in the hill ; the corn and potatoes with a fertilizer composed of bone 
dust and muck, and the beans with hen manure and muck. The 
crop of peaches was twenty-five bushels of fair, large fruit, but 
this was not a peach year. 

The present year I have planted no crop among the trees but 
have kept the ground as clean as I could conveniently, and about 
the middle of July I gave the orchard a light dressing of hen ma- 
nure and wood ashes, and applied half a barrel of water to each 
tree, to assist in carrying out the crop. I thinned out a large 
quantity of green fruit, but think it would have been quite as well 
if I had taken out more, although the fruit is of good size and the 
trees have borne up remarkably well, ver} T few of them having 
broken, owing in part to the very favorable weather. I have mar- 
keted up to this elate about sixteen hundred baskets of good fruit, 
which I should judge to be not much more than two-thirds of the 
entire crop, as the late varieties have not 3'et matured. 

The cultivation described above may not only show to a consid- 
erable extent what food peach trees need, but may also suggest 
how the land can at the same time be otherwise utilized with safety 

to the trees. 

Respectfully yours, 

MARSHALL MILES. 
Concord, Mass., Sept. 26, 1881. 



THE YELLOWS. 

The Committee also take the liberty to append to their Report 
the following extract from the Annual Report of the Michigan Po- 
mological Society, for 1878 (page 262), which they 'deem a good 
summary of what is known concerning the yellows and the best 
course to pursue in regard to it, and which may prove, useful to 
those interested in growing peaches. We ma}' not be able to make 
such laws as are proposed in the last paragraph of the extract, but 
if all growers can be made to realize the importance of following 
these suggestions, the terrible disease ma} r at least be checked, if 
not eradicated. The Committee also recommend to peach growers 
"The Culture and Diseases of the Peach," b} 7 John Rutter ; a 
book which contains many valuable hints and cannot fail to be a 
helpful guide. 

More about the Yellows. 

The following communication was presented by Mr. N. H. 
Bitery, as a compilation of facts elicited by the yellows discussion : 

1. That the disease is contagious, sind in some manner is com- 
municated from tree to tree, from orchard to orchard, and from 
one neighborhood to another. 

2. That it did not originate in Michigan, but was probably 
imported from its original home, the peach region of New Jersey, 
Delaware, and Maryland. 

3. That neither soil nor cultivation is a factor in its spread. 

4. That both budded and seedling trees, and all varieties of 
either are subject to its attack ; although there are some facts to 
show that the white fleshed peaches are more exempt. 

5. That it may be communicated from tree to tree b} T pruning 
knife, shears, or saw. Hence the implement used in pruning a 
tree should be thoroughly cleaned before making a cut upon 
another tree. 

6. That no remedy is now known except to destroy the diseased 
trees promptly, and to neglect such destruction is sure death to an 
orchard, and all other orchards in the vicinity. 

7. That the prompt eradication and burning of the diseased 



272 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

trees may stop it entirely in an orchard, and at least will greatly 
retard its progress. 

8. From the foregoing the conclusion seems inevitable that 
nothing but a stringent law, for the destruction of the diseased 
trees, applicable to the whole State, diligently and energetically 
enforced, will prevent the loss of every peach tree in the State. 
Without such a law we may bid a long farewell to this most lus- 
cious fruit which has so long been both a source of pride and 
revenue to the State. With such a law, so enforced, the future of 
the peach will be more hopeful. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS, 



FOR THE YEAR 1881. 



The Committee of Arrangements would respectfully submit their 
Report for 1881. 

The exhibitions throughout the year have been highly gratifying 
to the members of the Society and to the public generally, and the 
Society has every reason to know that the interest in the cultiva- 
tion of Fruits, Flowers, and Vegetables is constantly increasing. 

Meetings of the Committee of Arrangements have been held at 
stated times during the year, and whenever it was necessary to 
consult as to the best means and methods for arranging and 
managing the various exhibitions. The Azalea and Rose, the 
Rose and Strawberry, the Annual, the Chrysanthemum, and the 
weekly exhibitions have, if possible, surpassed those of other 
years, and have given much pleasure to the manj 7 visitors. 

At the Annual Exhibition, in September, the Plants and Flowers 
were shown in the Music Hall, and were so beautifully and artisti- 
cally arranged as to elicit the admiration of every one, and more 
especially the members of the American Pomological Societ}', who 
were the guests of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Records of each meeting of the Committee of Arrangements 
have been kept by the Secretary of the Society, and might be given 
here if necessa^, but as they relate only to business details con- 
cerning the exhibitions of the Society, the}* would fail to be of 
general interest. 

Adopted by the Committee. 

CHARLES H. B. BRECK, Chairman. 



MEETING 



OF THE 



AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



The Eighteenth Biennial Session and Exhibition of the American 
Pomological Society was held in Boston on the 14th, loth, and 
16th of September, 1881, at the invitation of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society. The two spacious halls in the Horticultural 
Society's building were devoted to the fruits contributed to the 
Pomological Society's exhibition, and to the fruits and vegetables 
exhibited by the Horticultural Society, the exhibition of plants 
and flowers being held in the Music Hall. The central and two 
western tables in the Upper Horticultural Hall were set apart for 
the fruits of the Pomological Society, which w T ere gathered from 
every part of the United States and the Dominion of Canada, 
from New Brunswick to California, and from Montreal to Georgia. 
The most noticeable collection was from Michigan. It included 
a large variety of apples, pears, plums, and peaches, Monstera 
deliciosa; Asimina triloba (papaw) and other western fruits and 
nuts ; also an instructive collection of the useful and injurious 
insects of the State. S. C. Harlow, of Bangor, Maine, exhibited 
14 varieties of pears, and 68 of apples. James H. Ricketts, of 
Newburgh, New York,, showed 18 varieties of his new seedling 
grapes, and Ellwanger & Barry, of Rochester, 3N". Y., a collection 
of new pears and grapes. The Montreal Horticultural Society 
exhibited an interesting collection of 34 varieties of apples ; B. 
S. Fox, of San Jose, California, 90 varieties of seedling pears; 
Dr. J. W Strentzel, of Martinez, Cal., a collection of grapes, 
oranges, and a variety of other fruits ; several contributors at Los 
Angeles, Ca , showed oranges, lemons, Japanese persimmons, 
pomegranates, etc. P. J. Berckmans, of Augusta, Georgia, also 
showed several varieties of the new Japanese persimmons. James 
F. C. Hyde exhibited fruit of the Actinidia polygama, a climbing 



AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 275 

shrub from Japan, which fruited for the first time in this country 
the present year. Hon. Marshall P. Wilder exhibited 164 varie- 
ties of pears ; Hove} 7 & Co., 190 varieties; Warren Fenno, 5o 
varieties ; Benjamin G. Smith, 50 varieties ; and there were 
man}* exhibitors of smaller collections. The whole exhibition 
comprised 535 dishes of pears, 188 of apples, 17 of peaches, 17 
of plums, 100 of grapes, and 71 of miscellaneous fruits, making 
a grand total of 928 dishes. The attention of members and dele- 
gates at the previous meetings of the Society had been so much 
engrossed by the great quantities of fruit exhibited, that the sense 
of the meeting at Rochester, in 1879, was that the exhibition of 
large collections of fruit was not desirable, but that the show of 
fruits should be confined mainly to new or rare varieties, or such as 
for any reason possessed special interest, and hence the quantity 
exhibited was less than in previous 3'ears. 

The meetings of the Pomological Society, for the discussion of 
fruits, w r ere held at the Hawthorne Rooms, on Park Street, begin- 
ning at ten o'clock in the morning of Wednesday the 14th of 
September, when the delegates and members were welcomed in 
behalf of the Massachusetts Horticultural Societ\ r , by the President, 
Hon. Francis B. Hayes, who spoke as follows : 

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the American Pomological 
Society : — In behalf of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society I 
cordially welcome you all who have honored our society and city 
by your presence on this occasion. From the Dominion of Canada 
to the everglades of Florida, from the Atlantic to the Pacific shore, 
all receive our warmest greetings. We feel as if you were children 
of our own, connected so intimately as your society has been with 
ours, the elder one, from your birth. If not our offspring, you 
are our very near and dear relations, and as such w r e welcome you 
to our home. It is with pride we receive as our guests so distin- 
guished and useful a society as yours, and we are highly gratified 
to have the privilege of tendering all the facilities at our command 
to make your sojourn with us both profitable and pleasant to you* 
You will see in this city and State a community diligently 
engaged in the peaceful arts of life ; some are well known to 3*011 
as being deeply interested in agricultural and horticultural pursuits. 
Here is the home of those who have been largely occupied in 
fostering manufacturing industries, illustrated by the two extensive 
exhibitions of mechanical art now presented in this city, and in 



276 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

opening new avenues of commerce for the interchange of commod- 
ities between the different sections of our country, thereb} 7 uniting 
in the bands of mutual interest and sympathy all parts of this 
continent. If you are interested in the cause of education, our 
public schools, and schools and galleries of art, as well as our 
higher seminaries of learning, will be open for your inspection. 
Should you desire to see what we have done in horticulture, you 
have admission to the gardens of Hunnewell, Wilder, Pay son, 
Sargent, Gray, Gardner, Ames, Hovey, and others. Should 3^ou 
be pleased to see places associated with the struggles of our fathers 
in asserting and maintaining their cherished principles of religious, 
civil, and political freedom, you will visit Plymouth Rock, Lex- 
ington, and Concord, and, within the limits of this municipality, 
Bunker Hill and Dorchester Heights, as well as Faneuil Hall, and the 
Old South Church, from which the tocsin of liberty was sounded, 
rousing men throughout the land to unite with heart and hand in 
securing their sacred, inalienable rights. 

It is a most pleasant thought, Mr. President, that this nation is 
at peace with itself and all the world. We have "beaten our 
swords into ploughshares and spears into pruning hooks," and the 
entire Anglo-Saxon race is now harmoniously working out together 
the grand problems for the extension and perpetuity of freedom 
and the advancement of humanity. 

In these noble objects, sir, your society has a deep interest. 
About one-third of a century has elapsed since your organization, 
and you may look with great satisfaction upon what 3-ou have 
accomplished. By your instrumentalit}', chiefly, the cultivation of 
choice fruits has been extended throughout the larger portion of 
this continent. You have been far in advance of all others in 
promoting the production of the largest and best varieties of 
fruits, and in naming them, so that the world can make its selec- 
tion through the information your association has obtained and 
disseminated with great labor and liberality. Thus you have 
largely contributed to the comfort and happiness of mankind, 
besides augmenting in a wonderful manner the wealth of this coun- 
try. And, better than all this, your association has exerted a 
powerful influence for the common good in bringing together men 
of large intelligence and ability from the different sections of this 
country and the great Northern Dominion, and thereby cultivating 
sentiments of respect and friendship for each other, and estab- 



AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 277 

lishing a common brotherhood of laborers, having, for the object of 
their work, in the development of the resources of nature, the 
welfare of mankind. 

You must pardon me, gentlemen, for expressing the gratification 
I and my associates have, that in this great work of moral and 
material improvement our venerable fellow-citizen, who for several 
years filled the chair which I now occupy, is your leader. For 
more than thirty years you have with unanimity selected him to 
preside over your body, and you fully appreciate and gratefully 
acknowledge how much has been accomplished by your society 
through his zeal, indefatigable industry, and wise counsels. Long 
may his life of usefulness be preserved to us all ! 

You, sir, and your associates have the best wishes of the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society that your convention may be har- 
monious, agreeable, and promotive of the important objects of 
your organization ; and we shall hope you may have no cause for 
regret that you have honored us by }*our presence. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Hayes's remarks, President Wilder 
spoke in the language following : 

Mr. President : — In behalf of the American Pomological Society 
I beg to return you our sincere thanks for your kind words of wel- 
come, and for the elegant and commodious preparations you have 
made for our reception. 

We are right glad to be here once more, and to accept of the 
hospitalities which you have so generously extended to us, — here 
in the old Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the land of the 
Puritan and Pilgrim fathers — here in old Boston, from which 
emanated some of the first fruits of American pomology ; here 
w r here William Blackstone, the first white settler on our peninsula, 
planted an orchard on yonder Capitoline Hill, two hundred and 
fifty years ago ; here where John AVinthrop soon after planted a 
vineyard and orchard on his island farm in our harbor ; here where 
John Hancock had his nursery a hundred years ago ; here at the 
home of the Massachusetts Horticultural Societ} r , the second 
permanent institution of the kind on this continent ; and may I 
not add, here at the home of your ancient president, where for 
more than half a century he has labored for the advancement of 
the science of the soil. 

But, Mr. President, as I shall address the society more formally 
this afternoon, I will refrain from further remarks except to say 
11 



275 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

that we hope to be honored with }'our presence and that of the 
members of your society during our discussions. 

Mr. Hayes then arose and extended an invitation of the society 
to the banquet on Friday evening, in the following words : 

Mr. President : — I respectfully invite you and all other members 
of the American Pomological Society, with your ladies, to a ban- 
quet which the Massachusetts Horticultural Society will give on 
Fridaj- evening next in honor of your association. 

The biennial address of the President was delivered in the after- 
noon, and the remaining two days of the session were devoted to 
receiving the reports of committees, the reading of essay's and 
other papers on pomological subjects, and the discussion of the 
characteristics and value of the different fruits. 

The Banquet. 

The banquet at Music Hall, on the evening of Friday, the 
17th, was a fitting conclusion to a week devoted to the study of 
nature, and the exposition of her rich offerings of fruit and flowers. 
The scene in the great hall was most beautiful and inspiring. 
The rare exotics which had been exhibited there through the week, 
decorated the platform, the balconies, and the sides of the hall, 
imparting to it an air of refinement and elegance ; and tasteful 
bouquets were arranged on the tables, or suspended from the bal- 
conies. The plants and flowers, and still more, the bright, happy 
faces of the hundreds of ladies and gentlemen present, made up a 
picture at once charming and exhilarating, while the musical 
strains that ever and anon came floating from the rear balcony, 
where the Germania orchestra was stationed, filled the air with a 
concord of sweet sounds that were in happy harmony with the 
time and the occasion. Shortly after six o'clock, hearty applause 
announced the appearance of the President of the Horticultural 
Society, Hon. Francis B. Hayes, with his Excellency, Governor 
Long, on the right, and Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, President of the 
Pomological Society, on the left, the three taking seats at the front 
centre table. Others on the platform, were Ex-Governor Frederick 
Smyth, of New Hampshire, Hon. A. W. Beard, Collector of 
the port of Boston, Rev. Samuel K. Lothrop, D.D., Patrick 
Barry, First Vice-President of the Pomological Society, Samuel B. 
Parsons, of Flushing, N. Y., Dr. John A. Warder, President of 
the Ohio Horticultural Society, T. S. Gold, Secretary of the Con- 



ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT HAYES. 279 

necticut Board of Agriculture, Hon. T. T. Lyon, President of the 
Michigan Horticultural Society, Professor William J. Beal, of the 
Michigan Agricultural College, Secretary of the Pomological 
Society, William Saunders, of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, Hon. J. E. Mitchell and A. W. Harrison, of Philadel- 
phia, Charles M. Hovey and William C. Strong, Ex-Presidents of 
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Hon. Charles L. P'lint, 
Ex-Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, Henry 
A. Breed, of Lynn, one of the founders of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, Hon. Thomas C. Amory, Major Ben: 
Perley Poore, Rev. George E. Ellis, D.D., and Benjamin G. 
Smith, Treasurer of the Pomological Society. 

Rev. Dr. S. K. Lothrop asked the blessing, and after an hour's 
attention to the substantialities of the banquet, the intellectual feast 
began with the welcoming address of Hon. Francis B. Hayes, 
President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Address of Hon. Francis B. Hayes. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: — The Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society extends to you all its cordial greetings. Whether you 
have come from distant parts of this continent, or from the 
neighborhood ; whether you fill high places of state, or hold 
other eminent positions, or occupy " the post of honor, the 
private station," all are most heartily welcomed to this board. 
We come here after work has been done, to refresh ourselves in 
each other's society, to rejoice together that we are the recipients 
of the rich gifts of bountiful nature, and to honor those who have 
done so much in developing its resources for our comfort and 
happiness. It is most pleasant to see so many of the fair sex 
gracing these tables. Man can always be sure that his objects are 
worthy and elevated when woman is interested in them and mani- 
fests her approval of them as she does now by her presence. The 
refining influence of devotion to the cultivation of fruits and flowers 
is universally admitted. Home is made delightful by their presence, 
and when they are absent, a lower state of intelligence and refine- 
ment is immediately noticed. High and ennobling aspirations 
belong to the lover and diligent student of nature, which accom- 
pany him as guardian angels in this life, attend him to its close, 
and fit him better for entrance into the land of purity and bliss. 

We are highly gratified to welcome here the venerable president, 



280 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and so many of the members of the American Pomological Society, 
our distinguished guests, in honor of whom we are assembled. 
You have come to us, Mr. President and gentlemen, bringing your 
fruits with you ; not merely the choice and rich display we have 
seen upon your tables, but the grand results of 3-our associated 
intelligence, your labors, your long and varied experience, teaching 
us what are the best fruits, their true names, their qualhVy and 
adaptability for growth in the various parts of the territory occu- 
pied by your Societ}', wherein almost all the fruits of the different 
zones can be raised. No narrow State or national lines limit your 
benign influences. Abroad, as well as at home, you are known as 
the first of the great national pomological societies of the world, 
and your investigations, studies, and practical experience enlighten, 
improve, and bless mankind. 

Mr. President, it affords me and my associates, great pleasure 
to bear witness that though the snows of more than fourscore 
winters have fallen upon 3-our head, yet 30U, the chief of 
America's pomologists, are constantl} 1 , diligently, and enthusi- 
astically at work in promoting the praiseworthy objects of your 
society. Though for almost two generations of men, you have 
been known in this community as one of Boston's most promi- 
nent merchants — and are now, it is believed, the oldest one — and 
though you have held, with honor, high offices of dignity and 
trust, both of public and private character, yet, the love of nature 
possessing your soul, your peculiar mission seems to have been, 
by your example and teachings, and by the use of the gifts of 
Providence, to give dignity to the occupation of the tiller of the 
soil, and elevate to the highest consideration the science and art 
of horticulture and agriculture. Recognizing, ladies and gentle- 
men, the eminent services of the venerable president in the foun- 
dation, establishment, and progress of the association, of which he 
was the first president and its head for more than thirty years, and 
at the same time gratefully remembering all, whether present or 
absent, who have worked successfully in the same field with him 
during that period, allow me to propose this sentiment : 

"The American Pomological Society: All honor to it for the 
invaluable benefits it has conferred upon mankind! May its 
benign influences be extended to and bless the remotest genera- 
tions ! " 



ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT WILDER. 281 

Response of Hon. Marshall P. Wilder. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, the President of the American Pomo- 
logical Society, responded as follows : 

Mr. President : — It is a singular and pleasant coincidence that 
has brought us together, here at our own homes, in the exchange 
of official courtesies. You have the honor to preside over one of 
the oldest and most prosperous horticultural societies of our coun- 
try, while I have the privilege of responding for one more exten- 
sive, which embraces in its organization not only the Union, but 
our entire continent. But the objects of our institutions are much 
alike — the promotion of an art which combines in its results the 
most perfect union of the useful and beautiful the world has 
ever known. 

Most sincerely do I thank you, Mr. President, for your kind 
appreciation of my poor labors. You do me no more than justice 
when you call me a friend of rural art, for I cannot remember the 
time when I did not love the cultivation of the soil. 

But, Mr. President, there is no merit in these. They are the 
instincts of my nature, and I have been prosecuting them under 
the conviction that I could do nothing better for mankind ; and 
could my life be prolonged for another fourscore and three years, 
I would devote them all to the promotion of this most delightful 
and benevolent pursuit. In behalf of the American Pomological 
Societ} 7 , I thank you for the hospitalities and courtesies that have 
been extended to us this week. 

We are happy to be here again in the good old Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, so renowned for the interesting memorial asso- 
ciations to which you most happily alluded in } T our eloquent welcome 
speech on the opening of our convention, the home of free schools, 
free churches, and may I not saj 7 , free speech ; here, within the 
limits of this goodly city r , where yonder monument rears its head 
in commemoration of those who fell in defence of American inde- 
pendence and human rights ; the Old Cradle of Libert\', which still 
rocks to the songs of patriotism and freedom ; the Old South, 
from whence sallied forth that noble band which converted Boston 
harbor into a monstrous teapot, the history and spirit of which 
have been wafted by its waters throughout' the civilized globe ; and 
here at the home of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, over 
which you so gracefully preside. The Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society has been a great leader in pomological science. She has 



282 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

been the mother of numerous other societies, among which yon 
have properly counted our own, for it was by her authority that I 
was empowered to issue the circular which assembled the National 
Convention of Fruit Growers in New York that organized the 
American Pomological Society, and nobly has she sustained our 
institution to the present da} r . 

With the close of these ceremonies the American Pomological 
Society will have completed thirtj T -three years of its existence. 
It was the first national society for the promotion of pomology 
of which we have any account in history. But it is more than 
national ; it is American, and embraces the provinces of British 
America on the north. It has vice-presidents and fruit committees 
in more than fifty States, territories, and districts, through whom 
we receive reports of the fruits adapted to their various locations ; 
and wherever the pioneer and emigrant take up their homes we 
seek to find out what fruits prosper there. It has held its sessions 
in the various great cities of our country, and now, for the fourth 
time, it comes to receive the hospitalities of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society. 

Mr. President, we live in an age of remarkable activity and 
enterprise, and in nothing is this more to be seen than in the 
progress of fruit culture during the present century. Many of us 
can remember the time when the only strawberry in our markets 
was the wild strawberry of the fields. Now I have on my register 
the names of more than four hundred kinds which have been under 
cultivation in my own day ; and so great has been the increase in 
quanthty that Norfolk, Va., has sent to the Boston market the last 
summer over six thousand bushels in one day, and a little town in 
our own vicinity has sent ten thousand bushels the present year. 
Fifty years ago there were no hardy grapes in our market except 
a few Isabellas, Catawbas, and the wild varieties ; now we have 
under cultivation more than two hundred kinds, and California 
alone can produce not only enough to supply the country, but she 
ships entire cargoes of wine to Europe to be manipulated and 
muddled over, and sent back to us for consumption. The same 
increase may be noticed in the production of the peach, millions 
upon millions of bushels being sent to our various markets ; and 
so extensive has been the export of apples that Boston alone has 
sent to Europe and elsewhere the last year more than six hundred 
thousand barrels. 



ADDRESS OF GOVERNOR LONG. 283 

But I must bring these remarks to a close. Suffice it to say- 
that when I reflect on what has been accomplished since the 
American Pomological Society was established, the vast territory 
which is yet to be occupied with the culture of fruits, their import- 
ance as an article of food, and as one of the great sources of 
national revenue, I pray that my life may be prolonged for a few 
years to see more of the great future of pomology on this continent, 
when all of its fruit lands shall have been opened up for cultivation ; 
when the Northern Pacific Railroad shall have connected us with 
Oregon, Washington, Puget Sound, Sitka, and southern Alaska, 
with climates in many places milder than in New England ; when 
the Southern Pacific road, penetrating the rich lands in Mexico, 
Arizona and the valleys of the Rio Grande and El Paso, already 
renowned for their wild fruits and grapes — when these, together 
with Texas, larger than all New England and the Middle States — 
and those of our vast interior and the immense resources of the 
Pacific slope, are all brought into cultivation — and all this is to come. 
Then will our country possess the most productive and remarkable 
fruit belt the world has ever known ; as distinguished for the 
excellence and abundance of its productions as it now is for its 
free institutions, prosperity, and power. 

Mr. President, I cannot take my seat without thanking you 
again for the honor 3011 have conferred on our society, for the 
brilliant assembly" with which you have surrounded us, for these 
magnificent plants, luscious fruits, and lovely flowers, and, better 
than all, for the presence of woman, which adds grace, beauty, and 
interest to the^cene. 

President Hayes then announced the second regular sentiment 
as follows : 

" The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ; distinguished for pro- 
moting the cultivation of the soil as well as the culture of the mind. 
Our fathers planted the tree of liberty, and their children gather 
the rich fruits in peace and prosperity." 

Response of Governor Long. 

The Governor said that inasmuch as it was without previous 
notice that he was called upon to speak, his friends who were 
gathered would be spared any but the briefest remarks. He 
could not fail to take advantage of the opportunity to thank 



284 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the society, which, during the past fifty years, has been one of 
the educators not only of this Commonwealth but of the whole 
country ; nor could he fail to pay the sympathetic regard of all 
to the Nestor among the chiefs of horticulture, who represents 
the fathers that planted the tree and the children who gather 
the fruit, and who enjoys the distinction of being at once the 
oldest and the youngest man in Massachusetts. He desired also, 
in behalf of the Commonwealth, to welcome so many representa- 
tives of other States and Territories, who had come here for the 
common good, and who are engaged not only in the interests of 
pomology but in securing the common ties which make our States 
members of one domain. The culture of the soil goes hand in 
hand with the culture of the mind. Go out among the hills, visit 
the large rural populations, and you will find, as in the cities, fair 
after fair exhibiting marks of increasing progress. The exhibit 
which the society is making in a neighboring hall is only an 
indication of the work of culture that is going on in the whole 
community. The cultivation of the soil is no longer living on the 
bounty of the earth ; it is finding out the secrets that lie within, 
and securing the rewards which she offers to devoted labor and 
skill. Nothing is more suggestive in these days than the increase 
in production, not only for the benefit of the rich, but for the 
poor, and with all this increase the individual's condition is im- 
proved, so that he enjoys a higher life and greater possession in 
all the arts of living. It is teaching the true theology, the true 
patriotism, the true loyalty, by which each man works for the com- 
mon good by devoting himself to his special pmsuit. He who 
invents a contrivance, or brings forth a new variety of fruit, is 
laying the foundation for the greater comfort of his fellow-men 
hereafter. The Governor concluded by expressing the pleasure 
which it gave him personalty to greet the members of the Pomo- 
logical Society. 

After more music, President Hayes announced the next senti- 
ment as follows : % 

"The President of the United States — The sympathy of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society and its guests, the American 
Pomological Society, assembled in Boston, is extended to our 
beloved President and his famifv in their affliction, with the hope 
and prayer that his valuable life may be preserved to bless the 
nation." 



OTHER SPEECHES. 285 

Remarks by Collector Beard. 
Hon. A. W. Beard was called on as the representative of the 
National Government. -He observed that eleven weeks ago the 
heart of the nation stood still on hearing the news that came from 
Washington. For eleven weeks we have listened to the click of 
the telegraph wire, to hear the news of life or death. The strain 
upon the sympathies of the nation has had no parallel since the 
war. We have seen a terrible thing, that this man, in the prime 
of his life and powers, should be stricken by an assassin. We 
have sought the only thought of relief — that the nation can survive 
whether the President live or die ; but this has not stilled our anxiety. 
The President still waits patiently ; let us emulate his patience. 
The calamity was a terrible one, and yet there has been a silver 
lining to the cloud ; for the hearts of all throughout the land have 
been united in S3*mpatlrv, and, whatever the result, the nation will 
be the better for it. With our hearts aroused as for a dear father 
or brother, let us rely on Him who doeth all things well. 

Other Speeches. 

The following sentiment was then proposed : 

"The City of Boston — Prominent in history from its early 
struggles in the cause of freedom ; her free schools, free churches, 
and benevolent institutions have borne abundant harvests of rich 
fruits in which the people rejoice." 

In the absence of Mayor Prince, who sent a pleasant letter, 
Alderman C. H. B. Breck responded, as follows : 

Mr. President, Ladies, and Gentlemen : In the unexpected ab- 
sence of His Honor the Mayor, and representing the City Govern- 
ment, I take great pleasure in replying to the sentiment you propose, 
and greet with a warm and hearty welcome the members of the 
American Pomological Society, who represent every State of the 
Union and the Dominion of Canada. 

The City of Boston is always ready to welcome every association 
devoted to the general good, but when gentlemen of your profes- 
sion, whose object is the propagation and cultivation of good 
fruits, and the rejection of bad ones, come together here, it deems 
you worthy of its highest regards. Our citizens are deeply inter- 
ested in the various kinds of fruits ; not so much in their cultiva- 
tion as in being able to obtain them cheaply, so that the poor as well 
as the rich may buy and eat. We find them pretty plenty gener- 



286 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ally, but I am sorry to say they are sold at such high prices that it 
takes a well filled purse to buy these life-preserving gifts of nature. 

I regret that we have no orchard or vineyard to show you, but 
we have a public garden tastefully laid out, with beautiful walks, and 
bordered with rare plants and shrubs, with flowers of every hue ; the 
perfect taste and order displayed in this place which may almost 
be called a second garden of Eden, are a source of pride to the 
heart of every Bostonian, and I trust you will find time to visit 
this lovely spot with its beautiful surroundings. 

Hoping that your stay will continue to afford you the greatest 
pleasure while in the city, I again assure you of the best wishes of 
our citizens. 

The next sentiment was as follows : 

" The British Colonies in North America : Bound to this Republic 
by common interests, brought nearer and nearer b}' social inter- 
course, and fastened by the golden links of commerce. May their 
friendly relations with the United States never be interrupted." 

Rev. Robert Burnet, D.D., of Nova Scotia, was expected to 
respond, but he had returned home. 

The following sentiment was next offered : 

"The Pomology of the South — From her generous and genial 
clime we of the North receive the delicious products of her soil 
while ' winter lingers in the lap of spring.' The enterprise and 
skill of her cultivators deserve our warmest acknowledgments for 
greatly prolonging to us the seasons of fruits." 

Judge Whitehead, of Norfolk, Va., not appearing to respond to 
this sentiment, as had been arranged, three cheers where given for 
Old Virginia. 

The next toast was 

"The Pomology of the West — The granaries, orchards, and 
vineyards of the territorial domain of the United States, vast in 
extent, abundant in resources, are treasure houses upon which the 
world may draw for their supplies." 

Colonel N. J. Colman, of Missouri, responded. He felt he 
should be doing injustice to the West if he did not say that every 
man and woman in the West felt gratitude to Boston for this 
welcome. It is true that the West has not had a Wilder, a Barry, 
a Walker, a Manning, and such eminent pomologists, but it can 
boast of a Warder, a Longworth, a Kirtland, a Flagg. The 



OTHER SPEECHES. 287 

speaker alluded to the practical work which is now done in 
the West, making the study of pomolog} T a part of the education 
of the 3 T oung. The West loves the Hon. Marshall P. Wilder as a 
dutiful son loves his parent. The Mississippi Valle}* Horticultural 
Society, which is to meet at Chicago, will show what the great 
West is capable of doing. 

Hon. Isidor Bush, of Missouri, presented a greeting from the 
Nestor of fruit-growers in the West, Hon. Fred Mtiench, who 
sent a bunch of grapes to President Wilder. 

The next sentiment read was 

" The Pomology of the North : Despite her cold and unconge- 
nial climate, her rough and rocky soil, she produces fruits which 
rival in excellence those of the most favored climes." 

Charles M. Hovey, Ex-Vice President for Massachusetts, re- 
sponded in a pleasant manner, and said, in speaking for the North, 
that we feel delighted to give greeting to our friends from all sec- 
tions interested in this great subject of pomology. We have gained 
so much through this society that we are not obliged individually 
to test all the fruits, but can learn by the experience and teaching 
of this organization. He alluded to the fruits which the North 
has contributed to the country as durable and valuable accessions 
to the resources of the people. 

The next sentiment read as follows : 

" The Pomology of the East: The pioneer in the progress of 
American civilization, scattering its fruits like manna from the 
skies all over our land." 

Response by Samuel B. Parsons, of New York. 

The next sentiment was 

" The United States Agricultural Society: The uniform friend 
of American Agriculture ; the annals of her history attest the value 
of her former labors. May she never lack the sunshine of patron- 
age ; may she reap an abundant harvest of renown." 

Responded to by Ex-Governor Frederick Smyth, of New Hamp- 
shire, who referred in an affectionate manner to his various rela- 
tions, public and private, with Col. Wilder, and to the interest 
whicji he felt in the cause of American Pomology. 

Major Ben : Perley Poore, Secretary of the United States Agri- 
cultural Societ}*, was then called for and responded in his usual 
pleasant vein. 



288 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Then came this sentiment : 

" The New York Horticultural Society : Her fruit resources are 
ample. May the development of them be compared with the motto 
of her State, ' Excelsior.' Glad are we that she is so well carry- 
ing out the designs of her founders." 

Response by Rev. E. P. Roe. . 

He said that the influence of the Horticultural Society in Boston 
had done much to tone up the Pomological Society. Men are giving 
to pomology what is more to be valued than their wealth, namely, 
their influence, their brain, and personal effort. The speaker paid 
New England the honor of having not only improved the science of 
the soil but of having brought forth in abundance the best of all 
products, true and honorable men. He also alluded to the valuable 
services rendered to Pomology by his friend, Charles Downing. 

The following sentiment was proposed : 

u The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society : The first permanent 
horticultural society established on our continent. Worthily has 
she executed her mission as a pioneer. Massachusetts was bound 
to follow in the footsteps of so illustrious a leader." 

The pertinent response of W. L. SchafTer, President of the 
Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, was read by A. W. Harrison, 
Secretary, Mr. SchafTer having been obliged to leave. 

Then followed this sentiment : 

"The New England Agricultural Society: Her vigorous and 
intelligent labors have contributed largely to the prosperity of the 
country. Gratified that its President has been placed at the head 
of the Agricultural Bureau of the nation, we are confident that the 
usefulness of the Society will continually increase while its able 
President and Secretary conduct its affairs." 

Hon. George B. Loring, United States Commissioner of Agri- 
culture, and President of the Society, and Hon. Daniel Needham, 
Secretary, being absent, no response was made. 

The company then rose and sang, to the tune of " Auld Lang 

Syne," the following 

Hymn, 

Written for the occasion by John G. Whittier. 

O Painter of the fruits and flowers, 

We own Thy wise design, 
Whereby these human hands of ours 

May share the work of Thine ! 



HYMN BY JOHN G. WHITTIER. 289 

Apart from Thee we plant in vain 

The root and sow the seed ; 
Thy early and Thy later rain, 

Thy sun and dew we need. 

Our toil is sweet with thankfulness, 

Our burden is our boon ; 
The curse of Earth's gray morning is 

The blessing of its noon. 

Why search the wide world everywhere 

For Eden's unknown ground? — 
That garden of the primal pair 

May never more be found. 

But, blest by Thee, our patient toil 

May right the ancient wrong, 
And give to every clime and soil 

The beauty lost so long. 

Our homestead flowers and fruited trees, 

May Eden's orchard shame ; 
We taste the tempting sweets of these 

Like Eve, without her blame. 

And North and South and East and West, 

The pride of every zone, 
The fairest, rarest, and the best 

May all be made our own. 

Its earliest shrines the young world sought 

In hill-groves and in bowers ; 
The fittest offerings thither brought 

Were Thy own fruits and flowers. 

And still with reverent hands we cull 

Thy gifts each year renewed ; 
The good is always beautiful — 

The beautiful is good. 

Then came the last sentiment of the evening: : 

"Michigan: In the magnificent exhibition which she has made 
to us, we witness a bountiful harvest of good fruits raised on good 
soil. We rejoice in the growth and prosperity of the State." 

Response of the Hon. W. K. Gibson : 

" 3/r. President: I appreciate the honor of being called on to 
respond to a sentiment so complimentary to the State to which I 
belong. 



290 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The display which you have deemed worthy of special notice, is 
inferior in appearance and quality to that we are usually able to 
make in more favorable seasons. 

Mr. President, we do not feel as though we were strangers here. 
Among its early pioneers Michigan numbered many from New 
England, and there has entered into our growth as a State much 
of the sturdiness and integrity of character and somewhat of the 
culture characteristic of New England life. 

The motto of our State is Si quceris peninsulam amoenam 
circumspice, and, sir, if you seek for a beautiful peninsula, look 
upon her as she lies almost surrounded by the waters of the north- 
ern lakes. Ever} 7 variety of soil, every diversity of climate are 
hers. In the southern portion are patches of prairie, with hills 
and valleys, and rivers and lakes, while at the north the waters of 
Lake Superior break against a coast as rocky and wild as that of 
New England. Of the fertility of her soil, and its adaptation to 
the raising of all kinds of fruit, you have evidence before you 
today. Within her borders also are vast forests of pine and 
hard woods, scarcely equalled in variety by any State in the Union. 

From these forests, sir, within the past few days has gone up, 
as from a fiery furnace, a cry of suffering from destitute, homeless 
thousands, which has touched the heart of the East as well as the 
West, and which has met with a generous response in this city. 

Mr. President, it seems to me that the heart of the whole nation 
has grown very tender within the past few months. That bed of 
pain and suffering, upon which the President has lain for so many 
weary days, watched over by a loving and heroic wife, has done 
more to awaken generous sympathy, and bind together the differ- 
ent sections of the country, than all the reconstruction acts ever 
passed by Congress. There can be no enmity in our hearts 
towards those whose fervent prayers have mingled with our own 
for the President's recover}'. And to Boston, sir, whose heart is 
ever tender and responsive to suffering, let me express the thanks 
and gratitude of our whole State for the generous donations you 
are sending to relieve those made destitute by the recent forest 
fires. 

Mr. President of the Massachusetts State Horticultural Society, 
allow me to say that this banquet is something more than a mere 
feast of good things. In this you have crowned and dignified 
what has preceded it. It comes naturally as a part of what we 



SPEECH OF HON. W. K. GIBSON. 291 

call the eternal fitness of things. For three daj-s, sir, you have 
shown us the noblest fruits and fairest flowers of your soil, and 
to night, here in this room, we have had the pleasure of meeting 
the noblest fruits and fairest flowers of your intellectual culture. 

One speaker has said this evening, quoting from Emerson, that 
much of truth goes floating about the world in popular proverbs. 
Doubtless this is true, and there is an old saying that every New 
Englander when he dies expects to go to — Boston. Now if this 
be true, and it probably is, let me express the wish that such soul 
may go by the way of Michigan, and, thus escaping purgator}', 
reach here through paradise. 

President Hayes, in making the closing remarks, expressed the 
gratification felt by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 
having for its guests this evening so many distinguished in the 
science and art of horticulture, and wishing all a safe and pleasant 
return to their homes, he asked them to unite in singing America, 
which was done with enthusiasm, and then the meeting was 
dissolved. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION AND DISCUSSION, 



FOR THE YEAR 1881. 



The discussions of the past winter and spring, published in Part 
I of the Transactions for 1881, make unnecessary an} T extended 
report. The labor of 3-our Committee has been greatty lessened 
by the accurate and- admirable digest of the discussions by the 
Secretary, and the Society is largely indebted to him for the super- 
vision of all our printed reports. 

Horticulture in its present development is not one of the exact 
sciences ; hence the importance and usefulness of discussion. 
With a horticultural temple, the finest in the world, and a library 
well known as containing the best collection of horticultural books 
in America, and, undoubtedly, with as large a membership of 
educated and skilled cultivators as exists in the country, our 
opportunities are great, and the results of our discussions and 
investigations are expected to be of corresponding value. Much 
as they have done for us already, they are capable of doing far 
more. 

Ex-President Parkman, in his valedictory address, well said, 
"With us, as with all horticultural or agricultural clubs or socie- 
ties, discussion is subject to the same evil. It is apt to go round 
with the .same persons Li the same groove, keeping all the time at 
about the same level of intelligence and knowledge, and so fail to 
gain its real object, which is to develop those habits of investiga- 
tion and reflection, without which the horticulturist can never be 
master of his craft. If members would more generally share in 
them, preparing themselves beforehand to do so by recalling what 
their own experience may have taught them about the subject 
announced, and then, by means of books and journals, comparing 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION AND DISCUSSION. 293 

their own results with those recorded by others, our discussions 
would become a powerful means of stimulating observation and 
thought." The Committee have endeavored to avoid the danger 
here pointed out, but, in order that the discussions should reach 
the standard in the minds of the Committee, and attain their 
highest usefulness, the cooperation of the members of the Society 
will be necessary, and the Committee trust that each will be 
prepared to do his best in adding to the interest of the meetings. 

The report of the Treasurer for 1880 acknowledged the receipt 
of $500, for sales of the History of the Society ; since then copies 
have been sold to the amount of nearly three hundred dollars. 
Your Committee would again call the attention of members who 
have not already obtained a cop} T , to the importance of doing so 
without delay, as the number on hand is limited. 

A prize of twenty-five dollars has been awarded to Mrs. T. L. 
Nelson, of Worcester, for an essay upon "Our Native Plants 
adapted for Winter Culture for their Flowers." Several other 
essays competing for prizes were received, which, after careful 
consideration your Committee felt obliged to reject. 

Respectfully submitted by 

Benjamin G. Smith, } Committee 
John B. Moore, > on Publication 

E. Lewis Sturtevant, j and Discussion. 



12 



REPORT 



OF THE 



LIBRARY COMMITTEE, 



FOR THE YEAR 1881. 



The Committee on the Library submit the following report : 
The Society's appropriation and the income derived from the 
Stickne}' Fund have been expended in the same manner as in 
former years. The list of periodicals taken has been nearly the 
same as heretofore ; the most important changes in the coming 
year will be that the Farmer's Magazine, a work very valuable for 
many reasons, will be omitted, being no longer published, and 
that the American Naturalist, which was dropped some time ago 
for lack of funds, and has been asked for by several members, will 
be again taken. 

Among the books added to the Library from the Stickne}' Fund 
— which, in number and value, will compare not unfavorably with 
the additions made in previous years, — the following are worthy 
of special notice: the splendid Monograph of the Genus Lilium, 
by Mr. Elwes, the last three parts of w r hich have recently been 
received ; the Arboretum Segrezianium ; Verschaffelt's Icono- 
graphy of the Camellia ; Watson's Dendrologia Britannica ; 
Kotschy's Monograph of the European and Oriental Oaks ; Bois- 
siers fine illustrations of the Flora of Spain ; Hoola Van Nooten's 
Flowers, Fruits, and Foliage of Java ; Hallier's Deutschlands Flora ; 
Dodel-Port's Anatomical and Physiological Atlas of Botany ; 
Zippel and Bollmann's Auslandische Culturpflanzen ; Cesati, 
Passerini, and Gibelli's Flora Italiana ; Schlectendal, Langethal, 
and Schenk's Flora von Deutschland ; Emmons's Agriculture of 
New York, and the Orchid Album, the last a magnificent work 
appearing at stated intervals, conducted by Robert Warner and 
B. S. Williams, and designed to give colored plates of new orchids 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 295 

and new varieties of old ones, with cultural notes. From a purely 
horticultural point of view, this publication seems likely to be 
second in value to none. 

In the first part of the 3 T ear. a fresh attempt was made to supply 
our table with nurserymen's and seedmen's catalogues. A circular 
prepared by the Secretary of this Committee was sent to all the 
leading dealers asking that their lists might be sent to this library 
from time to time, and setting forth the advantage to themselves 
likely to result from their compliance. The response to this circu- 
lar has been very satisfactory ; we have received the catalogues of 
one hundred and sixty-one dealers from all parts of the United 
States, and from England, Ireland, Scotland, France, Italy, Ger- 
many, Holland, Belgium, and Switzerland. Man}' of these catalogues 
are very elaborate, and valuable both horticulturally and botanically. 
It is the intention of the Committee that these shall be taken out 
as other books are, and that they shall be charged on the Libra- 
rian's book. Two of the most valuable, H. Cannell & Sons' and 
D. M. Ferry & Co.'s, are missing, having been taken by some 
person who omitted to have them charged ; it is requested that 
those who have them report the fact to the Librarian. 

We must again call the attention of the Society to the need of a 
card catalogue of our colored plates. We have no index to these, 
except the work of Pritzel ; if this Society were dead, or if it had 
made no growth since the date of that publication, nothing more 
would be needed ; but this is a body alive in all its parts ; its 
library is expending a large sum annually, and must spend or 
forfeit it- How many plates we have received of which we have 
no index, we cannot saj T , but believe that they might be numbered 
by thousands. The present time is without parallel in horticultural 
advance and botanical research ; exploring parties sent out by govern- 
ments and societies are bringing back new vegetable treasures month 
by month ; the great horticultural establishments of Europe have their 
own private travellers in all parts of the world, and new varieties 
are constantly coming into existence by the art of the Ivybridizer. 
The prospect, therefore, is that for a long time to come there will 
be subjects in abundance for the draughtman's skill. Most of 
these plates will come to this library in course of time, but if no 
index to all these exists, their value is half lost to us. The cost 
of such a card catalogue need not be very great; there would be 
no need of botanical verification of even* plate ; a simple list of 



296 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

them with the names under which thej T were issued and the place 
where they are to be found is all that is needed. Even if one 
series of books only were taken to begin with, it would be some- 
thing. 

Every frequenter of this library room must appreciate the vast 
improvement which has been brought about. The rooms are as 
elegant as could be desired, and the alterations which allow the 
superintendent's business and ticket-seller's operations to be 
carried on without encroaching upon this apartment, ought to 
afford great gratification to the Society as they do to this Commit- 
tee. We need no longer dread the possible depredations of the 
army of hangers-on who accompany the lessees of the halls, and 
those who desire to put these rooms to their legitimate use can 
now do so without interruption. 

For the Committee, 

W. E. Endicott, Chairman. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS. 
Books Purchased. 

Verschaffelt, Alexandre. Nouvelle Iconographie des Camellias, contenant les 

Figures et la Description des plus rares, des plus nouvelles, et des 

plus belles varieties de ce Genre. 12 vols, bound in 7. 8vo. 

Gand: 1848-1860. 
Clarke, C. B., late acting Superintendent of the Calcutta Botanic Garden. 

Commelynaceae et Cyrtandracese Bengalenses. (Paucis aliis ex 

terris adjacentibus additis.) Folio. 93 pi. Calcutta, Bombay, and 

London: 1874. 
Elwes, Henry John, F. L. S., F. R. S. A Monograph of the Genus Lilium. 

Nos. 5, 6, and 7, completing the work. Folio. 17 colored plates. 

London: 1830. 
"Warner, Robert, and B. S. Williams. The Orchid Album, comprising 

Colored Figures and Descriptions of New, Rare, and Beautiful 

Orchidaceous Plants. Vol. 1, Parts 1-4. 4to. 16 colored plates. 

London: 1881. 
Lindley, Professor, F. R. S. A List of the Orchidaceous Plants collected in 

the East of Cuba, by Mr. C. Wright, with characters of the new 

species. 8vo. pamphlet. 1858. 
. Contributions to the Orchidology of India. No. 2. 8vo. 

pamphlet. 1858. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 297 

Gerard, R. La Fleur et le Diagramme des Orchidees. 4to. pamphlet. 

Paris: 1879. 
Parnell, Richard, M. D., F. R. S E. The Grasses of Scotland, illustrated by 

figures drawn and engraved by the Author. 8vo. 66 plates. 

Edinburgh, and London : 1842. 
Baker, J. G., on the English Mints, and Berthold Seemann, Ph.D., on Fara- 

daya, a new Australian Genus, and on Plants producing Double 

Flowers. 8vo. pamphlet. [From the Journal of Botany.] 
Flora Danica. Fasciculus 50. Folio. Plates 2941-3000. Copenhagen : 

1880. 
Hallier, Dr. Ernst. Deutschlands Flora. 9th edition. 4 vols. Royal 8vo. 

500 colored plates. Dresden: 1881. 
Schlectendal, Dr. D. F. L. von, Dr. L. E. Langethal, und Dr. Ernst Schenk. 

Flora von Deutschland. Funfte auflage, von Dr. Ernst Hallier. 

Lieferungen 1-47. Small 8vo. Many colored plates. Gera-Unterm- 

haus: 1880, 1881. 
Bertram, "W. Flora von Braunschweig, etc. Small 8vo. Braunschweig : 

1881. 
Graf, F. Die Alpenpflanzen. Hefte 22-34. 16mo. 117 colored plates. 

Prague: 1881. 
Cesati, V., G. Passerini, and E. G. Gibelli. Compendio della Flora Italiana. 

Fasciculi 1-27. Royal 8vo. 81 plates. Milan, Palermo, and Rome : 

1878-1881. 
Lojacano, M. Contributi alia Flora di Sicilia. 8vo. pamphlet. Palermo : 

1878. 
Barrelier, Jacobo. Plantse per Galliam, Hispaniam, et Italiam, etc. Folio. 

334 plates. Paris : 1714. 
Boissier, Edmond. Voyage Botanique dans le Midi de l'Espagne, pendant 

l'annee, 1837. 2 vols. 4to. 206 colored plates. Paris : 1839-1845. 
Willkomm, Mauritio, et Joanni Lange. Prodromus Floras Hispanicse, etc. 

3 vols. 8vo. Stuttgart: 1861-1880. 
Mares, le Dr. Paul, et Guillaume Vigineix. Catalogue Raisonne des Plantes 

Vasculaires des lies Baleares. 8vo. 10 pi. Paris : 1880. 
Barcelo y Combio, D. Francisco. Flora de las Islas Baleares, etc. 8vo. 

Palma * 1879-1881. 
Lemoine, Victor. Atlas des Caracteres Specifiques des Plantes de la Flore 

Parisienne et de la Flore Remoise. Livraison 3, in continuation. 

8vo. 10 plates. Paris and Reims, 1881. 
Sauze, J. -C, et P. N. Maillard. Flore du Departement des Deux-Sevres. 

3 vols. 12mo. Niort: 1872-1880. 
Liegard, A. Flore de Bretagne. Small 8vo. Paris : 1879. 
Ardoino, Honor6. Flore Analytique du Departement des Alpes-Maritimes. 

2d edition. 12mo. Menton and Nice : 1879. 
Johnson, Thomas. Descriptio Itineris Plantarum Investigationis ergo Sus- 

cepti, in Agrum Cantiarum Anno Dom. 1632, etc., Nup. edit. 

T. S. Ralph. Small 4to. London : 1849. 



298 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Pierre, L., Directeur du Jardin Botanique de Saigon. Flore Forestiere de la 
Cochinchine. Publie sous les auspices du Ministere de la Marine et 
des Colonies. Fasciculi 1-3. Large folio. 48 plates. Paris. [Still 
publishing.] 

Kurz, S., Curator of the Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. 
Forest Flora of British Burma. Published by order of the Govern- 
ment of India. 2 vols. 8vo. Calcutta : 1877. 

Burmann, Nicolaus Laurens. Flora Indica cui accedit series Zoophytorum 
Indicorum nee non Prodromus Florae Capensis. Small 4to. 67 
plates. Leyden : 1768. 

Hoola Van Nooten, Madame Berthe. Fleurs, Fruits, et Feuillages choisis 
de P He de Java. 3d edition. Folio. 40 colored plates. Brussels : 
1880. 

Gregg, W. H. A Text Book of Indian Botany, Morphological, Physiological, 
and Systematic. Parts 1 and 2. 12mo. 165 wood-cuts. Calcutta : 
1881. 

Regel, E. Flora of Toorkestan. Vol. 3, Parti, Primulaceae and Liliaceae. 
4to.' 22 plates, part colored. 1876. 

Aitchison, J. E. T., F. L. S., on the Flora of the Kuram Valley, Afghanistan, 
and C. B. Clarke, on Indian Begonias. 3 plates. [From the 
Journal of the Linnean Society.] 8vo. 1879, 1880. 

Czerniavgky, W. Periodical Appearances in the Life of Plants in Late 
Autumn, Winter, and Spring, in Sookhoom, Transcaucasia. [Rus- 
sian.] 8vo. pamphlet. Tiflis : 1879. 

Zeller, Mrs. Hannah. Wild Flowers of the Holy Land. Small 4to. 54 
colored plates. London : 1880. 

Mathews, William, M.A. The Flora of Algeria, considered in relation to the 
Physical History of the Mediterranean Region and Supposed Sub- 
mergence of the Sahara. 8vo. Map. London: 1880. 

Willis, Oliver R., Ph.D. Catalogue of Plants growing without cultivation in 
the State of New Jersey, with specific descriptions of all the Violets 
found there, directions for collectors, teachers, and students, and a 
Directory of Botanists. Revised and enlarged edition. 8vo. New 
York, Chicago, and New Orleans : no date. 

Hemsley, W. B. Biologia Centrali-Americana ; Botany. Parts 1-9. 4to. 
50 plates. London : 1879-1881. 

Hughes, The Reverend Mr. Griffith, A.M. The Natural History of Barbados. 
Folio. 29 plates. London : 1750. 

Polakowsky, H. Die Pflanzenwelt von Costa Rica, etc. 8vo. Dresden : 1879. 
[XVI. Jahresbericht des Vereins fur Erdkunde, zu Dresden, pp. 
25-124.] 

Rodrigues, J. Barbosa. Enumeratio Palmarum Novarum quas Valle Flu- 
minis Amazonum. 8vo. pamphlet.' Sebastianopolis : 1875. 

Wallace, Alfred Russel. Palm Trees of the Amazon and their uses. 12 mo. 
48 plates. London : 1853. 

Link, H. F., Fr. Klotsch, and F. Otto. Icones Plantarum Rariorum Horti 
Regii Berolinensis. 4to. 2vols.ini. 48 colored plates. Berlin: 
1841-1844. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 299 

Pfitzer, Dr. Ernst. Der Botanische Garten der Universitiit Heidelberg. Ein 
Fiihrer fur dessen Besucher. 8vo. Heidelberg : 1880. 

Todaro, Augustino. Hortus Botanicus Panormitanus, etc. Vol. 1. Folio. 24 
colored plates. Palermo : 187G-1878. 

Lavallee, Alphonse. Icones Selectae Arborum et Fruticum in Hortis Segre- 
zianis collectorum. Livraisons 2 and 3 in continuation. Folio. 12 
plates. Paris, London, and Madrid : 1881. 

Dodel-Port, Dr. Arnold and Caroline. Anatomical and Physiological Atlas 
of Botany. Parts 1-3. 18 large folio plates, with 12mo. Handbook 
to each part. Translated and edited by D. McAlpine, F. C. S. 
Esslingen, Edinburgh, and London : 1880. 

Messer, Frederick A. A New and Easy Method of Studying British Wild 
Flowers by Natural Analysis, etc. 8vo. London : 1880. 

Bailey, W. Whitman, B. P. The Botanical Collector's Handbook. Small 
8vo. 30 wood-cuts. Salem: 1881. [Naturalist's Handy Series, 
No. 3.] 

Wood, Alphonso, A. M., and J. Dorman Steele, Ph. D. Fourteen Weeks in 
Botany. Small 8vo. New York, Chicago, and New Orleans : no 
date. 

. The American Botanist and Florist. 8vo., 524 wood-cuts. 

New York, Chicago, and Troy : no date. 

Plant-Life. Popular Papers on the Phenomena of Botany. Small 8vo. 148 
wood-cuts. London : 1881. 

Henderson, Peter. Handbook of Plants. Large 8vo. New York : 1881. 

Moore, Thomas, F. L. S., F. R. H. S., Curator of the Botanic Garden, Chel- 
sea. Epitome of Gardening, with an introductory chapter on the 
Principles of Horticulture, by Maxwell T. Masters, M. D., F. R. S. 
Small 8vo. 207 wood-cuts. Edinburgh: 1881. 

Moore, Thomas, F. B. S., and William P. Ayres, C. M. H. S. The Garden- 
er's Magazine of Botany, Horticulture, Floriculture, and Natural 
Science. 3 vols., small 4to. Colored plates and wood-cuts. London : 
, 1850, 1851. 

Des Cars, A. A Treatise on Pruning Forest and Ornamental Trees. Trans- 
lated from the seventh French edition, with an Introduction, by 
Charles S. Sargent, Professor of Horticulture in Harvard College. 
Small 8vo. Plate and 53 wood-cuts. Boston: 1881. [Publications 
of the Massachusetts Society for the Promotion of Agriculture.] 

Wood, Samuel. The Forcing Garden ; or, How to Grow Early Fruits, Flow- 
ers, Vegetables, etc. Small 8vo. 35 wood-cuts. London: 1881. 

Quin, Charles W. Garden Receipts. Small Svo. London : 1877. 

Foster, Mrs. J. Francis. On the Art of Gardening : A Plea for English 
Gardens of the Future, with Practical Hints for Planting them. 
12mo. pamphlet. London. 1881. 

Hogg, Robert, L.L. D., F. L. S., Editor. The Herefordshire Pomona, con- 
taining colored figures and descriptions of the most esteemed kinds 
of Apples and Pears. Parts 2 and 3 in continuation. Folio. Colored 
plates and wood-cuts. London and Hereford : 1879, 1880. 



300 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Fish, D. T. The Hardy Fruit Book. Vol. 1, the Apple, Pear, Peach, and 
Nectarine. Small 8vo. Many wood-cuts. London : no date. 

Lauche, W. Deutsche Pomologie. Leiferungen 25-46 in continuation. 8vo. 
Colored plates of fruits. Berlin: 1880. Erganzungsband ; Handbuch 
des Obstbaues. Lieferungen 1-6. 8vo. Wood-cuts. Berlin : 1880- 
1881. 

Dybdahl, J. A. Jordbasr-og vore vigtigste Frugtbusker-arter, etc. 4 Hefte. 
8vo. 2 colored plates. Copenhagen : 1879. 

Clemente y Rubio, Don Simon de Rojas. Ensayo sobre las Variedades de la 
Vid Commun que vegetan en Andalucia. 28 colored plates. Memo- 
ria sobre el Cultivo de la Vid en Sanlucar de Barrameda y Xerez de 
la Frontera, per Don Esteban Boutelou. Idea de la Practiea Eono- 
logica de Sanlucar de Barrameda 6 del Metodo que alii se sigue en 
la Fabrication de los Vinos y algunas observaciones sobre la Destila- 
cion de los Aguardientes. Folio. Madrid : 1879. 

The Vineyard, etc., being the Observations made by a Gentleman in his 
Travels. Small 8vo. London : 1727. 

Hooper, E. J. The Western Fruit Book. 12mo. Cincinnati : 1857. 

Baker, Charles R. Practical and Scientific Fruit Culture. Large 12mo. 
Wood-cuts. Boston: 1866. 

Rutter, John. The Culture and Diseases of the Peach ; a Complete Treatise 
for the use of Peach Growers and Gardeners of Pennsylvania and all 
districts affected by the " Yellows " and other diseases of the tree. 
Small 8vo. Harrisburg : 1880. 

Nietner, Th. Die Rose, ihre Geschichte, Arten, Kultur, und Verwendung 
nebst einem Verzeichniss von funftausend beschreibenen Garten- 
rosen. 4to. 12 colored plates, 106 wood-cuts, and 2 garden plans. 
Berlin: 1880. 

Berg, Dor. D. Carlos. LaReinade las Flores. Conferencia Popular dada en 
la Asamblea General de la Sociedad Cientifica Argentina, el 4 de 
Mayo de 1880. 8vo. pamphlet. Buenos Aires : 1880. 

Paul, William. Roses and Rose Culture. Fourth edition. 12mo. London : 
no date. 

. Roses in Pots. Fifth edition, 12mo. Wood-cuts. London : no 

date. 

. The Rose Annual, 1859-60, 60-61, 61-62. 3 pamphlets, 8vo. 



London : no date. 
. Lecture on the Hyacinth, delivered by the request of the Coun- 



cil of the Royal Horticultural Society, April 5, 1864, at South Ken- 
sington. 12mo. pamphlet. 
. An Hour with the Hollyhock. Second edition. 12mo. pamph- 



let. London : 1855. 
Robinson, William. The Wild Garden, or our Groves and Gardens made 
beautiful by the Naturalization of Hardy Exotic Plants ; being one 
way onwards from the Dark Ages of Flower Gardening, with sug- 
gestions for the Regeneration of the Bare Borders of our London 
Parks. New edition, illustrated by Alfred Parsons. 8vo. Many 
plates and wood-cuts. London and New York : 1881. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 301 

Halliday, Robert J. A Treatise on the Propagation and Cultivation of the 
Azalea Indica. 12mo. 34 wood-cuts. Baltimore : 1880. 

Hibberd, Shirley. Greenhouse Favourites ; a Description of Choice Green- 
house Plants, with Practical Directions for their Management and 
Cultivation. Small 4to. Colored plates and wood-cuts. London : 
1881. 

. Familiar Garden Flowers. First series. Small 8vo. 40 

colored plates, by F. Edward Hulme. London, Paris, and New 
York : no date. 

. The Garden Oracle and Illustrated Floricultural Year Book. 



1881. 12mo. Wood-cuts. London. 

Ilford, William Earley, Cond. The Villa Garden and Flower Show Manual, 
1881-2, and Amateur's Year Book. 8vo. pamphlet. 60 wood-cuts. 
London. 

Douglas, James, F. R. H. S. Hardy Florists' Flowers ; their Cultivation and 
Management. Small 8vo. London: 1881. 

Flowering Plants, with instructions how to cultivate them, etc. Square 12mo. 
11 plates. London: no date. [Selected from Maund's Botanic 
Garden.] 

Prior, W. D. Hardy Shrubs, with Descriptions of the most popular kinds, 
and Practical Directions for their culture and use. Small 8vo. 
Colored plates and wood-cuts. London and New York : 1881. 

Switzer, Stephen. The Practical Kitchen Gardener, etc. Small 8vo. plans. 
London: 1727. 

Iggulden, William. The Tomato, Cultural Directions, Varieties, and Re- 
ceipts. Small 8vo. pamphlet. London : 1881. 

Dennis, J., B. C. L. The Landscape Gardener, containing the History and 
Principles of Tasteful Horticulture. 8vo. Colored plate. London: 
1835. 

Elliott, F. R. Handbook of Practical Landscape Gardening, designed for 
City and Suburban Residences, and Country School-houses, contain- 
ing designs for lots and grounds, etc. Second edition, enlarged and 
improved. 8vo. Plates and wood-cuts. Rochester: 1881. 

Fawkes, F. A. Horticultural Buildings. Their Construction, Heating, 
Interior Fittings, etc., with remarks on some of the principles in- 
volved, and their application. Square 8vo. 123 wood-cuts. Lon- 
don : no date. 

Emmons, Ebenezer, M. D. The Agriculture of New York. 4 vols. 4to. 
Many colored plates of Fruits, Insects, etc. Albany :*1843-1854. 

American Agriculturist, Vol. 18. 4to. Many wood-cuts. New York : 1859. 
(Towards completing the set.) 

Royal Agricultural Society of England. Journal, New Series, Vol. 17, 1881, 
Part 1. 8vo. London : 1881. 

Lawes, J. B., LL D., F. R. S., F. C. S., and J. H. Gilbert, Ph. D., F. R, S., 
F. C. S., F. L. S. Agricultural, Botanical, and Chemical Experi- 
ments on the Mixed Herbage of Permanent Meadows, conducted for 
.more than twenty years in succession on the same land. Part I. 



302 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

4to. London : 1880. [From the Philosophical Transactions of the 

Royal Society.] 
Denton, J. Bailey, M. Inst. C. E., F. G. S. The Farm Homesteads of Eng- 
land. A Collection of plans of English Homesteads existing in 

different parts of the country, carefully selected from the most 

approved specimens of Farm Architecture, etc. Large 4to. Many 

lithographs and wood-cuts. London : 1864. 
Morton, John Chalmers. The Prince Consort's Farms : An Agricultural 

Memoir. 4to. Wood-cuts. London : 1863. 
Hoskyns, Chandos Wren. Talpa : or the Chronicles of a Clay Farm. An 

Agricultural Fragment. Third edition. 16mo. London: 1854. 
Steele, Andrew, Esq., of Cross woodhill. The Natural and Agricultural His- 
tory of Peat-Moss or Turf-Bog. 8vo. Edinburg, London, and 

Dublin: 1826. 
Tusser, Thomas, Gent. Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry, etc. 

Square 12mo. London : 1672. 
Hartlib, Samuel. His Legacy of Husbandry, etc. Third edition. Square 

16mo. London : 1655. 
Olivera, Eduardo. Estudios y Viages Agricolas en Francia, Italia, Suiza, 

Alemania, Holanda, y Belgica. 2 vols. 8vo. Buenos Ayres : 1879. 
Falconer, H., M. D., F. R. S. Report on the Teak Forests of the Tenasserim 

Provinces. With other papers on the Teak Forests of India. 

[Selections from the Records of the Bengal Government.] 8vo. 

Maps and plate. Calcutta : 1852. 
Pappe, L., M. D. Silva Capensis, or a Description of South African Trees 

and Shrubs, used for Technical and Economical Purposes by the 

Colonists of the Cape of Good Hope. 8vo. pamphlet. Cape Town 

and Leipzig : 1854. 
Berthelot, Sabino. Arboles y Bosques. 12mo. Santa Cruz de Tenerife : 

1880. 
Kotschy, Dr. Theodor. Die Eichen Europa's und des Orient's. Folio. 

40 colored plates. Text in Latin, German, and French. Vienna 

and Olmutz : 1862. 
Krebs, F. L. Vollstiindige Beschreibung und Abbildung der Sammtlichen 

Holzarten welche im Mittlern und Nordlichen Deutschland wild 

wachsen. Second edition. 4to. 145 colored plates. Brunswick ■ 

1846. 
Jager, Hermann. Deutsche Baume und Walder. Popular-iisthetische 

Dars&llungen aus der Natur und Naturgeschichte und Geographie 

der Baumwelt. 8vo. Plates and wood-cuts. Leipsic : 1877. 
Broillard, Ch. Le Traitement des Bois en France, a l'Usage des Particuliers. 

8vo. Paris: 1881. 
Pla y Rave, D. Eugenio. Manual de Cultivo de Arboles Forestales. 16mo. 

Madrid: no date. [Biblioteca Enciclopedica Popular Illustrada.] 
Watson, P. W., F. L. S. Dendrologia Britannica : or Trees or Shrubs that 

will live in the open air of Britain throughout the year. 2 vols. 

8vo. 172 colored plates. London: 1825. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 303 

Loudon, J. C, F. L. S., H. S., etc. Trees and Shrubs, an Abridgement of 
the Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum. 8vo. 2,109 wood-cuts. 
London and New York : 1875. 
Veitch, James & Sons. A Manual of the Coniferse, containing a general 
review of the order, a synopsis of the hardy kinds cultivated in Great 
Britain, their place and use in Horticulture, etc. 8vo. Many 
wood-cuts. Chelsea, England : 1881. 
Langley, Batty, of Twickenham. A Sure Method of Improving Estates by 
Plantations of Oak, Elm, Ash, Beech, and other Timber Trees, 
Coppice-woods, etc. Small 8vo. London : 1728. 
Dupont, E. Les Essences Forestieres du Japon. 8vo. Paris : 1879. 
Zippel, Hermann, und Carl Bollmann. Ausliindische Culturpflanzen in Far- 
bigen Wandtafeln. 8vo. with 2 portfolios containing 23 large colored 
plates. Braunschweig : 1880. 
Gross, Heinrich. Die Wichtigeren Handelpflanzen in Bild und Wort. Small 

folio, 36 colored plates. Esslingen : 1880. 
Cazzuola, Ferdinando. Le Piante Utili e Nocive Agli Uomini e Agli Animali 
che crescono spontanee e coltivate in Italia. 8vo. 264 wood-cuts. 
Turin and Rome : 1880. 
I)e Bray, Le Bon. Jean. La Ramie, sa Culture, son Rendement, ses Avan- 

tages. Second edition, 12mo. Paris : 1879. 
Archer, Thomas Croxen. Profitable Plants, a Description of the Principal 
articles of Vegetable Origin used for Food, Clothing, Tanning, Dye- 
ing, Building, Medicine, Perfumery, etc. 16mo. 20 colored plates. 
London : 1853. 
Christy, Thomas, F. L. S. New Commercial Plants, with directions how to 
grow them to the best advantage. Parts 1-4, 8vo. Plates and wood- 
cuts. London: 1878-1881. 
Villa Franca, M. le Baron de. Note sur les Plantes Utiles du Bresil. 8vo. 

pamphlet. Paris : 1880. 
Karsten, H. Deutsche Flora. Pharmaceutisch-medicinische Botanik, etc. 

Lieferungen 1-5, 8vo. 320 wood-cuts. Berlin : 1880. 
Salmon, William, M. D. The English Herbal, or History of Plants, etc. 
Adorned with exquisite Icons or Figures of the most considerable 
species, representing to the life the true forms of those several 
Plants. The whole in Alphabetical Order. Folio. Many wood-cuts. 
London: 1710. 
Miller, Joseph. Botanicum Officinale, or a Compendious Herbal, giving an 
account of all such Plants as are now used in. the practice of Physi- 
cians, with their Descriptions and Virtues. 8vo. London : 1722. 
Meyrick, William, Surgeon. The New Family Herbal, or Domestic Physi- 
cian, etc. 8vo. 14 plates. Birmingham: 1790. 
Hill, Sir John, M. D. The Family Herbal, etc. 8vo. Colored plates. Bun- 
gay : 1812. 
Medical Botany, or History of Plants in the Materia Medica of the London, 
Edinburgh, and Dublin Pharmacopeias, arranged according to the 
Linnaean System. 2 vols. Royal 8vo. 138 colored plates. London : 
1821, 1822. 



304 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Martius, Dr. C. F. P. de. Icones Selectae Plantarum Cryptogamirairum quas 

in itinere per Brasiliam armis 1817-20 institute- collegit et descripsit. 

Small folio. 76 colored plates. Monachii : 1828-1834. 
Eaton, Daniel Cady. The Ferns of North America. 2 vols. Royal 4to. 81 

colored plates. Salem : 1879, 1880. 
Underwood, Lucius M., Ph. D. Our Native Ferns and how to study them, 

with Synoptical Descriptions of the North American species. Small 

8vo. Wood-cuts. Bloomington, 111. : 1881. 
Martens, M., and H. Galeotti. Memoire sur les Fougeres du Mexique. 4to. 

23 plates. Bruxelles : 1842. 
Clarke, Charles Baron. A Review of the Ferns of Northern India. 4to. 36 

plates. London : 1879. [From the Transactions of the Linnsean 

Society]. 
Scott, John, Curator of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. Notes on the 

Tree Ferns of British Sikkim, etc. 4to. 18 plates. London : 1874. 

[From the Transactions of the Linnsean Society]. 
Britten, James, F. L. S. European Ferns, with colored illustrations from 

Nature, by D. Blair, F. L. S. 4to. Parts 5-27, in continuation. 

London, Paris, and New York. 
Bellairs, Nona. Hardy Ferns ; How I collected and cultivated them. Small 

8vo. London: 1865. 
Gatty, Mrs. Alfred. British Sea Mosses, Drawn from Professor Harvey's 

"Phycologia Britannica." With appendix of new species, etc. 2 

vols, royal 8vo. 80 colored plates. London : 1872. 
Gifford, Isabella. The Marine Botanist; an Introduction to the Study of 

the British Sea-weeds, etc. Third edition, greatly enlarged and im- 
proved, with illustrations. 16mo. Colored and other plates. Brighton 

(England), and London : 1853. 
Landsborough, Rev. D., A. L. S. A Popular History of British Sea-weeds, 

etc. Third edition. 16mo. Colored plates. London : 1857. 
Farlow, W. G., M. D. Marine Algae of the New England and Adjacent 

Coast. Reprinted from the Report of the U. S. Fish Commission 

for 1879. 8vo. 15 plates. Washington : 1881. 
Hervey, A. B., A. M. Sea Mosses. A Collector's Guide and an Introduction 

to the Study of Marine Algae. 12mo. 20 colored plates. Boston: 1881. 
Lucand, L. .Figures Peintes de Champignons, suites a ITconographie de Bul- 

liard. First Fasciculus. 4to. 25 water color drawings. No date : 

no imprint. 
Pauchon, A. Recherches sur le Role de la Lumiere dans la Germination. 

8vo. Plate. Paris: 1880. * 

Guillemin and Dumas. Observations sur l'Hybridite des Plantes en general, 

et particulierement sur celle de quelques Gentianes Alpines. 4 to. 

pamphlet. Colored plate. [Extrait du tome ler des Memoires de la 

Societe d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Lu dans la seance du 3 Aout, 

1821]. 
Darwin, Charles and Francis. The Power of Movement in Plants. Small 

8vo. 196 wood-cuts. London : 1880. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 305 

Alvarez Alvistur, El Ilmo. Sr. D. Luis. Estudio Experimental acerca de 
las Enfermedades de la Patata (Solarium Tuberosum). 8vo. pamph- 
let. Madrid: 1880. , 
Ormerod, Eleanor A., F. M. S., etc. A Manual of Injurious Insects. Small 

8vo. Many wood-cuts. London : 1881. 
Jackson, Benjamin Day don, Secretary of the Linnsean Society. Guide to 
the Literature of Botany ; being a Classified Selection of Botanical 
i Works, including nearly 6,000 titles not given in Pritzel's "The- 
saurus." Published for the Index Society. Square 8vo. London : 
1881. 
Britten, James, E. L. S., and Robert Holland. A Dictionary of English 
Plant Names. Parts 1 and 2. 8vo. London : published for the 
English Dialect Society, 1878, 1879. 
Earle, John, M. A. English Plant Names from the Tenth to the Fifteenth 

Century. 16mo. Oxford: 1880. 
Ulrich, Dr. Wilhelm. Internationales Worterbuch der Pflanzennamen in 
Lateinischer, Deutscher, Englischer, und Franzosischer Sprache. 
Second edition. 8vo. Leipsic : 1875. , 

Wills, George S. V. Dictionary of Botanical Terms. 16mo. London : no date. 
Morren, Ed. Correspondance Botanique. Liste des Jardins, des Chaires, 
des Musees, des Revues, et des Societes de Botanique du Monde. 
8vo. pamphlet. Eighth edition, December, 1880. Liege : 1880. 
Jougla, le Dr. Les Pyrenees Inconnues. Le Capsir et le Donnezan. 16mo. 

Paris: no date. [1881?] 
Hole, S. Reynolds. Nice and Her Neighbors. Small 8vo. Wood-cuts. 

London: 1881. 
Burbidge, F. W. The Gardens of the Sun, or a Naturalist's Journal on the 
mountains and in the forests and swamps of Borneo and the Sulu 
Archipelago. 8vo. Wood-cuts. London: 1880. 
Bellairs, Nona. Wayside Flora, or Gleanings from Rock and Field towards 

Rome. Small 8vo. Plate. London : 1866. 
JIulme, F. Edward., F. L. S., F. S. A. Familiar Wild Flowers. Second 
series. Small 8vo. 40 colored plates. London, Paris, and New 
York : no date. 
Hortus Anglicus, or the Modern British Garden, etc. By the author of V The 

British Botanist." 2 vols. 12mo. London: 1822. 
Hope, Frances Jane. Notes and Thoughts on Gardens and Woodlands. 
Written chiefly for amateurs. Edited by Annie J. Hope Johnstone. 
Small 8vo. London: 1881. 
American Naturalist, vols. 12, 13, 14, and 15, for 1878, 1879, 1880, and 1881. 

4 vols. 8vo. Philadelphia: 1878-1881. 
Muller, E. Flore Pittoresque. Croquis d'apres Nature. 24 folio plates. 
Paris, Liege, and Berlin : 1872. [Librairie Speciale des Arts Indus- 
triels et Decoratifs.] 



306 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Books and Pamphlets Presented. 

Masters, Dr. Maxwell T., F. R. S., F. L. S., etc. On the Nomenclature of 
Garden Plants. Read at the Scientific Committee of the Royal 
Horticultural Society, 19th November, 1878. 

. Side Lights on the Structure of Composites. Note 

on the Dimorphism of Restiaceas. [Journal of Botany, February, 
1879, pp. 33-37.] Plate. # , 

. Note on the Bracts of Cruciferae [Linnean 



Society's Journal, Botany, Vol. 14, pp. 391-399.] 
. Remarks on the Superposed Arrangement of -the 



Parts of the Flower. [Linnean Society's Journal, Botany. Yol. 15, 
pp. 455-478.] 
. Note on the Relations between Morphology and 



Physiology in the Leaves of certain Conifers. [Linnean Society's 
Journal, Botany. Vol. 17, pp. 547-552.] Read December 4, 1879. 
. On the Conifers of Japan. [Linnean Society's 



Journal, Botany. Vol. 18, pp. 473-524.] Plates 19 and 20. 14 

wood-cuts. Read December 2, 1880. 6 pamphlets. 8vo. The 

Author. 
Robinson, John. The Pine, its Life and Importance in Essex County. 8vo. 

pamphlet. [From the Bulletin of the Essex Institute, Vol. 10, 

Nos. 7, 8, and 9.] The Essex Institute. 
. Our Trees in Winter. 8vo. pamphlet. [From the Bulletin 

of the Essex Institute ] The Essex Institute. 
. Notes on the Native and Extensively Introduced Woody Plants 



of Essex County, Mass. 8vo. pamphlet. [From the Bulletin of 
the Essex Institute, Vol. 11, Nos. 4, 5, and 6, 1879.] The Essex 
Institute. 
. Ornamental Trees for Massachusetts Plantations. Read at the 



Winter Meeting of the State Board of Agriculture, December, 1880. 
8vo. pamphlet. Boston: 1881. The Author. 
. The Flora of Essex County, Mass. 8vo. Salem : 1880. The 



Essex Institute. 
. Ferns of Essex County, Mass. 8vo. pamphlet. [From the 



Bulletin of the Essex Institute, Vol. 7, No. 3, March, 1875.] 

The Essex Institute. 
Torrey Botanical Club, Bulletin of the. numbers for 1880, and 11 numbers 

for 1881, to complete the set. 17 pamphlets, 8 vo. New York: 1880, 

1881. W. R. Girard, publisher. 
Plumer, Mary A. An Essay on the Dissemination of Seeds. Read before 

the Essex Institute, July 7, 1881. 8vo. pamphlet. 1881. The Essex 

Institute. 
A List of Plants growing without cultivation in Maiden and Medford, Mass. 

With some Contributions to a Flora of Middlesex County. 18mo. 

pamphlet. Maiden, the Middlesex Institute: 1881. George E. 

Davenport. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 307 

Downing, A. J. The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America. 14th edition. 
Small 8vo. New York : 1855. With MS. Notes and Corrections by- 
Charles Downing. Also, the Second Revision and Correction, with 
large Additions, including the Appendices of 1872 to 1881, and con- 
taining many New Varieties. By Charles Downing. With nearly 
400 Outline Illustrations of Fruits. New York: 1881. Charles 
Downing. 

Downing, Charles. Third Appendix to the Fruits and Fruit Trees of Amer- 
ica. 8vo. pamphlet. Outlines of fruits. New York: 1881. The 
Author. 

Brinckle, William D. The North American Pomologist. With colored 
plates by Alfred Hoffy ; and Descriptions by Dr. Brinckle of Fruits 
of American Origin. 1 vol. 4to., and 1 unbound (duplicate) num- 
ber. Philadelphia: 185 1-18G0. Charles Downing. 

Lawson, William. A New Orchard and Garden, etc. 8vo. Wood-cuts. 
London: 1626. Reprinted at Philadelphia: 1858. William C. 
Eustis. 

Laliman, L. Etudes sur les divers Travaux Phylloxeriques et les Vignes 
Americaines, notamment sur les etudes faites en Espagne par Don 
Miret y Tarral, Vocal de la Commission du Phylloxera a Madrid. 
8vo. pamphlet. Paris and Bordeaux : 1879, 1880. The Author. 

Tisserand, M., Directeur de l'Agriculture. Rapport sur les Travaux Ad- 
ministratifs entrepris contre le Phylloxera, etc. Royal 8vo. pam- 
phlet. Map. Paris: 1881. Ch. Joly. 

Hogg, Robert. The Dahlia : its History and Cultivation, with descriptions 
of all the best show flowers. 8vo. 9 colored plates. London : 
1853. Henry K. Oliver. 

Paul, William. The Rose Annual for the years 1877-78, 1878-79, 1879-80, 
1880-81. 4 pamphlets. 8vo. Colored plates of Roses. Waltham 
Cross, Herts. The Author. 
Cranston, John. Cultural Directions for the Rose, etc. Sixth edition, re- 
vised. 8vo. 1877. The Author. 

Dalgas, E. Anvisning til Anlseg af Smaaplantninger omkring Gaarde og 
Haver samt til Anlaeg af levende Hegn og Anlaeg af Pileculture. 
Second edition. 8vo. pamphlet. 5 plans. Copenhagen : 1875. 
Carl Haussen. 

Vilmorin's Illustrirte Blumengartnerei. Zweite auflage neu bearbitet trad 
vermehrt von Th. Riimpler. 8vo. 1,416 wood-cuts. Berlin: 1879. 
Vilmorin, Andrieux, et Cie. 
Vilmorin's Atlas of Flowers. English edition of the Atlas des Fleurs de 
Pleine Terre. 12mo. 1,128 wood-cuts. Paris : no date. A'ilmorin, 
Andrieux, et Cie. 
Vilmorin, Andrieux et Cie. Instructions pour les Semis de Fleurs de Pleine 
Terre, etc. Sixth edition. 12mo. Wood-cuts. Paris : no date. 
The Authors. 
The Lawson Seed and Nursery Company. Agrostaphia, a Treatise on the 
Cultivated Grasses and other Herbage and Forage Plants. 4to. 
Colored plates. Edinburgh and London : 1877. The Authors. 



308 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Sharpe, Charles & Co. Permanent Grass Seeds used in British Agriculture, 
their Description and Properties. 4to. Wood-cuts. Grantham : 

1879. The Authors. 

B. K. Bliss & Sons. The Potato, How to Cultivate, etc. 8vo. pamphlet. 

Wood-cuts. New York : no date. The Authors. 
Jamaica, Public Gardens and Plantations of. Annual Report, for the year 

ending September 30, 1880, by D. Morris, M. A., F. G. S., Director. 

Large 8 vo. pamphlet. Kingston: 1881. Charles Gibb. 
Joly, M. Ch. Note sur les Expositions Horticoles. 8vo. pamphlet. [Journal 

de la Societe Centrale d'Horticulture de France, August, 1879.] 

The Author. 
. Note sur deux Societes d'Horticulture aux Etats-Unis. 8vo. 

pamphlet. [Journal de la Societe Nationale d'Horticulture, 3e 

Serie, III, 1881.] The Author. 
. Note sur l'Horticulture en Algerie. 8vo. pamphlet. [Journal 

de la Societe Nationale d'Horticulture. 3e Serie, III, 1881.] The 

Author. 
Societe Centrale d' Horticulture du Departement de la Seine Inferieure. 

Bulletin, Tome 22, Cahier 4, 1880; Tome 23, Cahiers 1 and 2, 1881. 

8vo. Rouen: 1879-1881. 
Societe d' Horticulture de la Sarthe. Bulletin, 3d and 4th Trimestres, 1880; 

1st and 2d Trimestres, 1881. 8vo. pamphlets. Le Mans: 1881. 

The Society. 
Societe Royale d'Horticulture de Liege. Bulletin Grande Exposition generale 

& extraordinarie des Produits de l'Horticulture, July 24-28, 1881. 

The Society. 
R. Societa Toscana di Orticultura. Bulletino, Vol. 5, Nos. 11 and 12, 1880; 

Vol. 6, Nos. 1-10, 1881. 8vo. Florence: 1880, 1881. The 

Society. 
The Canadian Horticulturist. Vol. 4, 1881. 8vo. Published by the Fruit 

Growers' Association of Ontario. Toronto: 1881. The Association. 
Montreal Horticultural Society and Fruit Growers' Association of the Province 

of Quebec. Fifth and Sixth Annual Reports, for the years 1879 and 

1880. 2 pamphlets. 8vo. Montreal: 1880,1881. Also, extra copies 
for distribution. Henry S. Evans, Secretary. 

New York Horticultural Society. Monthly Reports for February, March, 
April, May, September, and October. 6 pamphlets. 8vo. Other 
documents. James Y. Murkland, Secretary. 

Western New York Horticultural Society. Twenty-first and Twenty-sixth 
Annual Meetings, Rochester, 1876 and 1881. 2 pamphlets. 8vo. 
Rochester: 1876 and 1881. P. C. Reynolds, Secretary. 

New Jersey State Horticultural Society. Proceedings at the Sixth Annual 
Meeting, held at Newark, February 10th and 11th, 1881. 8vo. pam- 
phlet. Trenton: 1881. E. Williams, Recording Secretary. 

Michigan State Horticultural Society. Tenth Annual Report of the Secre- 
tary, 1880. 8vo. Lansing: 1881. Also, extra copies for distribu- 
tion. Charles W. Garfield, Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 309 

Ohio State Horticultural Society. First Report, 18G7 ; Second, 18G8 ; Third, 
1869; Fourth, 1870; Fifth, 1871; Sixth, 1872-3; Tenth, 187G-7; 
Fourteenth, 1880-81. 8 pamphlets. 8vo. Columbus: 18G8-81. 
George W. Campbell, Secretary. 

Indiana State Horticultural Society. Transactions for 1879 and 1880. 2 vols. 
8vo. Indianapolis : 1879, 1881. D. E. Hoffman. 

Illinois State Horticultural Society. Transactions. New Series. Vol. 14, 
for 1880 8vo. Chicago : 1881. O. B. Galusha, Secretary. 

Kentucky Horticultural Society. Proceedings at the meeting at Bowling 
Green, January 11, 12, and 13,1881. 8vo. pamphlet. Frankfort: 
1881. Two copies. J. Decker, Secretary. 

Wisconsin Horticultural Society. Transactions for 1879-80. 8vo. Madison : 
1880. F. W. Case, Secretary. 

Iowa State Horticultural Society. Transactions, Vol. 14, for 1879. 8vo. 
Des Moines : 1880. J. L. Budd, Secretary. Another copy from G. B. 
Brackett, and a third from C. L. Watrous, President. Transactions 
for 1880, Vol. 15. 8vo. Des Moines : 1881. C L. Watrous, President. 

Kansas Horticultural Report, Vols. 7, 8, and 10, for the years 1877,- 1878, and 
1880. 3 vols. 8vo. Topeka : 1878, '79, '80. Also, the Second 
Report on Forestry, by the Kansas State Horticultural Society, 1880. 
8vo. pamphlet. Topeka: 1881. G. C. Brackett, Secretary. 

Worcester County Horticultural Society. Transactions for 1847-1851 and 
18G5; 1855; 1857-18G4 ; 18G7, 18G9, 1872, 1873, 1874, and 1876. • 
Nine pamphlets. 8vo. George Cruickshanks. Transactions from 
its formation to the commencement of the year 1847, by George 
Jaques. Transactions for 1852 and 1853; 1854, 1856, 18G6, 1868, 
1870. Seven pamphlets. 8vo. C. E. Brooks, Librarian. Trans- 
actions for 1880. 8vo. pamphlet, completing the set. Edward W. 
Lincoln, Secretary. 

Maine State Pomological Society. Premium List and Regulations for the 
Ninth Annual Exhibition, Gardiner, Sept. 20-22, 1881. 8vo. pamph- 
let. Gardiner: 1881. George B. Sawyer, Secretary. 

Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society. Report for 1880. 8vo. pamphlet. 
Plates. Harrisburg : 1880. E. B. Engle, Secretary. 

California State Viticultural Commission. First Annual Report. 8vo. pamph- 
let. Map and plate* Second edition, revised. Sacramento : 1881. 
John H. Wheeler, Secretary. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Report of the Commissioner for 
the year 1879. 8vo. Many plates and maps. Washington : 1880. 
Also, Special Reports, Vol. 2, 1879-80, and Vol. 3, 1880-81. 2 vols. , 
8vo. Maps, etc. Washington: 1881. Hon. George B. Loring,' Com- 
missioner. 

Campbell, George W., Assistant Commissioner to the Paris Universal Expo- 
sition, 1878. Reports of United States Commissioners: Horticul- 
ture. 8vo. pamphlet. 1881. The Author. 

United States Commissioner of Patents. Report for the year 1852. Part 2, 
Agriculture. 8vo. Washington : 1853. The Essex Institute. 

13 



310 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Maine Board of Agriculture. Twentieth, Twenty-second, and Twenty-fourth 
Annual Reports of the Secretary, for the years 1875, 1877, and 1880. 
2 vols. 8vo. Augusta: 1875, 1877, and 1880. Z. A. Gilbert, Sec- 
• retary. 

Vermont Agriculture. Sixth Report, by the Superintendent of Agricultural 
Affairs, John B. Mead,, 1879-80. 8vo. Montpelier : 1880. Dr. 
Hiram A. Cutting, Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture. 
Massachusetts Board of Agriculture. Twenty-eighth Report of the Secre- 
tary, for 1880. 8vo. Boston: 1881. John E. Russell, Secretary. 
Connecticut Board of Agriculture. Fourteenth Annual Report of the Secre- 
tary, 1880-81. 8vo. Hartford: 1881. T. S. Gold, Secretary. 

New Jersey State Board of Agriculture. Eighth Report, for the year 1880. 
8vo. pamphlet. P. T. Quinn. 

Virginia Commissioner of Agriculture. Third and Fourth Reports, for 1879 
and 1880. 2 pamphlets. 8vo. Richmond: 1879,1880. Dr. Thomas 
Pollard, Commissioner. 

Michigan State Board of Agriculture. Nineteenth Annual Report of the 
Secretary, for the year ending August 31, 1880. 8vo. Lansing : 
1880. The State Agricultural College Library. 

Atwater, Professor W. O. Report of Field Experiments with Fertilizers. 
1880. 8vo. pamphlet. The Author. 

Nebraska Agricultural College. Report of Experiments at College Farm, 
Lincoln: 1880. 8 vo. pamphlet. H. Culbertson, Superintendent. 

Dalgas, E. Hede-Moser og Kjaerjorde. 8vo. pamphlet. 4 plans. Copen- 
hagen : 1876. Carl Haussen. N 

International Dairy Fair, held at the American Institute, New York City, 
December, 1878. Report and Proceedings of the Executive Com- 
mittee. 8vo. pamphlet. New York : 1879. J. H. Reall. 

American Agricultural Association, Journal of the. Nos. 1-4. 2 pamphlets. 
8vo. Wood-cuts. New York: 1881. J. H. Reall, Secretary. 

New England Agricultural Society. Premium List for their Eighteenth An- 
nual Exhibition in connection with the Worcester Agricultural So- 
ciety, at Worcester, Mass., September 6-9, 1881. The Society. 

Iowa State Agricultural Society. Report of the Board of Directors for the 
year 1880. 8vo. Des Moines : 1881. John R. Shaffer, Secretary. 

Essex Agricultural Society. Transactions for 1880. 8vo pamphlet. Charles 
R. Preston, Secretary. 

Armada (Michigan) Agricultural Society. Premium List for 1881. 24mo. 
pamphlet. Romeo: 1881. Dr. J. E. Barringer, Secretary 

Brooklyn Park Commissioners. Report from January, 1874, to December 
31,1879. 8vo. pamphlet. Maps and photographs. Brooklyn: 1880. 
Also Report for the year 1880. 8vo. pamphlet. Brooklyn: 1881. 
Edward H. Brundage. 

Boston Park Commissioners. Fifth and Sixth Annual Reports for the years 
1879 and 1880. 2 pamphlets. 8vo. Maps. Boston: 1880, 1881. 
The City of Boston. 

Chicago South Park Commissioners. Report to the Board of County Com- 



KEPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 311 

missioners of Cook County, from December 1, 1879, to December 1, 
1880. 8vo. pamphlet. 2 maps. Chicago : 1880. H. W. Harmon, 
Secretary. 
Mount Auburn Cemetery. Annual Reports of the Trustees for 1869, 1879, 
and 1880. Three pamphlets. 8vo. Boston : 1870, 1880, 1881. J. 
Harris Reed, Secretary. 
Boston Society of Natural History. Proceedings, Vol. 18, Part 2; Vol. 
19, Part 1; Vol. 20, Part 3. Three pamphlets. 8vo. Boston: 
1876. 1877. Memoirs, Vol. 2, Part 3, Nos. 3 and 4. 2 pam- 
phlets. 4to. Boston : 1874. The Society. 
Essex Institute, Bulletin of the. Nine numbers to complete the set. 8vo. 

The Essex Institute. 
Science Advocate. Vol. 2, 1881. 8vo. Issued by the Natural Science 

Society of Atco, N. J. The Society. 
Beretning fra den Kongelige Veterinaer-og Landbohojskole for Undervisning- 
saaret fra 23de August, 1877, til 22de August, 1878. 8vo. pamphlet. 
Copenhagen : 1879. Carl Haussen. 
Maine College of Agriculture. Annual Report of the Trustees and Officers. 

8vo. pamphlet. Augusta : 1880. M. C. Fernald, President. 
Kansas State Agricultural College. Eighteenth Annual Catalogue of Officers 
and Students, 1880-81. 8vo. pamphlet. Manhattan: 1881. Milan 
L. Ward, A. M., Librarian. 
Missouri University. Thirty-ninth Catalogue, 1880-81. 8vo. pamphlet. 5 
plates. Jefferson City : 1881. G. C. Swallow, Professor of Agri- 
culture. 
Drury College, Springfield, Greene Co., Mo. Eighth Annual Catalogue, 
1880-81. 8vo. pamphlet. Springfield: 1881. Rev. Nathan J. 
Morrison, D. D., President. , 

Astor Library. Thirty-second Annual Report of the Trustees, for the year 

ending December 31, 1880. 8vo. pamphlet. Albany: 1881. 
Mercantile Library Association of the City of New York. Sixtieth Annual 
Report of the Board of Direction, May, 1880, to April, 1881. 8vo. 
pamphlet. New York: 1881. 
Iowa State Library. Report of the Librarian for the years 1880 and 1881. 
8vo. pamphlet. Des Moines: 1881. Mrs. S. B. Maxwell, Librarian. 
American Antiquarian Society. Proceedings at the Annual Meeting, Wor- 
cester, October 21, 1880, and at the Semi-Annual Meeting, held 
at Boston, April 27, 1881. 2 pamphlets, 8vo. Worcester: 1881. 
The Society. 
New England Historic Genealogical Society. Proceedings at the Annual 
Meting, January 5, 1881. 8vo. pamphlet. Boston: 1881. Hon. 
Marshall P. Wilder, President. 
United States Commissioner of Education. Report for 1879. 8vo. Wash- 
ington : 1879. Hon. John Eaton, Commissioner. 
Wilber, C. D., LL. D., etc. The Great Valleys and Prairies of ijebraska 
and the Northwest. Third edition. Small square 8vo. Omaha : 
1881. Leavitt Burnham, Land Commissioner Union Pacific Railway. 



312 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Periodicals Taken. 

English. — Gardeners' Chronicle. 

Gardeners' Magazine. 

Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener. 

The Garden. 

Gardening Illustrated. 

Curtis's Botanical Magazine. 

Floral Magazine. 

Florist and Pomologist. 

Journal of Botany. 

Country Gentleman's Magazine. 

Farmer's Magazine. 

Journal of Forestry. 
French. — Revue Horticole. 

Revue des Eaux et Fore'ts. 
Belgian. — Illustration Horticole. 

Flore des Serres. 

Belgique Horticole. 

Revue de 1' Horticulture, Beige et Etrangere. 
German. — Botanische Zeitung. 

Gartenflora. 
American. — Country Gentleman. 



Periodicals Presented, 

New England Farmer. 

Massachusetts Ploughman. 

American Cultivator. 

American Agriculturist. 

American Garden. 

Vick's Illustrated Monthly Magazine. 

Empire State Agriculturist. 

Gardener's Monthly. 

Seed Time and Harvest. 

Botanical Gazette. 

Botanical Index. 

Semi-Tropic California. 

American Rural Home. 

Rural New Yorker. 

Maine Farmer. 

Home and Farm. 

Prairie Farmer. 

Maryland Farmer. 

The Industrialist. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 313 

Pacific Rural Press. 
Florida Despatch. 
Boston Daily Advertiser. 
Boston Morning Journal. 
Boston Post. 
Boston Daily Globe. 
Boston Evening Transcript. 
Daily Evening Traveller. 
The Cottage Hearth. 



Report of the Secretary and Librarian, 



FOR THE YEAR 1881. 



The many changes which have taken place during the year now 
drawing to a close, together with the meeting of the American 
Pomolbgical Society, have made it an unusually busy one. Not- 
withstanding this, and the added duties of Librarian, the belief 
which I expressed in my last report that the Transactions — which 
when it was written were in arrears, owing to my time having been 
so largely occupied in getting the History of the Society through 
the press — would be brought up, has been verified, though not at 
as early a day as if the changes alluded to had not occurred. The 
second part of the Transactions for 1881 has been begun and car- 
ried as far as is possible at present. 

Besides the calls for naming fruits, such as have been men- 
tioned in former reports, many specimens of flowers, particularly 
native plants, have been presented for name. With the help of 
experts in botany almost all of these have been identified, and I 
wish here to acknowledge my indebtedness to the Professor of 
Botany and to other students of native plants for their valuable 
assistance in this work. I would take the opportunity to remark, 
for the information of all who may wish to ascertain the names of 
plants, that it is extremely difficult to identify them by a single 
leaf, as is sometimes expected, or even by several leaves ; but, if 
possible, the flowers and fruit should be procured, and if the leaves 
vary in character specimens of the root, stem, and floral, leaves 
should be presented. So difficult is it to identify plants by a few 
leaves, that some of our most eminent botanists refuse to attempt 
it, without specimens of the flowers and the different classes of 
leaves. I have not thought it best to pursue this course, and in 
most instances have been successful in ascertaining the names of 
plants when the specimens presented were far inferior to what is 
desirable, and I make these suggestions not merely with the object 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN. 315 

of saving labor in identifying plants, but because the chances of 
naming them, to the satisfaction of the inquirers, are much greater 
when good specimens are brought, than if we have only two or 
three leaves. 

In regard to the Library, I would say that in addition to the 
routine work of purchasing books, keeping the various records 
required, delivering books for use here or for home study, etc., 
my attention has been especially directed to ascertaining what sets 
of periodicals and other books are imperfect and should be com- 
pleted. Much work is needed in this direction, and a beginning 
has at least been made. In connection with the allusion above to 
the records, I may mention, that the name of every book added to 
the Library is required to be entered more or less fully in the vari- 
ous records, probably six times on the average. 

To those who are in the habit of using the Library freely, it is 
unnecessary to say anything of its great and yearly increasing 
value. But these are but a small part of the whole Society, and 
it is to be hoped that as the Library grows from year to year, the 
number of members who avail themselves of its invaluable priv- 
ileges will increase, and that the benefits which it will confer in the 
future may be more nearly commensurate with its capabilities. In 
this connection it will be of interest to chronicle the growth of a 
taste in the community for artistic work, as shown by the increased 
number of calls for correct plates of flowers to assist in painting 
and embroidery. 

ROBERT MANNING, 

Secretary and Librarian. 



TREASURER'S REPORT, 



FOR THE YEAR 1881. 



RECEIPTS. 

Balance on hand, January 1, 1881, 
Rent of Stores, 
" " Halls, 
Admissions and Assessments, 
Mount Auburn, 
Four Exhibitions, . 
Sale of History, 
Sundries, .... 
Interest on Bonds, C. B. & Q. R. R. 
Amount of Prizes not drawn, 

EXPENDITURES. 

Salaries, ..... 

Labor, ...... 

Incidentals, ..... 

Heating and Water, less paid by tenants, 
Gas, ........ 

Repairs on Furniture and Fixtures, 

Committee of Arrangements, 
Librar}^ Accessions, Stickney Fund, 

" " Periodicals, Binding. 

etc., . 
Repairs on Building, 
Expenses of Four Exhibitions, 
Stationery, Printing, and Postage, 
Interest, . 

Garden Committee, 
Insurance, .... 
Extra Repairs on Building, 
Balance of cash on hand to new account, 



$ 3,675 06 

10,274 94 

5,398 17 

1,242 00 

2,187 26 

1,637 00 

278 50 

16 85 

105 00 

293 40 



$25,108 18 



:,325 00 



1,083 


23 


238 


75 


482 


81 


1,025 


59 


404 


95 


3,127 


50 


250 


00 


700 


00 


199 


88 


619 


62 


1,152 


94 


1,622 


31 


t 3,899 


98 


17 


45 


30 


00 


5,292 


55 


2,635 


62 




$25,108 18 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 317 

ASSETS. 

Real Estate, Furniture, and Exhibition ware, . $256,585 56 

Library last year, ..... 19,846 24 

Added this }'ear, . . . . . 899 88 

20,746 12 

Bonds, Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy, at par, . 1,500 00 

Stereotype Plates, etc., and copies of History, . 421 50 

Cash on hand, December 31, 1881, . . . 2,635 62 



$281,888 80 



LIABILITIES. 

Mortgage debt bearing interest at 5J per 

' cent., payable September, 1883,. . .$60,000 00 

Loan, without interest, payable to Harvard 

College in 1899, . . . ' . . 12,000 00 

Note due Massachusetts National Bank, . 12,000 00 

$84,000 00 



Surplus, . 


• • 


$197,888 80 


MEMBERS. 






umber of life members by last report, 


572 




Added, ..... 


20 




Commutations, .... 


5 





597 
Deceased, ..... 15 



582 



Annual Members, . . .271 

Added, . . . . 15 

286 

Commuted, ... 5 

Deceased, ... 6 

— 11 



275 

Total membership, . . . 857 



Income from above : 

20 Life Members, . $600 00 

15 Annual " . 150 00 

5 Commutations, . 100 00 

196 Assessments, . . 392 00 

$1,242 00 



318 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Report of the Finance Committee upon the former Treas- 
urer's accounts is as follows : 

The Massachusetts Horticultural Society in account with E. W. 

Buswell, Treasurer. 
1831. By balance in treasury, Jan. 7, 1881, . . $ 3,675 06 
61 Total income as per receipt book, . . 18,174 76 



$21,849 82 
1881. To cash paid as per disbursement 

book, $16,662 02 

Balance to new account, . . 5,187 80 

$21,849 82 

Boston, June 10, 1881. We have examined the above, and find 
it correct, and the balance of cash on hand fifty-one hundred 
eighty-seven dollars and eighty cents, as stated. 



C. O. Whitmore, ) Finance 
Francis B. Hayes, X Committee. 



The Finance Committee having audited the accounts of the 
undersigned, made the following report : 

The Massachusetts Horticultural Society in account with Georoe 

W. Fowle, Treasurer. 

1881. By balance in treasury, June 3, 1881, . . $ 5,187 80 
Total income as per receipt book, . . 27,661 02 



$32,848 82 

1881. To cash paid as per disbursement 

book, $30,213 20 

Balance to new account, . . 2,635 62 

$32,848 82 

Boston, Dec. 31, 1881. We have examined the above account 
and find it correct, and the balance of cash on hand two thousand 
six hundred and thirty-five dollars and sixty-two cents as stated. 



C. O. Whitmore, I Finance 
Francis B. Hayes, X Committee. 



The undersigned entered upon the discharge of his duties as 
Treasurer on June 1, 1881, his predecessor holding the office dur- 
ing the previous portion of the past year. The preceding items 



treasurer's report. 319 

of receipts and expenditures are taken from the Treasurer's books. 
The expenditures for repairs have been considerable during the 
past 3'ear, being required to put the building in good order, and 
make improvements which were demanded, all of which were 
authorized by vote of the Society. For what has been accom- 
plished, the expenditures have been quite reasonable. We have 
to compete with rival halls, and now, since the improvements have 
been made, our halls are more in request than they were before, 
and, in consequence thereof, we have already been considerably 
benefited by an increase of rentals. Yet we may not expect, in 
future, so large an income from the halls as we have formerly 
received, as new halls have lately been completed near our build- 
ing. We must look to the improvement of our stores for a larger 
income, which is required for the purposes of the Societ} 7 . Our 
receipts from Mount Auburn for the past year fell short of the 
previous year, but we hope we may obtain, in the future, an in- 
crease of receipts, as a portion of the income, which otherwise we 
should have received, was appropriated by the Proprietors of Mount 
Auburn to the improvement of newly purchased land, from the 
sales of which we may expect remunerative returns. 

GEO. W. FOWLE, Treasurer. 



320 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



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MOUNT AUBURN CEMETERY. 321 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 

To The Proprietors of the Cemetery of Mount Auburn, Dr. 

For one-fourth part of the following expenditures for grading new lands for 
sale, during 1881 : 

Pearl Avenue to Eagle Avenue. 

1,028% days, men, $2,057 50 

871% " man and horse, 3,051 12 

$5,108 62 



One-fourth part is, $1,277 15 

Mount Auburn, December 31, 1881. J. W. Lovering, Supt. 

I certify the foregoing to be a true copy of accounts of improvements fo 
the year 1881, rendered by the Superintendent. 

H. B. Mackintosh, Treasurer. 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 



The Committee on Publication have much pleasure in adding to 
these Transactions, a paper on Edible Fungi, by Dr. E. Lewis 
Sturtevant, and also a Calendar of the Flowering of Trees and 
Shrubs in 1881, by John Robinson, Professor of Botany and 
Vegetable Physiology to the Society, in continuation of that for 
1880, which may be found in Part I of the Transactions for that 
year, page 161. 

A LIST OF EDIBLE FUNGI, 

COMPILED BY B. LEWIS STURTEVANT, M. D., SOUTH FRAMINGHAM, MASS. 

Agaricus. 

The name of Mushroom is applied collectively to certain of the 
larger fungi, but is more usually restricted to Agaricus campestris, 
and the species confounded with it. There are many varieties of 
mushrooms which can be classed as edible, but as the bad proper- 
ties depend upon the degree in which a poisonous alkali is devel- 
oped — a circumstance which varies with climate and situation — even 
those species which are usualh* wholesome may at times prove 
deleterious. Thus the common mushroom is said to be poisonous 
in ItaPy, although a most valued article of food almost everywhere 
amongst European epicures, and largely an object of cultivation. 
Dall mentions eating of two or three species, in Alaska, all pois- 
onous in our climate, but in that extreme northern region proving 
to be innocuous and eatable, though quite tasteless. Nievhoff, in 
1665, mentions mushrooms or toadstools in Batavia, called Kulet 
by the Malajans, and Jamor by the Javanese ; some of a red, 
others of a pale green color, and some of which are used "here 
like as in Europe, and are eaten with wine and sugar." In Japan, 
Thunberg in 1775 saw various sorts which were in great request, 
common in the shops, dried for sale, and in almost daily use both 



A LIST OF EDIBLE FUNGI. 323 

for soups and sauces. Mushrooms were held in detestation by the 
ancient Hindus, the legislator Yaraa declaring the eating them 
"whether springing from the ground or growing on a tree full}' 
equal in guilt to the slaying of Brahmen" (W. Jones). They are 
eaten now by the Lepchas of India (Hooker). The mushroom 
appears not to have been cultivated by the Romans of antiquity. 
Plin}-, however, mentions that they were highlj* prized by the epicures 
of his time, and notices those which grew at the roots of the oak 
as being highly esteemed. In Poland and Russia above thirty 
sorts are eaten by the peasantry, not onty in their fresh state, but 
dried and preserved for winter consumption ; in Lapland, called 
mochovtki and used by the people. In France, German}-, and 
Italy, says Badham, funguses not only constitute for weeks to- 
gether the sole diet of thousands, but the residue, either fresh or 
dried, or variously preserved, in oil, vinegar, or wine, is sold by 
the poor, and forms a valuable source of income to many who 
have no other produce to bring into the market. In England 
many species are consumed in a fresh state, or made into sauce's. 
In 1876 some one hundred and forty tons of edible fungi were ex- 
ported from the island of Otaheite in a dried state, with a declared 
value of $28,000. In America they prove a valued food to the epicure. 
Du Pratz, in his Histoiy of Louisiana, notes the use of a kind of 
agaric by the colonists of epicurean tendencies. Not only in China, 
says Cooke, but also in the Himalayas and in the Rock} r Moun- 
tains, as well as in Terra del Fuego, New Zealand, and Australia, 
to say nothing of European countries, certain species afford whole- 
some and nutritious food. 

Agaricus campestris, L. — A cultivated fungus, which is quite 
variable. Badham enumerates five varieties. The wild form is a 
native of northern climates. Cooke enumerates var. pratensis, Vitt., 
in pastures; var. silvicola, Vitt., in woods; var. hortensis, Ault., 
the cultivated form ; var. vaporarius, Otto ; var. riifescens, Beck. 
The Paris growers have several varieties : the small white, greatly 
esteemed and always eaten whole ; the large white ; the cream- 
colored ; and the gray, very large, sometimes measuring thirteen and 
one-half inches in diameter. This mushroom is condemned in the 
markets of Rome. In Milan but recentl}' eaten. In the Venetian 
States* scarcel}' known. It is regarded as a suspicious species in 
Hungary. At Vienna it meets with a welcome. In Fiance, in 
Britain, and in the United States, it is the one most extensivelv 



324 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

consumed. The daily production of mushrooms in and about 
Paris is estimated at about twenty-five tons (Robinson) . They are 
eaten fresh, canned, dried, grated to powder, and bottled in butter 
or oil. 

Called in French champignon comestible; in Dutch hampernoelje ; 
in German essbare blatter schamme ; in Spanish seta; in Italian pra- 
tujolo or pratolino. 

Among the species of mushrooms which are used as food, we 
note the following : — 

A. acerbus, Bull. — Eaten at Milan (Vittadini). 

A. cegerita, Fr. — An excellent mushroom, of an agreeable odor 
and flavor (Cordier) . 

A. albellus, DC. — Classed by Cooke as esculent. 

A. alntaceus, Pers. (Syn. Russula acres, Badh.) — Ranked by 
Vittadini among the safe kinds and even when raw u a dainty 
food." Berkeley reports it as esculent when 3-oung, but remarks 
that acrid specimens occur. Badham does not advise its use as 
food. 

A. amethystinus, Scop. — Cordier sa}*s esculent, and of exquisite 
taste. 

A. amygdalinus, Curt. — Found in the United States. Dr. 
Curtis says it can scarcely be distinguished when cooked from the 
common mushroom. 

A. anisatus, Pers. — Said bv Un^er to be edible. 

A. Aquifolii, Pers. — Said by Unger to be edible. 

A. aromaticus, Roques. — Called an edible species by Unger. 

A. arvensis, Schoef. — Sent in enormous quantities to Covent 
Garden, London, where it frequently predominates over A. cam- 
pestris. Some persons prefer this, which has a stronger flavor, to 
the ordinary mushroom, and it is the species most commonly sold 
in the autumn in the streets of London and provincial towns. 
According toPersoon, it is preferred in France; and in Hungary 
it is considered as a special gift from St. George. It has acquired 
in England the name of horse mushroom, from the enormous size 
it sometimes attains. Withering mentions a specimen that weighed 
fourteen pounds (Cooke). Occurs in California (Harkness & 
Moore, " California Fungi"). 

A. arvensis, Schoef., var. exquisitus, Vitt. — Said by Mrs. 
Hussey to be esculent, and to possess a resemblance in taste to 
bitter almonds. 



A LIST OF EDIBLE FUNGI. 325 

A. arvensis, Schoef., var. villaticus, Brond., which often forms 
rings in meadows in England, is said by Cooke to be esculent. 

A. atramentarius, Bull. — The 3 T oung specimens are said by Bad- 
ham to form a fine ketchup. 

A. attenuatus, DC. — Classed by Unger as edible. 

A. auratus, Krombh. — Stated by Cordier to be sought as a 
food in middle France. 

A. aureus, Pers. — Classed by Unger as edible. 

A. aurantiacus. — Was known to the Romans under the name of 
Boletus, and as alwa}*s occurring in the chestnut forests of southern 
Europe. It is this species which Nero calls cibus deorum, or food 
of the gods (Unger). 

A. Auricula, DC. — Classed by Unger as edible. 

A. bombycinus, Schoef. — Eaten in Tuscany (Cordier) and is 
enumerated by Curtis as esculent in the United States. 

A. brevipes, Bull. — Stated by Paulet to be esculent and very 
delicate. 

A. Coesareus, Scop. — Called in Germary Kaiserling, and univer- 
sally eaten on the continent of Europe. In the United States it 
grows in great quantities in oak forests, but Dr. Curtis pronounces 
it the most unpalatable of fungi. 

A. ccespitosus, Curt. — Found in the United States in enormous 
quantities, and is reckoned by Dr. Curtis a very fair esculent, bet- 
ter than A. melleus, Fr. 

A. caligatus, Viviani. — Called esculent by Cordier. 

A. candicinus, Badh. — One of the best funguses of southern 
Italy (Badham). It makes the greatest show in the Italian mar- 
ket places (Cooke). 

A. cardarella, Fr., of Europe, is enumerated as edible l>3 r 
Mueller. 

A. castaneus, Bull. — Reported by Berkeley as esculent. 

A. cepazstipes, Weinm. — Called esculent by Cordier. 

A. Columbetta, Fr. — P^numerated b}' Curtis as edible in the 
United States. It is found in Britain, but not eaten (Cooke). 

A. comatus, Badh. — Young specimens used for making ketchup 
(Badham). 

A. consociatus, Curt. — A species confined to the United States, 
and is enumerated by Curtis as edible (Cooke) . 

A. cortinellus, DC. — Edible according to Unger. 

A. cretaceus, Fr. — -In France considered edible, and of excel- 
14 



326 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

lent quality (Cordier) . Said by Curtis to be edible in the United 
States. 

A. cyatJii for mis, Bull. (Syn. A. platyceps, Pers. ; A. tardus, Pers. ; 
A. aureus, Pers.) — Called edible by Cordier. 

A. cylindraceus, DC. — Called esculent by Cordier. 

A. dealbatus, Pers. — Cooke says a dish of 3'oung individuals 
makes a most excellent stew. Marked by Harkness & Moore as 
edible in California. 

A. deliciosus, L. — One of the best agarics. Its flesh is firm, 
juic}', sapid, and nutritious. The milk is red and subsequently 
turns green (Badham). Sowerby says it is very luscious eating. 
James Smith says it is the most delicious mushroom known. 

A. dimidiatus, Bull. (Syn. A. cornucopias, Pers. ; A. inconstans, 
Pers. ; Panus conchatus, Fr.) — Cordier says edible and of agree- 
able savor and odor. 

A. dryinus, Pers. — Called edible by Cordier. 

A. eburneus, Bull. (Syn. Hygrophorus eburneus, Fr.) — Said 
by Cordier to be esculent, and to possess an agreeable odor and 
flavor. It occurs in South Carolina, and is edible (Curtis). 

A. Eryngii, DC, of Europe, is edible (Mueller). 

A. esculentus, Jacq. (Syn. A. perpendicularis, Bull.) — Said by 
Cordier to be esculent, and in spite of its small size to be held in 
esteem in Austria. Eatable, says Berkeley, but not much esteemed, 
on account of its bitter flavor. It is called at Vienna, where large 
baskets appear in the markets in spring, nagelschwamme. The 
smallest of the edible species, say r s Cooke. It occurs in the United 
States. 

A. excoriatus, Schaeff., a pasture mushroom, is excellent 
(Cooke). Occurs in the United States (Curtis; Harkness & 
Moore) . 

A. exquisitus,Badh. (Syn. A. Georgii,With.) — Of ten attains the 
weight of five or six pounds. It is considered less delicate than A, 
campestris in Britain, but looked upon in Hungary as a special gift 
from St. George. Persoon describes it as superior to A. campestris 
in smell, taste, and digestibility, and hence generally preferred in 
France. 

A. exlinctorius, L. — An edible species of Europe. 

A. fossulatus, Cooke. — Found on the Cabul hills, where it is 
collected and dried, and forms an article of commerce with the 
plains (Cooke). 



A LIST OF EDIBLE FUNGI. 327 

A. fragrans, Sow. — This fragrant species, with a sweet, anise- 
like odor, is pronounced edible by Cordier. 

A. frumentaceus, Bull., of the United States, is commended as 
edible by Dr. Curtis. 

A. fas ipes, Bull. (Syn. A. crassipes, Schaeff.), if carefully dried 
can be kept to enrich gravies, says Mrs. Husse} 7 . It cannot be 
commended for a stew on account of its toughness, notwithstand- 
ing the agreeableness of its flavor. Badham says the young 
plants make an excellent pickle, while the full grown ones may be 
stewed. Found esculent in California (Harkness & Moore). 

A. gc>mbosus,Fr. (Syn. A. Gregorii,Ij.) — Esculent, says Cordier, 
and frequently eaten in Scandinavia. Cooke says it is the moucJiercn 
or mousseron of the French, and highly esteemed in France and 
Italy. Guillarmod includes it amongst Swiss esculents. Professor 
Buckman sa}-s it is one of the earliest and best of English mush- 
rooms. 

A. Garridelli, Fr. — Pronounced esculent by Cordier. Its 
odor and flavor are agreeable. 

A. geminus, Paul. — Paulet says this species is very good to eat. 

A. Georgii, L. (Syn. A. graveolens, Sow. ; A. prunulus, Vitt.) — 
Mrs. Hussey says the odor is like newly ground flour; the taste 
agreeable raw, scent extremely powerful when dried, and excellent 
for food. 

A. geotropus, Bull. — This species, especially one of its varieties, 
is considered excellent ; equal to many, and superior to most of our 
edible fungi. It is recognized as esculent in the United States as 
well as on the continent of Europe (Cooke). 

A. giganteus, Schoef. — The scent is slight but agreeable. Escu- 
lent (Mrs. Hussey). 

A. gilvus, Pers. — Called edible b}' Cordier. 

A. gland ulosus, Bull. — Recorded as edible in the United States 
(Cooke). 

A. gracilenlus, Kromb. — Esculent (Cooke). 

A. graveolens, Pers. — Delicate to eat, and is used frequently 
in middle France (Cordier). 

A. griseus, Pers. — Esculent, according to Reveil (Cordier). 

A. gymnopodius, Bull. — Recorded as esculent b} 7 Cordier. 

A. haematochilis, Bull. — Stated by Unger to be esculent. 

A. hariolorum, Bull. — Said by Bulliard to have a very agree- 
able taste, and is nearly without odor. Esculent. 



328 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

A. Jieterophyllus, Fr. — Mrs. Hussey says the taste is mild, like 
pure hog's lard, never acrid ; an extremel} T excellent article of 
food. Badham says it tastes like the crawfish when grilled. 
Vittadini and Roques pronounce it a most excellent species for 
food purposes. 

A. holosericeus, Fr. — Pronounced esculent by Cooke. 

A. hypopithyus, Curt. — Confined to the United States, and 
enumerated by Curtis as esculent. 

A. ilicinus* DC. — Classed by Unger as edible. 

A. illinatus, Fr. — Edible in California (Harkness & Moore) . 

A. incarnatus, Pers. — Called edible by Unger. 

A. infundibuliformis, Bull. — Called edible by Unger. 

A. laccatus, Scop. (Syn. A. amethysteus, Bull.) — Called edible 
by Cordier, but the stalks are rejected as being too leathery. 

A. lacrymabundus, Cooke. — This doubtful species is used by 
the smaller ketchup manufacturers in Britain (Cooke). 

A. leiocephalus, DC. — The flesh of this esculent species is firm, 
and the odor agreeable (Cordier) . 

A. leochromus, Cooke. — Certainly wholesome (Cooke). 

A. lepidus, Fr. (Syn. Russula lepida, Fr.) — Flesh extremelj* firm, 
crisp, and brittle, perfectly mild, esculent, and excellent (Mrs. 
Hussey) . 

A. longepis. Bull. — Called edible by Harkness & Moore. 

A. marzuolus, Fr. — An European species; edible (Mueller). 

A. mastokleus, Fr. — Esculent (Cooke). Occurs in the United 
States (Curtis). 

A. maximus, Fr., of the United States, is pronounced esculent 
by Cooke. It is figured by Sowerby under the name of A. 
giganteus. 

A. melleus, Vahl. — A species common on rotten stumps in Eng- 
land, but it is very acrid, and would not be an acceptable article 
of food in England even if free from danger (Berkele}). One of 
the commonest of all edible fungi in the public markets of Vienna, 
where it is called hallimascJie. Esculent but not commendable 
(Cooke). Catalogued as edible by Curtis, of North Carolina, and 
Harkness & Moore, of California. 

A. mouceron, Bull. (S3 T n. A. prunidus, Vitt.) — Classed as edible 
by Unger. 

A. mucidus, Schrad. — Esculent according to Chevalier (Cordier). 

A. muscarius, Cooke. — Many instances have been recorded of 



A LIST OF EDIBLE FUNGI. 329 

poisoning by this fungus, yet it cannot be doubted that it is eaten 
in Russia. It is supposed that the poisonous quality is removed 
by the mode of cooking, salt and vinegar being used, and long 
boiling (Cooke). 

A. mutabilis, Schoef . (Syn. A. marginatus, Batsch. ; A. candici- 
nus, Pers. ; A. annularius. Bull. pi. 543, O. P.) — (A. annularius, 
Bull. pi. 377 is poisonous.) — Mrs. Hussey says it is esculent, and 
its flavor peculiar, resembling gingerbread. Called esculent by 
Cooke. Catalogued as esculent in the United States (Curtis ; 
Harkness & Moore) . 

A. nebularis, Batsch. (Syn. A. jiileolarius, Hull. ; A. canalicalatus, 
Schurm. ; A. turgidus, Grev. ; A. caseus, With.) — Mrs. Husse} T 
says this is extremely tender and digestible when carefully cooked. 
Persoon recommends it as ver} T agreeable in flavor. All who have 
tried this fungus, says Cooke, agree that it is of a most delicate 
flavor, and easy of digestion. Badham says the odor is strong, 
like that of curd cheese, and the taste is grateful. Called esculent 
in the United States (Curtis) . 

A. nudus, Bull. — Cordier says esculent ; very good and delicate ; 
feeble odor, agreeable flavor. 

A. odorus, Bull. — Cooke saj's this species has the reputation of 
supplying a rather delicate, even exquisite, dish. It does not 
appear to be eaten on the continent of Europe, and Roques con- 
siders its alimentary qualities as doubtful. Classed as edible b}- 
Mueller. Catalogued as edible by Harkness & Moore for Cali- 
fornia. 

A. Oniscus, Fr. — Occurs in California, and is called edible by 
Harkness & Moore. 

A. Orcellus, Bull. (Syn. A. pallidus, Sow.) — Odor of fresh meal 
and cucumbers, esculent and excellent (Mrs. Hussey). A very 
delicate mushroom. It has the peculiar smell of a cucumber rind 
or syringa leaf (Badham). 

A. oreades, Bolt. — A little buff fungus of excellent flavor, 
which when dried may be kept for years. It is called Scotch bon- 
nets. It is famous for the flavor it imparts to rich soups and 
gravies. It is much used in a dried state in France and Italy. 
(Badham) . 

A. ostreatus, Jacq. — So universally eaten that it is included in 
almost every list and book on edible fungi. It is the most com- 
mon species in Transylvania, tons of it sometimes appearing in 



330 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the markets. It does not possess that delicate flavor which is 
found in many species, and although extolled by some beyond its 
merits, it is nevertheless perfectly wholesome, and, when }'oung 
and carefully cooked, not to be despised (Cooke). It is found 
growing on the poplar and willow (Vittadini), apple and laburnum 
(Berkeley), elm and ash (Badham). It occurs in -the United 
States and is listed as esculent. 

A. ovinus, Bull. — Edible according to Unger. 

A. ovoideus, DC. — Classed b} T Unger as edible. 

A. palomet, Thore. (S.yn. A. virens, Scop.) — Called edible by 
Unger. 

A. personatus, Fr. (Syn. A. b icolor, Pers.) — Flesh very thick, 
solid, but not tough, mottled ; flavor pleasant with a slight earthi- 
ness, resembling beet-root; esculent (Mrs. Hussey). Sold under 
the name of Blewitts in Covent Garden market, London. When 
not water-soaked it is a fine r firm fungus with a flavor of veal 
(Badham) . 

A. petaloides, Bull. — Called edible by Cordier. 

A. pileolarius, Sow. — Flesh white, moderately thick in the cen- 
tre ; flavor and smell agreeable : esculent (Mrs. Hussey). 

A. piperalus. Scop. — Though very acrid when raw, it loses its 
bad qualities entirely by cooking, and is extensively used on the 
continent of Europe, prepared in various ways (Badham). 

A. pometi, Fr. — Recorded as edible in the United States (Hark- 
ness & Moore). 

A. praecox, Pers. — According to Lenz and Schaeffer, esculent. 

A. prcestans, Cord. — Called edible by Cordier. 

A. pratensis, Schaeff. — Edible in California (Harkness & 
Moore) . 

A. procerus, Scop. — -The parasolsclnvam of the Germans, the 
columelle of the French, the rubbola maggiore of the Italians, the 
cogomeles of the Spaniards. One of the most delicate funguses of 
England (Badham) and sold in Covent Garden market (Berkeley). 
In Italy and France it is in high request. In Austria, Germany, 
and Spain is eaten. Occurs in Pennsylvania (Cooke) and Cali- 
fornia (Harkness & Moore). 

A.prunulus, Fr. (S}m. A. Sowerbeii, Kromb.) — Flesh white ; odor 
agreeably of flour ; esculent (Mrs. Hussey). A. prunulus, Vitt., 
(Syn. A. mouceron, Bull.) is said by Badham to be the most 
savory fungus with which he is acquainted. Balbi calls it a rare 
and most delicious agaric, and says it is eaten fresh. 



A LIST OF EDIBLE FUNGI. 331 

A. pudicus, Bull. — Esculent, says Berkeley. Certainly whole- 
some, says Cooke. 

A. rachodes, Vitt., in a youthful state is excellent eaten in sub- 
stance ; when old, and in texture like chamois leather, the ketchup 
it affords is scanty in quantity but super-excellent in quality (Mrs. 
Husse\ T ). It may be eaten (Cooke). Catalogued for the United 
States by Curtis, and by Harkness & Moore. 

A. radicatus, Bull. — Enumerated as edible in the United States 
(Cooke) . 

A. rhodopolius, Fr. — Esculent according to Paulet. 

A. ruber, Schoef . (S\"n. A. griseus, Pers.) — The colomba rossa of 
the Tuscans, and delicate and light of digestion (Badham). 

A. rubescens, Pers. (Syn. A. verrucosus, Bull.) — Cordier says it is 
largely consumed in Lorraine, being very delicate. Roques speaks 
equally well of it. Dr. Curtis enumerates it as edible in the 
United States. 

A. Russula, Schaefr*. — Cordier saj-s it is used for food in Austria. 
It is enumerated by Curtis as edible for the United States. 

A. solignus, Fr. — Rare in England, but not uncommon on the 
continent of Europe and in the United States. In Austria it is 
commonly eaten (Cooke). 

A. sambuciensis, Cord. — Classed as edible by Unger. 

A. sapidus, Poir. — Called edible by Unger. 

A. scorodonius, Fr. — Said by Cordier to be edible, and in fre- 
quent use in Lusace, France. 

A. scruposus, Fr., has the odor of fresh meal, is of an agree- 
able taste and flavor, and is esculent (Cordier) . 

A. silvaticus, Schaeff. — Called edible in California (Harkness 
& Moore) . 

A. socialis, DC, has a good reputation in the Lower Pyrenees, 
but they eat the head, and not the stalk, which is leather}- (Cordier). 

A. solitarius, Bull. — Cordier says the flesh is white and of ex- 
quisite taste. • 

A. spadiceus, Cooke. — This doubtful species is used by the 
smaller ketchup manufacturers in Britain (Cooke) . 

A. speciosus, Fr. — Enumerated by Curtis as esculent in the 
United States. 

A. spectabilis, Fr. — Esculent, according to.Letellier (Cordier). 

A. splendens, Pers. — An edible European species (Mueller). 

A. squarrosus, Muel. — Enumerated as esculent for the United 



332 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

States by Curtis, and has been found to be wholesome in Britain 
(Cooke) . 

A. strobiUformis, Fr. — Esculent (Berkelej 7 ; Cooke) . United 
States (Curtis). 

A. subdulcis, Pers. — Edible (Unger). 

A. subocreatus, Cooke. — Sent, as is believed, from China to 
Singapore to be eaten (Cooke) . 

A. tessulatus, Bull. — Recorded as edible in the United States 
(Cooke). 

A. tigrinus, Bull. (Syn. Lentinus tigrinus, Fr. ; A. Dunalii, 
DC.) — Said by Cordier to be edible, and of agreeable taste and odor. 

A. tortilis, Bull. — Called edible by Unger. 

A. translucens, DC. — Called edible b} 7 Cordier. 

A. ulmarius, Bull. — Found on the elm, the poplar, and the beech. 
Its taste and smell are agreeable (Badham) . Is common not only 
in Britain, but also in North America, and is by some preferred to 
A. ostreatus. Although perfectly wholesome, there is not much 
flavor in it (Cooke). Edible ; its flesh firm, compact, of an agree- 
able odor and savor (Cordier). 

A. vaginatus, Bull. — Badham says it will be found inferior 
to but few agarics in flavor. Cordier calls it a delicate food. 

A. violaceus, L. — Badham says a handsome fungus and edible. 

A. virescens, Schoef . -— The flesh is sweet and agreeable to 
the taste like a hazel nut (Kromb.). Its odor is very agreeable 
without being penetrating ; its flavor is exquisite when cooked 
(Persoon) . Eaten raw the flavor is sweet and pleasant, like a fresh 
hazel nut (Corda). Syn. A. bifidus, Bull. ; Russula eruginosa, 
Pers. An exceedingly delicate fungus. It is eaten in Italy, and 
said to be eaten in France and England (Badham). 

A. virginevs, Jacq. — Cordier says of an agreeable taste and 
feeble odor, eatable. Badham says A. virgineus, Wulf, is a 
small fungus of pleasant taste and disagreeable odor. 

A. volemum, Fr. — Very delicious even when eaten raw, and 
celebrated from early times (Vries) . 

Boletus. 

Boletus eclidis, Berk. — This fungus, says Berkele}% is considered 
by most people an excellent article of food, and has sometimes been 
cultivated artificially in its native woods. It is a native of Europe, 
and is catalogued for North Carolina by Dr. Curtis, and for California 



A LIST OF EDIBLE FUNGI. 333 

by Harkness & Moore. Badham says its tender and juicy flesh, and 
its delicate and sapid flavor, render it equally acceptable to the plain 
and the accomplished cook. It may be truly said to improve every 
dish of which it is a constituent. This is believed, saj-s Cooke, 
to be the suillus eaten by the ancient Romans, who obtained it 
from Bithynia. This species is common in England, but as a rule 
does not seem to please the English palate. In Vienna and 
Hanover, cut into thin slices and dried, it is exposed for sale in 
every market. In Lorraine it is eaten under the name of Polish 
mushrooms. In the department of Gironde, in France, great 
quantities are preserved and sent annually to the Parisian markets, 
strung on thread and dried, as they are in Russia. 

Large quantities of mushrooms are consumed throughout the 
world, but their general use we give under Agaricus. There are 
many species of Boletus which serve or ma} r serve as food, col- 
lected in their wild state. In Australia the natives of Swan River 
Colon} 7 eat several species ; two of the principal the} 7 call numar 
and woorda, and the latter Drummond thinks might be advantage- 
ously substituted in cultivation for the common mushroom, as it 
has the same flavor, and is much easier of digestion. 

Among edible species are : — 

B. cereus, Bull. — In Europe, edible according to Cordier. 

B. aestivalis, Fr. (Syn. Tubiporus aestivalis, Paulet ; B. cepa, 
Thou.) — This, according to Paulet, is among the most fragrant and 
delicious, as assuredly it is among the largest of the Boletus tribe 
(Mrs. Hussey) . The flesh is firm, of a- milky flavor when raw, 
and it is a more excellent species than B. edulis. It occurs in 
woodland pastures in Europe. 

B. aurantiacus, Bull. — Said by Cordier to be edible. 

B. badius, Fr. — Called edible by Cordier. 

B. bovinus, Fr. — A fungus of heathery fir woods. It occurs in 
Europe, in the Carolinas (Curtis), and in California (Harkness & 
Moore) . Cooke saj-s the taste and smell is sweetish and agree- 
able. Krombholz, that it is much sought after in Europe as a 
dish, and is good when dried. 

B. carinthiacus, Jacq. — Classed b} T linger as edible. 

B. castayieus, Fr. — Eaten in Europe, but Cooke sa} T s is of 
inferior flavor. It has a mild, pleasant taste when raw. Credited 
by Curtis to the Carolinas. 

B. chrysenteron, Fr. — This species is said to afford very poor 



334 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

eating, and some authors consider it injurious, but persons have 
been known to have eaten it (Cooke). 

B. collinitus, Cooke. — Dr. Curtis of Carolina recognizes it as 
esculent, and adds that it has been pronounced delicious by some 
to whom he has sent it. 

B. elegans, Fr. (Syn. B. luteus, Kromb. ; B. Jlavus, Bolton, 
With., Fr. ; B. Grevillei, Grev., Berk.) — Mrs. Hussey says the taste 
is pleasant. Corda calls it u excellent diet." Cordier says edible, 
but not delicate, the yellow flesh having feeble savor and fungus 
odor. Badham remarks that he has eaten it. Curtis catalogues 
it for North Carolina. It also occurs in California. 

B. flavidus, Fr. — Stated to be edible by Curtis,, of North 
Carolina. 

B. fragrans, Vitt. — Found in woods under oaks. Cooke pro- 
nounces it esculent. 

B. granulatus, L. — Eaten on the continent of Europe (Cooke), 
and has been eaten by Curtis in North Carolina. 

B. hepaticus, DC. — Said by Unger to be edible. 

B. impolitus, Fr. — Called esculent b} r Cooke. 

B. kuruma, Sieb., of Japan, is called Jcuruma by the Ainos, 
and is edible. Siebold enumerates it as growing on Quercus beroni 
at Yeso. 

B. lecuomelas, Fr. — Called edible by Curtis, in North Caro- 
lina. 

B. luridus, Berk. — A suspicious species, but it has been known 
to have been eaten with impunity. Cooke says he should be sorry 
to repeat the experiment. 

B. moschocaryanus, Rumph. — Eaten as a delicacy on the Bunda 
Islands (Unger). 

B. Obsonium, Paul., a mushroom found in the woods in the 
South of France, is a good food (Cordier). 

B. ovinus, Sch. — Called edible by Curtis of North Carolina. 

B. Romano, Ottav. — Eaten in Rome (Badham). 

B. saguarius, Rumph. — Eaten on the Bunda Islands as a delicacy 
(Unger) . 

B. seaber, Fr. — Common in Britain and on the continent of 
Europe. It presents two forms. The odor is slight, the taste 
subacid. It has an agreeable flavor when cooked. When dried 
it loses all odor, and is then insipid and unfit for food (Badham). 
A fresh specimen, says Mrs. Hussey, selected before the tubes 



A LIST OF EDIBLE FUNGI. 335 

have changed color, will be found very agreeable boiled. Is eaten 
in France when young, sa3's Cordier. Much inferior to B. edulis, 
says Cooke. Eaten by Curtis in North Carolina. Is found also 
in California. 

B. subtomentosus, Fr. — Said to be ver} T poor eating, and some 
authors have considered it injurious. Cordier says it is edible ; 
Trattirineck, that it is eaten in Germany. Curtis catalogues it as 
edible in North Carolina. 

B. versipellis, Fr. — Classed as edible by Curtis for North 
Carolina, and by Harkness & Moore for California. 

Bo VIST A. 

More then one species of this fungus appear in the bazaars of 
India, as at Secunderabad and Rangoon (Cooke) , and one species 
is commonly sold in the bazaars of the Deccan and Burma 
(Berkele}'). They are commonly known as puff-balls, and are 
common in our fields, pastures, and woods. 

Bovista nigrescens, Fr. — Said lry Berkeley to be eatable when 
young, but apt to have an unpleasant taste when old. Cooke says 
it is eaten in the United States. 

B. plumbea, Fr. — Easily known by its leaden hue when dry. 
Cooke says it is eaten in the United States, and is stated to furnish 
a very palatable dish. Cordier gives as synonyms, Lycoperdon 
plumbeum, Vitt., and L. ardosiacum, Bull., and says it is edible. 

Clavaria. 

Many of this genus of fungi afford excellent articles of food, 
but they are not much used in England, probably from the scarce- 
ness of the larger species (Berkeley). In the United States a 
large number are catalogued by Curtis as edible. 

Clavaria ametJiystina, Bull., on the continent of Europe is pre- 
ferred by some to all the other species, and is said to possess a 
very fine flavor (Cooke). Badham says simply, an edible fungus. 
Cordier says edible, and of a fine taste. 

C. aurea, Schaeff. — Said by Cordier to be excellent eating. It 
is enumerated by Curtis as edible in the United States. 

C. botrytis, Pers. — Edible and in common use in Carinthia 
according to Cordier. Cooke says common in the Vosges. Curtis 
mentions it as edible in the United States. 



336 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

C. cinerea, Bull. — Called in France pied de coq, gallinole, etc. 
In Italy ditola rosea, and in both these countries it is eaten 
(Cooke). Badham calls it an esculent species. Cordier says eat- 
able, but injurious if eaten in quantity. 

C. coralloides, L. (Syn. C. alba, Pers.) — Said by Cordier to be 
edible. Cooke says much esteemed in Germany, Italy, Switzer- 
land, etc. Badham says of most excellent edible quality. 

C. crispa, Jacq. (Syn. Sparassis crispa, Fr.) — Said by Cordier 
to be eaten in Alsace. — Said by Cooke to be very large, re- 
sembling in size, and somewhat in appearance, a cauliflower. In 
Austria it is fricasseed with butter and herbs, and is excellent eat- 
ing. Catalogued by Curtis as edible in the United States. 

C. cristata, Pers. — Catalogued as edible in the United States 
by Curtis, and by Harkness & Moore. ■ 

C. fastigiata, L. (Syn. C. pratensis, Pers.) — Called edible by 
Cordier. Is also mentioned for California by Harkness & Moore. 
In Germany it is eaten under the name of ziegenbart (goat's beard) , 
according to Roques. C. fastigiata, DC, is found in the Caro- 
linas, and is called edible by Curtis. 

O.Jlava, Pers. (Syn. C. coralloides, Bull.) — Said by Cordier to 
be excellent to eat, and much sought for in Germany. Curtis says 
edible in the United States, and Harkness & Moore class C. flava, 
SchaefT., as edible in California. 

C. formosa, Pers. — Cordier says its white flesh is edible, and of 
a delicate taste. It is catalogued as edible for the United States by 
Curtis. 

C. (Sparassis) laminosa, Fr. — Said by Cordier to be edible 
and of excellent taste. Is listed by Curtis as edible in the United 
States. 

O. macropus, Curt. — Edible in the United States (Curtis) . 

C. muscoides, Curt., of the United States, edible (Curtis). 

C. pistillaris, L. — Eaten in Poland, Russia, and Germany 
(Cordier). 

C. pyxidata, Curtis. — Edible in the United States (Curtis). 

C. rubella, SchaerT. — Edible, according to Unger. 

C. rufescens, Berk. — Sold in Hanover, where it is esteemed 
(Berkeley) . 

C. rugosa, Bull. — A common British species, also found in the 
United States. Edible (Cooke). Badham says an esculent species. 
It is however too small to repay collecting. 



A LIST OF EDIBLE FUNGI. 337 

C. stricta, Pers. — Edible, as linger states. 

C. subtilis, Curt. — Edible in the United States (Curtis). 

C. tetragona, Curt. — :Edible, according to Curtis, in the United 
States. 

C. uliginea, Curt. — Edible in the United States (Curtis). 

C. vermicularis, Berk. — Said by Berkeley to be extremely 
delicate when dressed. 

C. vermiculata, Scop. — Called edible b} ? Cordier. 

Ckateeellus. 

Craterellus clavatus, Fr. (Syn. Gomphus truncatus, Pers.) — A 
fungus classed by Cordier as edible. 

C. cornucopioides, Pers. (Syn. Peziza comucopioides, L.) — 
Stated by Cordier to be edible. 

Cyttaria. 

Cyttaria Berteroi, Berk. — Was seen by Darwin in Chili, and is 
eaten occasionally, but apparently not so good as C. Darwinil 
(Cooke). 

C. Darwiniij Berk. — A globular bright yellow fungus of Terra 
del Fuego, found growing in vast numbers on the birch trees, and 
in its tough and mature state collected by the women and children 
to be eaten uncooked. It has a mucilaginous, slightly sweet taste, 
with a faint smell like that of mushrooms. With the exception of 
a few berries, chiefly of a dwarf arbutus, the natives eat no vege- 
table food besides this fungus (Darwin). 

0. Gunnii, Berk. — Abounds in Tasmania, and is held in repute 
amongst the settlers for its esculent properties (Cooke) . 

Helvella. 

Some few species of this genus of fungi are recorded as eaten. 

Helvella Calif ornica, H. & M. — Catalogued for California as 
edible by Harkness & Moore. 

H. crispa, Fr. (Syn. H. leucophwa, Pers. ; H. Mitra, Bull.) — 
Said by Cordier to be edible. Berkeley says esculent, and when 
well stewed forming an acceptable dish. Cooke says equal to the 
morel in taste. Badham says of an agreeable odor, and of a 
general resemblance to the morel in taste. Occurs in California, 
according to Harkness & Moore, and edible. 



338 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

H. elastica, Bull. — Called edible by Unger. Cordier says 
esculent, but of too small a size to be much sought after. 

H. esculenta, Pers. (Syn. Gyromitra esculenta, Fr.) — Said by 
Badham to be esculent, and of agreeable odor. Berkeley says it 
is much eaten on the continent, but in some conditions appears to 
be dangerous. Harkness & Moore catalogue it as edible in Cali- 
fornia. 

H. gelatinosa, Bull. (Syn. Leotia lubrica, Pers.) — Said by Cor- 
dier to be eatable, but of small size. • 

II grandis, Cumino. — Eaten in France (Cordier) . 

H. wfula, Fr. — A large species, not British, but extends to 
North America. Edible (Cooke). 

H. lacnnosa, Afz. — Cordier says eaten in Provence and in Pied- 
mont. Berkeley says when well stewed an acceptable dish. Bad- 
ham classes it as inferior to H. crispa, but esculent. Cooke says 
an excellent substitute for the morel, and occurs in Carolina. 

H. Monacliella, Fr. — Called edible b}^ Unger. 

H. ramosa, Schaeff. — Classed as edible b} T Unger. 

H. sulcata, Afz. (Syn. Gyromitra esculenta, Fr.) — Said by 
Cooke to be rarely found in Britain, but more common on the con- 
tinent, where it is held in esteem. 

Hydnum. 

The species furnish, says Unger, only an unpalatable nutriment. 
'Quite a large number are, however, mentioned as edible, and some 
are greatly praised by experts. 

Hydnum Auriscalpium, L. — One of the most elegant fungi of 
Britain, not uncommon on fir cones (Berkeley). Cordier says it is 
eaten in Gascony and Tuscany, but is a food little worthy of being 
sought for. 

H. caput- Medusas, Bull. — Occurs on trunks of trees. It is com- 
mon in Italy, and in parts of Austria, where it is reckoned among 
the edible species (Cooke). Cordier says frequently eaten in Iialy, 
and of agreeable odor and savor. It occurs in the United States 
(Cooke) . 

H. coralloides, Scop. — Occurs on deca3~ed forest trees. Cordier 
gives as a synon} T m, H. ramosum, Bull., and calls it a delicate 
food. It occurs in Germany, Switzerland, and France, and is 
esteemed esculent (Cooke). In California it grows on oaks, and 



A LIST OF EDIBLE FUNGI. 339 

looks like a large white mass of coral, and when 3'oung may be 
safely eaten (Moore) . 

H. Erinaceum, Bull. — Eaten in Germany and France (Cooke). 

H. imbricatum, L. (Syn. H. cervinum, Pers.) — Called edible 
by Cordier. Mueller says it is a wholesome mushroom of delicious 
taste. Cooke says it is eaten in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, 
France, and elsewhere. It occurs on the ground in pine woods in 
Carolina, and is esculent. 

H. wfundibulum, Swartz. (Syn. H. fusipes, Pers.) — Classed 
as edible b}' Cordier. 

H. Icevigatum, Swartz. — Eaten in Alpine districts (Cooke). 
It is called edible in the United States by Curtis. 

H. repandtim, L. — Affords, says Berkeley, an excellent article 
of food if carefully dressed, and is scarcely exceeded in delicacy 
by any fungus. The general use made of this fungus throughout 
France, Italy, and German}', leaves no doubt, says Roques, of its 
good qualities. Known in France as eurcJion, rignoche, and arres- 
teron. In the Vosges as borbe de vache and pied de mouton. The 
flesh is firm and white, rather hot to the taste when raw, but mild 
when cooked (Cooke). The smell like that of horseradish (Bad- 
ham) . Cordier says edible, and in common use in France. Occurs 
in California, and Moore says that stewed slowly it is excellent. 

H. rufescens, Schaeff. — Called edible by Cordier. Mentioned 
by Curtis as one of the edible species of the United States. 

H. subsquamosum, Batsch. (Syn. H. badium, Pers., H. squa- 
mosum, Bull.) — Called edible by Cordier. Mentioned, also, as 
edible, by Curtis, in the United States. 

H. violaceus, Alb. et Schw. — Said by Cordier to be edible, yet 
little sought for food, notwithstanding its taste and agreeable odor. 

Hygrophorus. 

Few, if any, says Berkeley, are admitted to English kitchens, 
though no doubt some are wholesome. 

Hygrophorus chrysodon, Curtis. — Enumerated for the United 
States as esculent b}^ Curtis. 

H. niveus, Fr. — Common in mossy pastures in England. When 
found large enough, may be eaten, says Cooke. 

H. pratensis, Fr. — Perfectly wholesome, and is sometimes 
eaten in France, Germany, Bohemia, and Denmark (Cooke). It 



340 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

is included among the esculent species of the United States by 
Curtis. 

H. virgineus, Fr., though small, is well worth the trouble of 
collecting. Except that it is occasionally eaten in France, it does 
not enjoy much reputation abroad (Cooke) . 

Lactarius. 

The species of this genus are often exceedingly acrid and dan- 
gerous, yet this class of fungi seem to be eaten almost indiscrimi- 
nately in Russia, when preserved in vinegar and salt, in which 
condition they form an important item in the kinds of food allowed 
in their long fasts. One or two species have been found in the 
Himalayas, but Europe and North America appear to be their 
principal habitat. 

Lactarius angustissimus, Lasch. — Esculent in the United States, 
according to Curtis. 

L. deliciosus, Fr. — Found in the markets of Paris, Berlin, 
Prague, and Vienna, and is esteemed in nearly all the countries of 
Europe (Cooke). L. deliciosus, L., is credited as esculent in 
California by Harkness & Moore. 

L. insularis, Fr. — Esculent in the United States, according to 
Curtis and Harkness .& Moore. It is not reputed edible in 
Britain (Cooke). 

L. piperatus, Fr. — Classed in England with dangerous, some- 
times poisonous, species ; but Curtis says it is cooked and eaten in 
the United States. Harkness & Moore list it as edible in Califor- 
nia. 

L. subdulcis, Fr. — Esculent in the United States, according to 
Curtis, but not reported as edible in Britain (Cooke). 

L. volemus, Fr. — An esculent species, celebrated from early 
times, and is said to resemble lamb's kidne}-. Berkeley says it is 
mild, and forms an excellent article of food. Called esculent in 
Sou^h Carolina by Curtis, and in California by Harkness & Moore. 

Lycoperdon. 
The species are produced abundantly in almost every country, 
but are so variable that it is often very difficult to distinguish them 
(Berkeley). Badham says all those more or less spherical white 
funguses with a membranaceous covering, and filled when young 
with a white, compact, homogeneous pulp, which we call puff-balls. 



A LIST OF EDIBLE FUNGI. 341 

are good to eat, and are to be compared to sweetbreads for the rich 
delicac}' of their unassisted flavor. More than one species appear 
in the bazaars of India, as at Secunderabad and Rangoon (Cooke). 

Lycoperdon ardosiacum, Bull. (Syn. Bovista plumbea, Pers.) — 
Given by Cordier as edible. 

L. Bovista, L. — Badham says no fungus requires to be eaten so 
soon after gathering as this ; a few hours will destroy the compact- 
ness of the flesh, and change the color. Berkeley says that when 
quite young, it is one of the best of fungi, if cut in slices and fried. 

L. giganteum, Fr. — This puff-ball is, when w^ell manipulated, an 
excellent addition to the breakfast table. It is especially esteemed 
in Italy (Cooke). L. giganteum, Batsch, is classed among the 
edible fungi of California b} T Harkness & Moore. 

Marasmius. 

Marasmius oreades, Fr., the Fairy-ring champignon, enjoys, 
says Cooke, a good reputation, but local. Though small, it is one 
of the most delicious of edible fungi (Cooke). Berkeley says one 
of our very best edible fungi. It is pronounced esculent by Curtis 
in Carolina, arcl in California by Harkness & Moore. 

M. scorodonius, Fr. — Consumed in German}', Austria, and 
other countries of the continent of Europe, where, perhaps, its 
garlic odor has been one of its recommendations as an ingredient 
in sauces. It is called, in German}', lauchschicamme and hagyma 
gomba (Cooke). It is enumerated for South Carolina by Curtis. 

MORCHELLA. 

The morels occur in various parts of the world, but the greater 
part of those used in Britain come from Germany. In Cashmere 
a large quantity is collected. They are much used by cooks to 
flavor gravies, and dressed in various wa} T s make an excellent dish. 

Morchella bohemica. Kromb. — Eaten in Bohemia (Cooke). 

M. Caroliniana, Bosc, of the Southern United States, is 
edible (Cooke). 

M. conica, Pers. — Eaten, according to Unger. It occurs in 
California (Harkness & Moore). 

M. costata, Pers. — Less esteemed than the edible morel, but 
alimentary, and found in Italy (Cordier) . 

M. crassipes, Pers., the gigantic morel, is esculent (Cooke). 

M. deliciosa, Fr. — Eaten in Java, and in Cashmere (Cooke). 
15 



342 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



• 



M. esculenta, Pers. — The common morel. Every one knows 
the morel, .says Baclham, that expensive luxury which the rich are 
content to procure at great cost from the Italian warehouses, and 
the poor are fain to do without. It is held in very high estimation 
in Britain, says M'Intosli, but is little cared for in the Roman mar- 
kets. Berkeley says the greater part of the English supply comes 
from Germany. It is found, according to Curtis, in South Caro- 
lina ; and in California, according to Harkness & Moore. 

M. gigaspora, Cooke. — Eaten in Cashmere (Cooke). 

M. rimosipes, DC. — Occurs in France and Bohemia, and is escu- 
lent (Cooke). 

M. semi-libera, DC. — Esteemed in France, Italy, Germany, 
England, etc., says Cooke. Badham says it is much less sapid 
than the morel, but esculent. Berkeley says it has a bad reputa- 
tion, and requires some caution in its- use. 

Mylitta. 

In the Neilgherries, South India, a substance is occasionally 
found which is allied to the " native bread" of southern latitudes. It 
is found at an elevation of 5,000 feet. The natives call it w ' a 
little man's bread," in allusion to the tradition that the Neilgherries 
were once peopled by a race of dwarfs. It is an underground 
fungus, of the genus Mylitta. Mr. Scott saj's it seems very closely 
allied to, if really distinct from, the so called native bread of 
Tasmania (Cooke). 

Mylitta australis, Berk., the native bread of Australia, is a 
large, subglobose fungus, sometimes many inches in diameter, with 
a black skin which chips off in little fragments, enclosing a veined 
white mass which at first is soft, and has a peculiar acid smell, but 
when dry becomes extremely hard and horny. It is eaten by the 
natives (Berkeley). 

Pachyma. 

Pachy ma Cocos Fr. (Syn. Lycoperclon solidum, Gron.) — The 
Tuckahoe. This curious production, although often included with 
fungi, is not a fungus, as is proved by the examinations made by 
Berkeley. It is eaten in the United States, and, as it consists 
almost entirely of pectic acid, it is sometimes used for making 
jelly (Cooke). It is a large, hard-crusted fungus, says Pickering, 
growing underground in sandy pine barrens along the alluvial 



A LIST OF EDIBLE FUNGI. 343 

Atlantic border of North America. It was eaten from early times 
by the Seminoles. It is mentioned by Fontaneda : the okeepenauk, 
a round root as large as a man's head found by Hariot, eaten 
raw by the natives on the Roanoke, may also be compared. The 
tockowhougJi, of the natives on James River, is enumerated by 
Strachey, and described bj* Schweinitz as observed by him in Caro- 
lina, and is known to grow as far North as 40° in peninsular New 
Jersey. 

Sprigley, in 1669, mentions it in Virginia as eaten by the 
natives, under the name of tuckaho, and of late years it is men- 
tioned as occurring in Kansas and Arkansas. Hanbtiry says it is 
called Fuli-ling in China, and made into edible cakes which are 
frequently sold in the streets. 

P. Hoeln, Fr. — A truffle which Mueller says occurs in China, 
particularly in the province of Souchong, and its flavor is most 
agreeable. 

Paxillus. 

Paxillus giganteus, Fr. — Catalogued as edible in California by 
Harkness & Moore. 

P. iuvolutus, Fr., though very common in P^urope, is not eaten, 
yet it is included by Dr. Curtis with the esculent species of the 
United States (Cooke). 

Peziza. 

Peziza Acetabulum, L. — Said by Badham to be an utterly 
insipid fungus, depending entirely for flavor upon the sauce in 
which it is served. It is called esculent by Corclier and Cooke, 
and is found in Carolina. 

P. auranlia, CEd. (Syn. P. coccinea, Bull.) — Classed as eat- 
able by Cordier. 

P. badia, Pers. — Called eatable by Cordier. 

P. cochleata, L. — Eaten in the north of France (Cordier) . 
P. cochleata, Huds., is gathered in Northamptonshire, England, as 
a substitute for morels (Cooke). 

P. leporina, Batsch. — Eaten in France (Cordier) . 

P. macropus, Pers. (Syn. P. stipata, Bull.) — Eaten by the poor 
in France (Cordier) . 

P. onotica, Pers., a species of remarkable beauty, is eatable 
(Cordier) . 



344 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

P. venosa, Pers. — Has a nitrous odor and fungoid flavor, but is 
edible (Cooke). 

P. vesiculosa, Bull. — Edible. Its savor is feeble and agreeable 
(Cordier). 

Phallus. 

Phallus mokersin, Berk. — In China the volva is eaten (Berkeley) . 

POLYPORUS. 

The species vary much in point of substance, a few being so 
soft as to be esculent, and others hard and woody or corky. 

Polyporus Berkeleii, Fr. — Intensely pungent when raw, but 
when young and before the pores are visible, it may be eaten with 
safety, all its pungency being dissipated by cooking. It occurs in 
the United States (Cooke) . 

P. conjiuens, Fr. (Syn. P. artemidorus, Lenz.) — Eaten about 
Nice. Its flesh, says Cordier, is pale ; its savor a little sharp. 
In the United States Dr. Curtis considers it superior eating. 

P. corylinus, Mauri. — Grows upon the old trunk of the cob-nut 
tree. It is excellent for food, and is cultivated artificially, the 
corylus logs being sold in the Roman markets, and then being 
watered and put by in a cellar (Badham). 

P. cristatus, Fr. — Enumerated by Curtis as edible in the 
United States. 

P. frondosus, Schrank. — Recommended highly as food by 
Paulet. The people of the Vosges eat it, and it is sold in the 
Roman markets. Vittadini has not included it among the esculent 
fungi in his work, and Persoon does not recommend it on account 
of its toughness. 

P. fuligineus, Fr. (Syn. Boletus polyporus, Bull.) — Called edible 
by Cordier. 

P. giganteus, Fr. — Very large and leathery when old, esculent 
when young. On the continent of Europe its esculent qualities 
are known and appreciated (Cooke). Occurs also in Carolina, 
and termed esculent by Curtis. 

P. intybaceus, Fr. (S\'n. P. frondosus, "Berk.) — No fungus, says 
Mrs. Hussey, is more esteemed as an article of food than this. 
Eaten raw, the taste is very agreeable, but it leaves a slight astrin- 
gency upon the palate. Cooke says it sometimes attains the 
weight of forty pounds, and is esculent when young and all agree 
that it is excellent. 



A LIST OF EDIBLE FUNGI. 345 

P. leucomelas, Curt. — In the United States called edible by 
Curtis. 

P. ovinus, Berk. — Said by Berkeley to afford a grateful food. 
It is enumerated by Curtis as esculent in the United States. 

P. poripes, Fr. — When raw, tastes like the best chestnut or fil- 
bert, but is rather too dry when cooked, says Curtis. Is found in 
the United States. 

P. squamosus, Fr. — The edible qualities cannot be declared first 
rate. Mrs. Husse}^ sa3^s one might as well think of eating saddle- 
flaps. Young specimens, before they have acquired the leathery 
consistency, would serve for an occasional meal. In this stage 
they are prepared for the table in some parts of Europe (Cooke) . 

P. sulfureus, Fr. (Syn. P. citrinus, Pers.) — Collected in the 
environs of Nice and served as a food, but its quality is inferior 
(Cordier). In the United States Dr. Curtis considers its eating 
just tolerably safe, but not to be coveted. 

P. tuberaster, Pers. — Confined to Naples, and is procured by 
watering the pietra funghaia, or fungus stone, a kind of tufa, in 
which the nrycelium is imbedded (Cooke) . It is cut into slices, 
boiled several times in milk, then beaten out with a flat board and 
fried in oil (Persoon). 

P. umbellatus, Fr. — Stated by Fries to be esculent. Cordier 
says it is employed as food in Germany and in Sweden. 

Polys accum. 

A species of puff-ball which inhabit sandy tracts in warm coun- 
tries. 

Polysaccumcrassipes, DC. (Syn. Sclerodermatinctorium, Pers.) — 
Said by Cordier to be eaten in Italy. 

Rtjssula. • 

Some of this species of fungus are extremely acrid, while others 
are mild and esculent. They are much esteemed on the continent 
of Europe, though seldom used in England. 

Russula adusta, Fr. — Catalogued as edible in the Carolinas 
and in California (Curtis ; Ilarkness & Moore). 

R. alutacea, Fr. — Said by Cooke to be by no means despised 
as a food, although Badham has placed it amongst species to be 



346 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

avoided. It is marked as esculent in the Carolinas by Curtis, and 
in California by Harkness & Moore. 

R. decolorans, Fr. — Said to be esculent b}< Cooke. 

R. heteiophylla, Fr. — Common in woods. Vittadini pro- 
nounces it unsurpassed for fineness of flavor. Roques gives also 
an account in its favor as consumed in France. Harkness & 
Moore mention it as edible in California. 

R. lactea, Fr. — Cooke says found in the United States and escu- 
lent. 

R. ochroleuca, Curtis. — Edible in the United States (Curtis). 

R. vesca, Fr. — Pronounced esculent by Cooke. 

R. virescens, Pers. — In France this species is said to be pre- 
ferred by some to the ordinary mushroom, and is known in the 
south by the name of verdelte. It is common in Languedoc, where 
it is collected (Cooke). Vittadini and Rogers speak well of it, 
and the peasants of Milan toast it over embers, and eat it with a 
little salt. 

TREMELLA. 

Tremella foliacea, Curtis. — Catalogued as edible in Carolina by 
Dr. Curtis. 

T. mesenterica, Pers. — Said by Cordier to be eaten in Ger- 
many as a morel. It is catalogued by Curtis as edible in the United 
States, and T. .mesenterica^ Retz, is given by Harkness & Moore as 
edible in California. 

Tuber. 

In the market of Apt, France, alone, about 3,500 lbs. of truffles 
are exposed for sale every week during the height of the season, 
and the quantity sold during the winter reaches upwards of 60,000 
lbs., whilst the department of Vaucluse } T ields annually upwards 
of 60,000 lbs. (Cooke). In England truffles are sought for almost 
exclusively by dogs of a particular breed ; but on the continent of 
Europe sows are used for the same purpose, and the}' are raked 
up by persons who have a peculiar knack in recognizing the spots 
where they are likely to grow. In Poitou it is a common practice 
to enclose a space upon the downs, sowing it with acorns, and 
when the oaks attain size enough to shade the ground, there is 
sure to be a crop of truffles. In the South of France truffles have 



A LIST OF EDIBLE FUNGI. 347 

been procured in woods by watering the ground, previously pre- 
pared, with water in which the parings had been steeped (Berkeley). 

Tuber mstivum, Vitt. — The truffle most commonly collected 
in Britain (Cooke). Cordier says it is T. albidum, Caesalp., and 
is less delicate in taste than the T. cibarium and T. brumale. 

T. albidum Fr. — Occurs with T. mstivum, but is smaller and 
less agreeable in taste, according to Mueller. 

T. album, Bull. — Said by Unger to be edible. 

T. brumale, Mich. — The Winter truffle. Esculent (Cooke). 

T. cibarium, Sibth. — The Common truffle, or Black truffle of middle 
and South Europe. When full grown it rarely exceeds the size of 
a large walnut. It grows from two to ten inches under the ground 
(MTntosh). The European names for the truffle are, in French 
iruffe; in German truffel; in Dutch aardnoot ; in Italian tartufo nero. 
Tt seems to have been the udnon of Dioscorides. 

T. leonis, in Algeria occupies, saj's Figuier, the place of all 
the truffles of Western Europe. 

T. magnatum, Pico. (S3 r n. T. griseum, Pers.) — Cordier describes 
this species as delicate and very fine. Cooke says, a truffle eaten 
in France. Mueller says the Grey truffle is one of the most 
esteemed. Thompson calls it the Pieclmontese truffle, the most 
celebrated variety, occurring abundantly in the mountains of 
Piedmont, and sold at an enormous price. 

T. melanospermum, Vitt. (Of France, Germany, and Italy.) — 
Thompson says it is the truffle of the Paris markets, is richly 
scented, and also greatly superior in flavor to the common sort. 

T. mesentericum, Vitt. (Syn. T. cibarium, Corda.) — Said 
by Cordier to have a strong odor and savor, and to be edible, but 
little sought for. 

T. moschatus, Bull. (S\ T n. Melanogaster variegatus, Tul.) — 
Used in the west of England as a substitute for truffles, under the 
name of Red truffle. It has, however, none of the delicate aroma 
of the real truffle (Berkeley) . Cordier says it is edible', but not 
delicate. Harkness & Moore catalogue it as an edible fungus of 
California. 

T. niveum, Desf. (Syn. Terfezia Leonis, Tul.) — Not equal, 
says Berkeley, to the T. ozstivum, though it has of late attracted 
notice in Algiers from its abundance. Cordier sajs, eaten by the 
Arabs. Cooke, that it is used as an esculent in Damascus. 



348 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

T. rufum, Pico. — Called by Mueller the Keel truffle. Com- 
mon, especially in vineyards, and much used for food. 

Verpa. 

Verpa digitaliformis, Pers. — Vittadini states that it is sold in 
the Italian market, although only to be recommended when no 
other esculent fungus offers, which is sometimes the case in spring. 
Badham says this fungus is not to be despised as food when we 
cannot get better, nor to be eaten when we can. 



DATE OF FLOWERING OF TREES AND SHRUBS, 
IN EASTERN MASSACHUSETTS, 1881. 

BY JOHN ROBINSON, PROFESSOR OF BOTANY AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY 
TO THE SOCIETY, SALEM, MASS. 

April 14, Corylus Avellana. 
16, Corylus Americana. 
19, Epigsea repens (for sale on Boston streets). 

Alnus glutinosa. 

Alnus incana. 
25, Salix Smithiana. 

Salix ferruginea. 

Salix caprea. 

Salix acuminata. 

Salix discolor. 

Salix Forbesiana. 

Salix supularis. 

Salix "Kilmarnock." 

Dirca palustris. 

Taxus baccata, var. Canadensis. 

Erica carnea. 

Thuja occidentalis. 

Rhododendron Dahuricum. 



FLOWERING OF TREES AND SHRUBS, 1881. 349 

April 25, Rhododend; on chrysanthum. 
Larix Europaea. 
Ulmus Americana. 
Populns alba. 

27, Salix viminalis. 
Cornus mascula. 
Shepherdia argentea. 

28, Populus balsamea, var. candicans. 
Populns tremula. 

May 1, Populns tremuloides. 

3, Salix humilis. 

4, Magnolia conspicua. 
Forsythia viridissima. 
Forsythia Fortunei. 
Ulmus montana. 

5, Ulmus campestris. 
Acer platanoides. 
Andromeda Japonica. 
Forsythia suspensa 
Larix leptolsepis. 
Laurus Benzoin. 

6, Populus grandidentata. 
Populus dilatata. 

7, Salix livida, var. occidentalis. 
Cassandra calyculata. 
Myrica Gale. 

8, Salix tristis. 
Salix alba. 
Salix fragilis. 
Larix Americana. 
Ribes rubrum. 

9, Prunus triloba. 
Magnolia Soulangeaua. 
Amelanchier Canadensis. 
ChamaBcyparis (Retinospora) obtusa. 

10, Acer saccharinum. 
Lonicera cserulea. 
Lonicera ciliata. 
Salix Candida. 
Prunus domestica. 



350 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

May 10, Buxus sempervirens. 
JBerberis repens. 
Lonicera ciliata. 
Andromeda floribunda. 
11, Ribes aureum. 
Ribes cereum. 
Ostrya Virginica. 
Spiraea Thunbergii. 
Salix tenuifolia. 
Salix cordata. 
Salix triandra. 
Salix purpurea. 
Salix Andersoniana. 
Negundo aceroides. 
Betula lutea. 
Thuja occidentalis. 
Abies balsamea. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. oblongifolia. 
Fraxinus Americana. 
Fraxinus excelsior. 
Fraxinus pubescens. 
Nemopanthes Canadensis. 
Rhamnus alnifolia. 
Prunns Pennsylvanica. 

14, Fagus sylvatica. 
Betula lenta. 
Cercis Japonica. 
Primus Americana. 

Berberis Aqnifolium. 
Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum. 
Pjcea alba. 

15, Daphne cneorum. 
Rhododendron (Cunningham's White). 
Pirus (Malus) floribunda. 

Acer Pseudo-Platanus. 
Quercus coccinea. 
Rhododendron Rhodora. 
Quercus rubra. 
Pirus Malus. 
Andromeda polifolia. 



FLOWERING OF TREES AND SHRUBS, 1881. 351 

Ma}' 15, Primus Persica. 

Prunus clomestica. 
Prunus Armeniaca. 

16, Ledum palustre. 
Ledum latifolium. 
Ledum thymifolium. 
Lonicera caerulea. 

Prunus Cerasus (Double, White and Pink). 

Acer cissifolium. 

Syringa vulgaris. 

Rubus deliciosus. 

Rhodotypos kerrioides. 

Kerria Japonica. 

Sambucus pubens. 

Spiraea pruni folia. 

Spiraea callosa. 

JEsculus glabra. 

Cercis Canadensis. 

Prunus clomestica (Double Plum) . 

17, Celastrus Orixa. 
Acer Pennsylvanicum. 
Cornus florida (bracts opening) . 
Crataegus coccinea. 

Ribes X Gordoni. 

Prunus Hallii. 

H/ydrangea Japonica. 

Celtis Audibertiana. 

Ribes palmatum. 

Abies Nordmanniana. 
19, Picea excelsa. 
22, JEsculus Hippocastanum. 

Prunus (Weeping Cherry). 

Wistaria Sinensis. 

Juglans cinerea. 

Quercus tinctoria. 

Pinus sylvestris. 

Picea Cephalonica. 

Picea nigra. 

Abies Alcoquiana. 

Pinus Banksiana. 



352 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

May 22, Pirns baccata. 

Pirus arbutifolia. 
Pirus Toringo. 
Rhododendron nndiflorum. 
Staplrylea Bumalda. 
Staphylea trifoliata. 
Spiraea oblongifolia. 
Spiraea crenata. 
Spiraea laevigata. 

Spiraea chamaeririfolia (S. confnsa of gardens). 
Spiraea obovata, var. hypericifolia. 
Amelanchier vulgaris. 
Quercus Daimio. 
Quercns dentata. 
Prunus maritima. 
Prunus pumila. 
Euom'inus alatus. 

Ribes Grossularia, var. Uva-crispa. 
Ribes sanguineum. 
Ribes floridum. 
Ribes pro stratum. 
Forestiera acuminata. 
Syringa Persica. 
Syringa vulgaris, var. major. 
Caragana arborescens. 
Prunus nana (Double Almond). 
Prunus Persica (Double Peach) . 
Crataegus coccinea. 
Hippophae rhamnoides. 
Lonicera Tartarica. 
Berberis Thunbergii. 
Vaccinium coiymbosum. 
Betula alba, var. pubescens. • 
Betula alba, var. Dalecarlica. 
Betula fruticosa, var. Gmelini. 
Ribes saxatile. 
Ribes multiflorum. 
Celtis occidentalis, var. crassifolia. 
Celtis Tournefortii. 
24, Ribes rotundifolium. 



FLOWERING OF TREES AND SHRUBS, 1881. 353 

May 24, Ribes nigrum. 

Ribes Cynosbati. 

Akebia quinata. 

Pterocarya fraxinifolia. 

Carpinus Duanensis. 

jEsculus flava. 
25, Platanus occidentalis. 
28, Magnolia acuminata. 

Magnolia cordata. 

Magnolia Fraseri. 

Buckleya distichophylla. 

Leiophyllum buxifolium. 
June 1, Syringa Persica, var. laciniata. 

Jamesia Americana. 

Pin us rioida. 

Berberis vulgaris. 

Acer Tartaricum, var. Ginnala. 

Caiya alba. 

Carya porcina. 

Juglans nigra. 

Rhododendron calendulaceum. 

Crataegus Oxycantha (Single and Double, Red and 
White.) 

Spiraea trilobata. 

Magnolia Umbrella. 
2, Viburnum Opulus. 

Rhododendron ponticum. 

Rhododendron (Azalea) mollis. 

Rhododendron (garden varieties.) 

Viburnum lantanoides. 

Xanthoceras sorbifolia. 

Picea pungens. 

Laburnum vulgare. 

Quercus alba. 
7, Quercus glabra. 

Rosa alpina. 

Rosa alpina, var. glandulosa. 

Rosa spinosissima. 

Rosa montana. 

Vaccinium ovatum. 



354 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

June 7, Lonicera spinosa. 

Menziesia ferruginea. 

Rubus crataegifolius. 
11, Philaclelpbus coronarius. 

Robinia Pseudacacia. 

Nevieusia Alabamensis. 
13, Juglans Sieboldii. 

Neillia Mantsurica. 

Berberis Sinensis. 

Berberis emarginata. 

Berberis Canadensis. 

Euonymus pulchellus. 

Euonymus Europaeus. 

Rosa rugosa. 

Lonicera ihvolucrata. 

Lonicera oblongifolia. 

Viburnum plicatum. 

Viburnum pubescens. 

Viburnum Lentago. 

Corn us circinata. 

Cornus stolonifera. 

Andromeda ligustrina. 

Andromeda Catesbsei. 

Elaeagnus umbellatus. 

Cornus alternifolia. 

Crataegus Crus-galli. 

Liriodendron tulipifera. 

15, Chionanthus Virginica. 
Spiraea callosa, var. Indica. 
Philadelphus coronarius, var. Shrenkii. 
Philadelphus coronarius, var. ledifolius. 
Rosa blanda, var. cropularia. 

Rosa acicularis. 
Clematis Mandshurica. 
Potentilla Salesovii. 
Vinitoxicum (from Japan.) 
Syringa Josiksea. 

16, Pinus Cembra. 
Philadelphus inodorus. 
Euonymus alatus. 



FLOWERING OF TREES AND SHRUBS, 1881. 355 

June 18, Clematis coccinea. 
Acer Tartaricum. 
Ptelea trifoliata. 
Acer spicatum. 
Crataegus parviflora. 
Rosa multiflora. 
Vaccinium stamineum. 

19, Rhus Toxicodendron. 
Kalmia angustifolia. 
Philadelphus hirsntus. 
Celastrus umbellatus. 
Elaeagnus parviflora. 
Gymnocladus Canadensis. 
Rhus cotinus. 

Rhododendron brachycarpum. 
Sty rax Japonica. 
Magnolia, var. Thompsoni. 
Philadelphus coronarius, var. variegatus. 

20, Cladrastis tinctoria. 
Vitis aestivalis. 
Syringa Amurensis. 
Vaccinium erythrocarpum. 
Menziesia globularis. 
Lonicera hirsuta. 
Lonicera flava. 
Lonicera caprifolium. 
Viburnum dentatum. 
Cornus alba. 

Cornus paniculata. 
Neillia opulifolia. 
Tamarix Gallica. 
Viburnum acerifolium. 
22, Menziesia polifolia. 

Kalmia angustifolia, var. rubra. 
Ga}'lussacia dumosa. 
Cocculus Japonica. 
Tamarix tetrandra. 
Vitis Labrusca. 
Gaultheria Shallon. 
Colutea haleppica. 



356 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

June 22, Rosa canina. 

Celastrus punctatus. 

Rosa alba. 

Rosa rubi folia. 

Rosa Pugetii. 

Aralia pentaphylla. 

Euonymus American us. 

Rosa mollissiraa. 

Rubus villosus, var. flore-pleno. 

Rosa Beggariana (of gardens) . 

Andromeda mariana. 

Erica tetralix. 

Phellodendron Amurense. 

27, Magnolia glauca. 
Philadelphus grandiflorus. 

Sambucus Canadensis, vars. aurea, variegata, and 

laciniata. 
Gleditschia triacanthos. 
Deutzia crenata (single and double). 

28, Actinidia polygama. 

29, Viburnum nudum. 

30, Rhododendron maximum, , 
Andromeda pulverulenta. 
Cytisus nigricans. 

C} T tisus capitatus. 
Ligustrum vulgare. 
Lonicera sempervirens. 
Rosa rubiginosa. 
July 2, Sambucus Canadensis (type). 
Tilia Europaea. 
Itea Virginica. 

Rubus frondosus, var. laciniatus. 
Euonymus atropurpureus. 
Ceanothus Americanus. 
Lonicera Japonica (Hallii). 
Halimodendron Japonicum. 
4, Rhus typhina. 

Lonicera brachypoda. 
Rubus thyrsiflorus. 
Rubus cordifolius. 



FLOWERING OF TREES AND SHRUBS, 1881. 357 

July 6, Castanea vulgaris, var. Americana. 

10, Rhododendron viscosum. 
Spiraea salicifolia. 

11, Cladrastis Amurensis. 

15, Cornus sericea. 
Rosa setigera. 
Clematis crispa. 
Sambucus Ebulus. 
Spiraea Douglasii. 
Spiraea ariaefolia. 

Spiraea callosa, var. alba (second flowering) . 

Clematis angustifolia. 

Catalpa Kaempferi. 

H}'drangea arborescens. 

H3'drangea radiata. 

Castanea pumila. 

Fallugia paradoxa. 

Rubus phaenicolasius. 

16, Catalpa bignonioides. 
22, Tilia Americana. 

Rhus glabra. 

Rhus glabra, var. laciniata. 

Wistaria Sinensis (second flowering) . 

Tecoma radicans. 
25, Kcelreuteria paniculata. 

Pavia macrostachya. 
29, Tamarix Chinensis. 

Hypericum Kalmianum. 

Buddleia curvifolia. 

Spiraea laevigata. 

Hypericum patulum. 
Aug. 2, Cephalanthus occidentalis. 

Clematis Flammula. 

Hypericum aureura. 

Hypericum proliferum. 

Vitis aconitifolia. 

Vitis heterophylla. 

Spiraea millifolium. 

Amorpha canescens. 

Erica vagans. 
16 



358 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Aug. 2, Calluna vulgaris. 
4, Spiraea tomentosa. 
6, Hibiscus Syriacus. 
8. Aralia Chinensis. 
14, Hydrangea paniculata. 
Oxydendrum arboreum. 
Sept. 12, Callicarpa gracilis. 

Vitex Agnus-Castus. 
Oct. 21, Hamamelis Virginica. 



ISassatJiisetts fioritnilfaral jiorieig, 



OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES FOR 1882, 



President. 
FRANCIS B HAYES, of Boston. 

Vice-Presidents. 

JOHN B. MOORE, of Concord. BENJAMIN G. SMITH, of Cambridge. 

JOHN CUMMINGS, of Woburn. CHARLES H. B. BRECK, of Boston. 

Treasurer and Superintendent of the Building". 
GEORGE W. FOWLE, of Boston. 

Secretary and Librarian. 
ROBERT MANNING, of Salem.* 

Recording Secretary. 
ROBERT MANNING, of Salem. 

Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physiology. 
JOHN ROBINSON, of Salem. 

Professor of Entomology. 
SAMUEL H. SCUDDER, of Cambridge. 



$tcii|(lii^ CSoir\rnittee$. 

Executive. 

The President, FRANCIS B. HAYES, Chairman. 

The Ex-Presidents, MARSHALL P. WILDER, CHARLES M. HOVEY, JAMES 

F. C. HYDE, WILLIAM C. STRONG, FRANCIS PARKMAN, WILLIAM 

GRAY, Jr.; Chairman of Finance Committee, H. II. HUNNE- 

WELL; F. L. AMES, CHARLES H. B. BRECK, JOHN C. 

HOVEY, HENRY P. WALCOTT. 

* Communications for the Secretary, on the business of the Society, should be addressed to him at Horticul- 
tural Hall, Boston. 



360 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Finance. 

H. HOLLIS HUNNEWELL, Chairman. 

FRANCIS B. HAYES. F. L. AMES. 

Publication and Discussion. 

BENJAMIN G. SMITH, Chairman. 
JOHN B. MOORE. WILLIAM H. HUNT. 

Establishing" Prizes. 

CHAIRMAN OF COMMITTEE ON FRUITS, Chairman. 

CHAIRMEN OF COMMITTEES ON FLOWERS, VEGETABLES, AND GARDENS, 

EX OFFICI1S; C. M. ATKINSON, P. BROWN HOVEY, FEARING BURR. 

Library. 

WILLIAM E. ENDICOTT, Chairman. 

THE PROFESSOR OF BOTANY AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY 

AND THE PROFESSOR OF ENTOMOLOGY, EX OFFICI1S; 

HENRY P. WALCOTT. FRANCIS H. APPLETON. 

J. D. W. FRENCH. E. P. RICHARDSON. 

Gardens. 
JOHN G. BARKER, Chairman. 
CHAIRMEN OF COMMITTEES ON FRUITS, FLOWERS, AND VEGETABLES, 
EX OFF1CIIS; GEORGE S. HARWOOD, HENRY ROSS, E. L. ftEARD. 

Fruit. 
E. W. WOOD, Chairman. 
P. BROWN HOVEY. CHARLES F. CURTIS. O. B. HADWEN. 

BENJAMIN G. SMITH. J. W. MANNING. WARREN FENNO. 

Plants and Flowers. 
WILLIAM H. SPOONER, Chairman. 
PATRICK NORTON. JAMES CARTWRIGHT. J. H. WOODFORD. 

F. L. HARRIS. CHARLES W. ROSS. DAVID ALLAN. 

I Vegetables. 

CHARLES N. BRACKETT, Chairman. 
JOSIAH CROSBY. GEORGE W. PIERCE. CHARLES E. GRANT. 

WALTER RUSSELL. SAMUEL HARTWELL. M. W. CHADBOURNE. 

Committee of Arrangements. 

CHARLES H. B. BRECK, Chairman. 

CHAIRMEN OF COMMITTEES ON FRUITS, FLOWERS, VEGETABLES, AND 

GARDENS, EX OFFICIIS ; 
JOHN C. HOVEY. CHARLES H. HOVEY. WILLIAM H. HALLIDAY. 

C. M. ATKINSON. JAMES COMLEY. CHARLES F. CURTIS. 

JOSEPH H. WOODFORD. WARREN HEUSTIS. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



Change of residence, or any inaccuracies, should be promptly reported to the Secretary. 



Adams, George E., 
Albro, Charles, 
Alger, R. F., 
Allan, David, 
Ames, F. L., 
Ames, Frank M"., 
Ames, George, 
Ames, P. Adams, 
Amory, Charles, 
Amory, Frederick, 
Amory, James S., 
Anderson, Alexander, 
Andrews, Charles L., 
Andrews, Frank W., 
Andros, Milton, 
Appleton, Edward, 
Appleton, Francis H., 
Appleton, Win. S., 
Atkins, Elisha, 
Avery, Edward, 
Ayer, Adams, 
Ayling, Isaac, 

Bacon, George, 
Bailey, Edwin C, 
Baker, William E., 
Bancroft, John C., 
Banfield, Francis L., 
Barnard, Rev. C. F., 
Barnard, James M., 
Barnard, Robert M., 
Barnes, Walter S., 
Barnes, William H., 
Barney, Levi C, 
Barratt, James, 
Barrett, Edwin S., 
Barrows, Thomas, 
Bartlett, Edmund, 
Bates, Amos, 



Medford. 

Taunton. 

Hinsdale. 

Belmont. 

North Easton. 

Canton. 

Boston. 



Brookline. 

Boston. 

Hingham. 

Swampscott. 

Boston. 

Brookline. 

Reading. 

Peabody. 

Boston. 

Belmont. 

Boston. 



Brookline. 
Concord, N. H. 
Boston. 
Milton. 
Boston. 



Everett. 
Somerville. 

Boston. 

u 

Cambridge. 

Concord. 

Dedham, 

Newburyport. 

Hingham. 



Bates, Caleb, Kingston. 

Bayley, John P., Boston. 

Beal, Alexander, Dorchester. 

Beckford, D. R., Jr., Dedham. 

Bell, Joseph H., Quincy. 

Bemis, Emery, Grantville. 

Berry, James, Boston. 

Bickford, Weare D., Allston. 

Birchard, Charles, Framingham. 

Black, James W., 

Blagg, Samuel, 

Blanchard, J. W., 

Blaney, Henry, 

Blinn, R, D., 

Bliss, William, 

Bocher, Ferdinand, 

Bockus, Charles E., Dorchester 

Bond, George W., Boston. 

Borland, John N., 

Botume, John, 

Bouve, Thomas T., 

Bowditch, Azell C, 

Bowditch, J. Ingersoll, Boston. 

Bowditch, Wm. E., 

Bowker, William H., " 

Brackett, Cephas H., Brighton. 

Brackett, Charles N., Newton. 

Bradish, Levi J., Boston. 

Bragg, Samuel A. B., Mattapan. 

Breed, Henry A., Lynn. 

Bresee, Albert, 

Brewer, John Reed, 

Brewer, Otis, 

Brigham, William T 

Bright, William E., 

Brimmer, Martin, 

Brintnall, Benjamin, 

Brooks, Francis, 

Brown, Charles E., 



Boston. 

Newbern, N. C. 

Boston. 

Brookline. 

Lexington. 

Springfield. 

Boston. 



New London, Ct. 
Stoneham. 
Boston. 
Somerville. 



Hortonville, Vt. 
Boston. 



Waltham. 
Boston. 

CI 

Medford. 
Yarmouth, N. S. 



362 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Brown, Edward J., 
Brown G. Barnard, 
Brown, George B., 
Brown, Jacob, 
Brownell, E. S. 
Bruce, Nathaniel F., 
Bullard, William S. 
Burnett, Joseph, 
Burnham, T. O. H. P. 
Burr, Fearing, 
Burr, Matthew H., 
Buswell, Edwin W., 
Bus well, Frank E., 
Butler, Aaron, 
Butterfleld, Wm. P. 

Cadness, John, 
Cains, William, 
Calder, Augustus P., 
Capen, John, 
Carlton, Samuel A., 
Carruth, Charles, 
Carruth, Nathan, 
Carter, Miss Sabra, 
Chamberlain, C. W., 
Chapin, N. G., 
Chapman, Edward, 
Chase, A. J. 
Chase, Daniel E., 
Chase, Hezekiah S., 
Chase, William M., 
Cheney, Benjamin P., 
Child, Francis J., 
Child, William C, 
Childs, Francis, 
Childs, N. R., 
Claflin, Henry, 
Claflin, William, 
Clapp, Edward B., 
Clapp, E. W., 
Clapp, James H. 
Clapp, Lemuel, 
Clapp, William C, 
Clark, Orus, 
Clark, William S., 
Clark, W. L. 
Clarke, Miss CoraH., 



Brookline. 
Boston. 

cc 

Woburn. 
Essex June, Vt 
Stoneham. 
Boston. 
Southborough. 
,Boston. 
Hingham. 

cc 

New York. 
(< «« 

Wakefield. 
Arlington. 

Flushing, N. Y. 
South Boston. 
Boston. 

Somerville. 

Boston. 

Dorchester. 

Wilmington, 

Arlington. 

Brookline. 

Arlington. 

Lynn. 

Somerville. 

Boston. 

Worcester. 

Boston. 

Cambridge. 

Medford. 

Charlestown. 

Dorchester. 

Brighton. 

Newton. 

Dorchester. 

Walpole. 

Dorchester. 



Boston. 
Amherst. 
Neponset. 
Jamaica Plain. 



Clay, Henry, 
Cleary, Lawrence, 
Clement, Asa, 
Cleveland, Ira, 
Cobb, Albert A., 
Coburn, Isaac E., 
Codman, James M., 
Codman, Ogden, 
Coffin, G. Winthrop, 
Coffin, William E., 
Converse, E. S., 
Converse, Parker L., 
Coolidge, Joshua, 
Copeland, Franklin, 
Cox, George P., 
Coy, Samuel I., 
Craft, George, 
Crocker, George O., 
Crocker, Uriel, 
Crosby, Josiah, 
Crowell, Philander, 
Crowell, Randall H., 
Cummings, John, 
Curtis, Charles F., 
Curtis, George S., 
Cushing, Robert M., 

Daggett, Henry C, 
Damon, Samuel G., 
Dana, Charles B., 
Darling, Charles K., 
Davenport, Edward, 
Davenport, Geo. E., 
Davenport, Henry, 
Davis, Curtis, 
Davis, Hervey, 
Dawson, Jackson, 
Deblois, Stephen G., 
Denny, Clarence H. 
Denny, R. S., 
Denton, Eben, 
Dewson, Francis A., 
Dexter, F. Gordon, 
Dickerman, Geo. H. 
Dickinson, Alex., 
Dike, Charles C, 
Dix, Joseph, 



Dorchester. 

West Roxbury. 

Dracut. 

Dedham. 

Brookline. 

Everett. 

Brookline. 

Lincoln. 

West Roxbury. 

Boston. 

Maiden. 

Woburn. 

Watertown. 

West Dedham. 

Maiden. 

Boston. 

Brookline. 

New Bedford. 

Boston. 

Arlington. 

Chelsea. 

Woburn. 
Jamaica Plain. 

cc cc 

Boston. 

Boston. 

Arlington. 

Brookline. 

Boston. 

Dorchester. 

Boston. 

cc 

Cambridge. 
Cambridgeport. 
Jamaica Plain. 
Boston. 

CC 

Dorchester. 

Braintree. 

Boston. 

cc 

Somerville. 
Cambridgeport. 
Stoneham. 
Boston. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



363 



Dorr, George, 
Dove, George W.W., 
Durant, William, 
Durfee, Mrs. F. B., 
Durfee, George B., 
Dutcher, F. J., 
D'Wolf, John L., 

Eaton, Horace, 
Eldridge, Azariah, 
Eldridge, E. H., 
Ellicott, J. P., 
Endicott, William E., 
Eustis, William C, 
Everett, George, 
Everett, Otis, 
Everett, William, 
Ewell, William, 

Fairchild, Charles, 
Farlow, John S., 
Faxon, John, 
Fay, Mrs. R. L., 
Fenno, J. B., 
Fewkes, Edwin, 
Fillebrown, John, 
Fisher, James, 
Fisher, Warren, 
Flagg, Augustus, 
Fleming, Edwin, 
Fletcher, John W., 
Flint, Charles L., 
Flint, David B., 
Flynt, William N., 
Foster, John H., 
Fowle, William B., 
Freeland, Chas.Wm., 
Freeman, Abraham, 
French, Jonathan, 
French, J. D. W., 
Fuller, Henry Weld, 

Galvin, John, 
Gardner, Henry N., 
Gardner, John L., 
Gibbs, Wolcott, 
Gillard, William, 
Gilson, F. Howard, 



Dorchester. 


Glover, Albert, 


Boston. 


Andover. 


Glover, Joseph B. 


«< 


Boston. 


Goddard, A. Warren 


, Brookline. 


Fall River. 


Goddard, Mrs. M. T. 


, Newton. 


<C l( 


Gorham, James L., 


Jamaica Plain. 


Hopedale. 


Gould, Francis, 


Arlington. 


Boston. 


Gould, Samuel, 


Boston. 




Gray, James, 


Wellesley. 


Quincy. 


Gregory, J. J. H., 


Marblehead. 


Yarmouthport. 


Greig, George, 


Newton. 


Boston. 


Grinnell, Joseph, 


New Bedford. 


Jamaica Plain. 


Groom, Thomas, 


Dorchester. 


Canton. 


Grundel, Hermann, 


tt 


Hyde Park. 


Guild, J. Anson, 


Brookline. 


Concord. 






Boston. 


Hadwen, ObadiahB. 


, Worcester. 


a 


Hall, Edwin A., 


Cambridgeport. 


Dorchester. 


Hall, George A., 


Chelsea. 




Hall, George R., 


Bristol, R. I. 


Belmont. 


Hall, John R., 


Boston. 


Newton. 


Hall, Lewis, 


Cambridge. 


Quincy. 


Hall, Stephen A., 


Revere. 


Chelsea. 


Hall, William F., 


Brookline. 


Boston. 


Halliday, William H. 


, Boston. 


Newton Highl'ds. Hammond, Gard. G. 


M 
1 


Arlington. 


Hammond, Samuel, 


(( 


Boston. 


Hanson, P. G., 


Woburn. 


(< 


Harding, C. L., 


Cambridge. 


<< 


Harding, George W. 


, Dorchester. 


West Newton. 


Harding, Lewis B., 


Boston. 


Chelsea. 


Harding, W. C, 


<( 


Boston. 


Hardy, F. D., Jr., 


Cambridgeport. 


Watertown. 


Harris, Charles, 


Cambridge. 


Monson. 


Hastings, Edm. T., 


Boston. 


Boston. 


Hathaway, Seth W., 


Marblehead. 


Auburndale. 


Haughton, James, 


Boston. 


Boston. 


Haven, Alfred W., 


Portsm'th, N. H, 


Dorchester. 


Hayes, Daniel F., 


Exeter, N. H. 


Boston. 


Hayes, Francis B., 


Boston. 


<( 


Hay ward, Daniel H., 


, No. Cambridge. 


n 


Hazeltine, Hazen, 


Boston. 




Head, Charles D., 


Brookline. 


West Roxbury. 


Hilbourn, A. J., 


Chelsea. 


Belmont. 


Hill, George, 


Arlington. 


Brookline. 


Hill, John, 


Stoneham. 


Cambridge. 


Hilton, William, 


Boston. 


Boston. 


Hitchings, E. H., 


a 


Reading. 


Hodgkins, John E., 


Chelsea. 



364 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Hollis, George M., 
Hollis, John W., 
Holt, Mrs. S. A., 
Hooper, Robert C, 
Hooper, Thomas, 
Horner, Mrs. C. N. S. 
Hovey, Charles H., 
Hovey, Charles M., 
Hovey, John C, 
Hovey, P. Brown, 
Howe, George, 
Howland, John, Jr., 
Hubbard, Charles T., 
Hubbard, G. G., 
Hubbard, J. C, 
Hubbard, William J., 
Huckins, J. W., 
Humphrey, F. J., 
Humphrey, G. W., 
Hunneman, Jos. H., 
Hunnewell, H. H. 
Hunt, Franklin, 
Hunt, Moses, 
Hunt, William H., 
Hyde, James F. C, 

Inches, Henderson, 
Inches, Herman B., 

Jackson, Abraham, 
Janvrin, William S., 
Jeffries, John, Jr., 
Jenks, Charles W., 
Joyce, Mrs. E. S., 

Kakas, Edward, 
Kendall, D. S., 
Kendall, Edward, 
Kendall, J. R., 
Kendrick, Mrs. H. P., 
Kennard, Charles W., 
Kennedy, George G., 
Kenney, John M., 
Kent, John, 
Keyes, E. W., 
Keyes, George, 
Kidder, Henry P., 



Grantville. 
Brighton. 



Kidder, Nath'l T., 
Kimball, A. P., 



Boston. 



Winchester. 


King, Franklin, 


Dorchester. 


Boston. 


King, William S. 


Boston. 


Bridgewater. 


Kingman, Abner A.. 


, Brookline. 


, Georgetown. 


Kingman, C. D., 


Middleborough. 


Cambridge. 


Kinsley, Lyman, 


Cambridgeport. 


(< 


Kittredge, E. A., 


Boston. 


Cambridgeport, 






(< 


Lamb, Thomas, 


Boston. 


Boston. 


Lancaster, Charles B 


., Newton. 


New Bedford. 


Lawrence, Amos A., 


Brookline. 


Boston. 


Lawrence, Edward, 


Charlestown. 


Cambridge. 


Lawrence, James, 


Groton. 


Boston. 


Lawrence, John, 


Boston. 


t< 


Lee, Henry, 


a 


<( 


Leeson, Joseph R., 


Newton Centre. 


Dorchester. 


Lemme, Frederick, 


Natick. 


Dedham. 


Leuchars, Robert B. 


, Boston. 


Boston. 


Lewis, A. S., 


Framingham. 


Wellesley. 


Lewis, William G., 


it 


Boston. 


Lincoln, George, 


Hingham. 


a 


Locke, William H. , 


Belmont. 


Concord. 


Lodge, Giles H., 


Swampscott. 


Newton. 


Loftus, John P., 


Boston. 




Loomis, Jason B , 


Chelsea. 


Boston. 


Lord, George C, 


Newton. 


(< 


Loring, Alfred, 


South Hingham 




Loring, Caleb W., 


Boston. 


Boston. 


Loring, George B., 


Salem. 


Revere. 


Lovett, George L., 


Boston. 


Boston.- 


Low, Ariel, 


(< 


<( 


Lowder, John, 


Watertown. 


Medford. 


Lowell, Augustus, 


Boston. 




Luke, Elijah H., 


Cambridgeport. 


Medford. 


Lumb, William, 


Boston. 


Woodstock, Ont.Lunt, Charles H., 


Jamaica Plain. 


Cambridgeport. 


Lyman, Theodore, 


Brookline. 


Woburn. 


Lyon, Henry, 


Charlestown. 


Allston. 






Boston. 


Mahoney, John, 


Boston. 


a 


Mann, James F., 


Cambridge. 


Roxbury. 


•Mann, Jonathan, 


Cambridge. 


Charlestown. 


Manning, Jacob W., 


Reading. 


Denver, Col., 


Manning, Mrs. L. B. 


it 

5 


Concord. 


Manning, Robert, 


Salem. 


Boston. 


Mansfield, Henry S. 


Blackstone. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



365 



Marshall, Frederick, 
Martin, Darius A., 
Martin, John S., 
Matthews, Nathan, 
McCarty, Timothy, 
McClure, John, 
Merriam, Herbert, 
Merriam, M. H., 
Merrifield, W. T., 
Mills, Charles H.. 
Milmore, Martin, 
Minton, James, 
Mixter, Charles, 
Moore, John B., 
Moore, John H., 
Morrill, Joseph, Jr., 
Morse, Samuel F., 
Morse, Sidney B., 
Morse, William A., 
Motley, Thomas, 
Muclge, George A., 
Mudge, George W., 
Munroe, Otis, 



Everett. 

Chelsea. 

Boston. 
(< 

Providence, R. I 

Revere. 

Weston. 

Lexington. 

Worcester. 

Boston. 

Dorchester. 
Boston. 

Concord. 

Boston. 



West Roxbury. 
Ports m'th, N. II 
Lynn. 
Boston. 



Needham, Daniel, Groton. 
Newhall, George, Dorchester. 
Newman, J. R., Winchester. 

Newton, Rev. W. W., Boston. 
Nichols, Mrs. F., Dorchester. 
Nickerson, Albert W., Dedham. 
Norton, Charles W., Allston. 
Nourse, Benjamin F., Boston. 
Nourse, Benjamin F., Cambridgeport. 

Oakman, Hiram A., No. Marshfield. 
Osgood, Jas. Ripley, Boston. 
Otis, Theodora C, 
Oxnard, George D., " 

Packer, Charles H., Boston. 
Page, Thomas, " 

Paine, Robert T., " 

Palmer, John P., " 

Park, John C, Somerville. 

Parker, Augustus, Boston. 
Parker, Harvey D., " 

Parkman, Francis, Jamaica Plain. 

Partridge Henry, Dunkirk, N. Y. 



Partridge, Horace, 
Paul, Alfred W., 
Peabody, John E., 
Pearce, John, 
.Peck, O. H., 
Peck, W. G., 
Pierce, Silas, 
Penniman, A. P., 
Perkins, Augustus T. , 
Perkins, Edward N., 
Perkins, William P., 
Perry, George W., 
Philbrick, William D. 
Phillips, John C, 
Pierce, Dean, 
Pierce, George W., 
Pierce. Henry L., 
Pierce, Samuel B., 
Poole, Benjamin C., 
Poor, John R., 
Potter, Joseph S., 
Prang, Louis, 
Pratt, Lucius G. , 
Pratt, Robert M., 
Pratt, William, 
Pray, Mark W., 
Prescott, C. H., 
Prescott, Kben C, 
Prescott, W. G., 
Prescott, William G., 
Preston, George H., 
Preston, John, 
Pringle, Cyrus G., 
Proctor, Thomas P., 
Prouty, Gardner, 
Putnam, Joshua H., 

Ramsay, A. H., 
Rand, Edward S., 
Band, Miss E. L., 
Rand, Oliver J., 
Raws on, W. W., 
Ray, Joseph G., 
Rayner, John J., 
Reed, George W., 
Richards, John J., 
Richards William B 
Richardson, C. E., 



Somerville. 

Dighton. 

Salem. 

West Roxbury. 

Franklin. 

Arlington. 

Boston. 

Waltham. 

Boston. 

Brookline. 

Maiden. 

,Newton Centre. 
Boston. 
Brookline. 
Everett. 
Dorchester. 

Chelsea. 

Somerville. 

Arlington. 

Boston. 

West Newton. 

Boston. 

Winchester. 

Maiden. 

Cornwallis, N.S. 

Boston. 

Quincy. 
Boston. 
Dorchester. 
Charlotte. Vt. 
West Roxbury. 
Littleton. 
Brookline. 

Cambridge. 

Boston. 

Newton Highl'ds. 

Cambridgeport. 

Arlington. 

Franklin. 

Lexington. 

Boston. 



Cambridge. 



3G6 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Richardson, Geo. C, 
Robbins, I. Gilbert, 
Robbins, Nathan, 
Robeson, W. R., 
Robinson, J. H., 
Robinson, John, 
Rogers, John H., 
Ross, Henry, 
Ross, M. Denman, 
Ross, Waldo O., 
Ruddick, Dr.Wm.H. 
Russell, George, 
Russell, John E., 
Russell, Walter, 



Cambridge. 

Boston. 

Arlington. 

Boston. 

Dorchester. 

Salem. 

Boston. 

Newton. 

Boston. 

«« 

,South Boston. 
Woburn. 
Leicester. 
Arlington. 



Sampson, Geo. R., New York. 
Sanborn, Amos C, Cambridgeport. 
Sanford, O. S., Cordaville. 

Sargent, Charles S., Brookline. 
Sargent, Ignatius, " 

Saville, Richard L., " 

Sawyer, Timothy T., Charlestown. 
Scott, Charles, Newton. 

Scudder, C. W., Brookline. 

Sears, J.Montgomery,Boston. 
Seaver, Nathaniel, East Boston. 



Seaver, Robert, 


Jamaica Plain. 


Shaw, C. C, 


Milford, N. H. 


Shaw, S. P., 


Cambridge. 


Sheafe, Charles C, 


Boston. 


Sheafe, William, 


Brookline. 


Sheldon, Oliver S., 


Milton. 


Shimmin, Charles F. 


, Boston. 


Shorey, John L., 


Lynn. 


Skinner, Francis, 


Boston. 


Slack, Charles W., 


t< 


Slack, Lewis, 


Brookline. 


Smith, Benjamin G , 


Cambridge. 


Smith, Calvin W., 


Grantville. 


Smith, Charles H., 


Jamaica Plain. 


Smith, Chauncey, 


Cambridge. 


Smith, E. N., 


San Francisco. 


Smith, George 0., 


Boston. 


Smith, James H., 


Needham. 


Smith, W. B., 


Boston. 


Snow, Eben, 


Cambridge. 



Southmayd, John K., 
Sparhawk, Edw'd C, 
Spaulding, Edward, 
Spaulding, M. D., 
Speare, Alden, 
Springall, George, 
Springer, John, 
Stetson, Nahum, 
Stickney, Rufus B., 
Stimpson, George, 
Stimpson, H. H., 
Stone, Amos, 
Stone, George F., 
Stone, Phineas J., 
Story, E. Augustus, 
Strong, William C, 
Sturgis, John H., 
Sturgis, Russell, Jr., 
Sturtevant, E. Lewis, 
Sumner, Edward, 
Surette, Louis A., 
Swain, Charles D., 

Taft, JohnB., 
Tappan, Charles, 
Taylor, Horace B., 
Thacher, Alfred C, 
Thayer, Henry, 
Thayer, Nathaniel, 
Thurlow, Thomas C, 
Tilton, Stephen W., 
Todd, John, 
Tolman, Benjamin, 
Tolman, Miss H. S., 
Torrey, Everett, 
Turner, John M., 
Turner, Roswell W , 
Turner, Royal W., 



Boston. 

Brighton. 

Jamaica Plain. 

Boston. 

Newton Centre. 

Maiden. 

Sterling. 

Bridgewater. 

Somerville. 

New York. 

Cambridge. 

Everett. 

Newton. 

Charlestown. 

Brighton. 

Newton Centre. 

Boston. 

S. Framingham. 
Dedham. 
Concord. 
Roxbury. 

Boston. 



Dorchester. 

N. Cambridge. 

Boston. 

Newburyport. 

Boston. 

Hingham. 

Concord. 

Boston. 

Charlestown. 

Dorchester. 

BQston. 

Randolph. 



Snow, Miss SalomeH., Brunswick, Me. 



Underwood, Guy C, Boston. 
Upham, Henry, Brookline. 

Vass, William J., Boston. 
Vose, Benjamin C, Hyde Park. 

Wainwright, Wm. L., Braintree. 
Wakefield, E. H., Chelsea. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



367 



"Walcott, Edward, 
Walcott, Henry P., 
Wales, George 0., 
Walker, Edw. C. R , 
Walker, Samuel A., 
Walker, T. W., 
Walley, Mrs. W. P., 
Ward, John, 
Wardwell, W. H., 
Ware, Benjamin P., 
Warren, George W., 
Washburn, Andrew, 
Wason, Elbridge, 
Waters, Edwin F., 
Waters, George F., 
Watts, Isaac, 
Webber, Aaron D., 
Weld, Aaron D., 
Weld, Dr. Moses W., 
Weld, Richard H., 
Weld, William G., 
Weston, Leonard W., 
Weston, Seth, 
Wetherell, Leander, 
Wheelwright, A. C, 
Whipple, John A., 
Whitcomb, Wm. B., 
White, Benjamin C, 
White, Edward A., 
White, Francis A., . 



Pawtucket. 
Cambridge. 
Braintree. 
Dedham. 

Waltham. 

Boston. 

Newton. 

Newton Centre, 

Beach Bluff. 

Boston. 

Hyde Park. 

Brookline. 

Newton Centre. 

Newton. 

Belmont. 

Boston. 

West Roxbury. 

Boston. 

Brookline. 
Lincoln. 
Revere. 
Boston. 



Medford. 
Boston. 
Boston. 
Brookline. 



Whitely, Edward, 
Whiting, Nathaniel, 
Whitmore, C. 0., 
Whittle, George W., 
Whytal, Thomas G., 
Wilbur, G. B., 
Wilcutt, Levi L., 
Wilder, Edw. Baker, 
Wilder, Henry A., 
Wilder, Marshall P., 
Willard, E. W., 
Williams, Aaron D., 
Williams, Benj. B , 
Williams, Philander, 
Willis, George W., 
Willis, J. C, 
Wilson, Henry W., 
Wilson, Wm. Power, 
Winship, F. Lyman, 
Winship, Herman, 
Woerd, Charles V., 
Woerd, C. V., Jr., 
Wood, Luke H., 
Wood, R. W., 
Wood, William K., 
Woods, Henry, 
Woodward, Royal, 
Wright, George C, 
Wrisley, Frank, 



Cambridge. 

Brookline. 

Boston. 

Somerville. 

New York. 

Watertown. 

West Roxbury. 

Dorchester. 

Boston. 

Dorchester. 

Newport, R. I. 

Boston. 

Taunton. 

Chelsea. 

Boston. 

South Boston. 

Boston. 

Brighton. 

Waltham. 
it 

Marlborough. 
Jamaica Plain. 
West Newton. 
Dorchester. 
Brookline. 
West Acton. 
New York. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



Abbott, S. L., M. D. 
Adams, Charles F., 
Adams, C. S., 
Allen, Andrew F., 
Allen, Calvin, 
Allen, Nathaniel T., 
Ames, R. W., 
Anderson, Charles J. 
Atkinson, Chas. M., 
Atkinson, Edward, 
Atkinson, W. B., 



, Boston. 

Quiney. 

Framingham. 

Arlington. 

Boston. 

West Newton. 

Boston. 
, Longwood. 

Brookline. 



Bacon, Augustus, 
Bacon, William, 
Bard, James, 
Barker, John G., 
Barnes, Parker, 
Batchelder, G. W., 
Beard, Edward L., 
Beebe, J. Arthur, 
Bird, Charles, 
Bird, John L., 
Bliss, B. K., 
Bock, William A., 
Bolles, Matthew, 
Bolles, William P., 
Bolton, John B., 
Boott, William, 
Bowditch, E. Francis, 
Bradlee, John T., 
Breck, Charles H., 
Breck, Charles H. B , 
Brewer, Thomas M., 
Brooks, George, 
Brown, A. S., 
Brown, Atherton T., 
Brown, Benjamin F., 
Brown, Jona. Jr., 
Brown, Joseph T., 
Bryant, G. J. F., 



Newburyport. 

Boston 
it 

Framingham. 

Lynn. 

Boston. 

Dorchester. 

Cambridge. 

Boston. 

Revere. 

Dorchester. 

New York. 

N. Cambridge. 

Boston. 

Somerville. 

Boston. 

Framingham. 

Boston. 

Brighton. 

Boston. 

Brookline. 

Jamaica Plain. 

Boston. 

Charlestown. 

Somerville. 

Boston. 



Bull, E. W., 
Bullard, Calvin, 
Burley, Edward, 
Burr, Charles C, 
Butler, Edward, 

Capen, Aaron D., 
Carter, Maria E., 
Cartwright, James, 
Chadbourne, M. W., 
Chaffin, John C, 
Chaj)in, Gardner S., 
Chapin, George H., 
Chase, Henry L., 
Chase, Joseph S., 
Cheney, Amos P., 
Clark, James W., 
Clark, Joseph, 
Clark, Joseph W., 
Cobb, Jonathan H., 
Coe, Henry F., 
Comley, James, 
Cox, James F., 
Crafts, William A., 
Crosby, J. Allen, 
Cruickshanks, J. T., 
Curtis, Daniel T., 
Curtis, Joseph IL, 

Darling, Moses, Jr., 
Davenport, A. M., 
Davis, Frederick, 
Davis, James, 
Davis, Thomas M., 
Day, George B., 
Dean, A. J., 
Dolbear,Mrs. Alice J. 
Doogue, William, 
Duffley, Daniel, 
Dupee, James A., 



Concord. 

Boston. 

Beverly. 

Newton. 

Wellesley. 

Mattapan. 

Woburn. 

Wellesley. 

Watertown. 

Newton. 

Arlington. 

Watertown. 

Lynn. 

Maiden. 

South Natick. 

Framingham. 

Canton. 

Dedham. 

West Roxbury. 

Lexington. 

Abington. 

Boston. 

Jamaica Plain. 

Natick. 

Boston. 



South Boston. 

Watertown. 

Newton. 

Boston. 

Cambridgeport. 

Boston. 

, Somerville. 

Boston. 

Brookline. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



369 



Dyer, Mrs. E. D., Eyota, Minn. 



Eaton, Jacob, 
Edgar, William, 
Ewings, Luther B., 

Falconer, John, 
Falconer, William, 
Farrier, Amasa, 
Farrier, Mrs. C, 
Faxon, Edwin, 
Fay, Henry G., 
Felton, Arthur W., 
Fenno, Warren, 
Fletcher. Edwin, 
Foster, Joshua T., 
Fowle, Charles L., 
Fowle, George W., 
Fowle, Henry D., 
French, William E., 
Frost, George, 
Frost, Stiles, 
Fuller, William G., 

Gane, Henry A., 
Gardiner, Claudius B. 
Gardner, John, 
Garfield, Charles, 
Gaut, Samuel N., 
Gilbert, John, 
Gilbert, Samuel, 
Gilbert, W. A., 
Gill, Mrs. E. M., 
Gleason, C. W., 
Gleason, Herbert, 
Godbold, G. A., 
Goddard, Thomas, 
Goodwin. Lester, 
Gould, William P., 
Grant, Charles E., 
Graves, Frank H., 
Gray, Howard, 
Gray, William Jr., 
Gray, William, 3d, 
Greene, Malcolm H. 
Grew, Henry, 
Guerineau, Louis, 



Cambridgeport. 

Newtonville. 

Boston. 

Rochester. 

Cambridge. 

Stoneham. 
(< 

Jamaica Plain. 

Brookline. 

West Newton. 

Revere. 

Acton. 

Medford. 

Dorchester. 

Jamaica Plain. 

Boston. 

West Newton. 

Boston. 

Stoneham. 

West Newton. 
,Newburyport. 
Dedham. 
Medford. 
Somerville. 
Boston. 

Neponset. 

Medford. 

Boston. 

Maiden, 

Chelsea. 

Boston. 

Brighton. 

Jamaica Plain. 

Boston. 

West Newton. 

Dorchester. 



Hall, William T., Revere. 
Hamlin, Delwin A., South Boston. 
Harris, Miss Ellen M., Jamaica Plain, 
Harris, Frederick L., South Natick. 
Hartwell, Samuel, Lincoln. 
Harwood, George S., Newton. 
Haskell, Edward, New Bedford. 
Hatch, Samuel, Boston. 

Hayes, John L., Cambridge. 

Hayward, George P., Hingham. 
Hazleton, H. L., Boston. 

Hersey, Alfred H., • Hingham. 
Hersey, Edmund, " 

Heustis, Warren, 
Hews, Albert H., 
Higbee, Charles H., 
Hill, Benjamin D., 
Hill, Miss Katie A., 
Hinckley, Mrs. D. F., Chelsea. 
Howe, Rufus, Marlborough. 



Belmont. 

No. Cambridge. 

Salem. 

Peabody. 

Lowell. 



Ireland, George W., Somerville. 



Jameson, G. W., 

Jones, Moses, 
Jordan, Samuel, 



East Lexington. 

Brookline. 

Yarmouth. 



Kelsey, Fred W., Waverly, N. Y. 
Kendall, Jonas, Framingham. 

Kennard, Martin P., Brookline. 
Kenrick, Miss A. C, Newton. 



Malvern, Ark. 



Lamprell, Simon, 
Lang, John H. B., 
Langworthy, I. P., 
Leavens, E. W., 
Lee, Francis H., 
Livermore, Miss M., 
Loring, Charles G., 
Loring, John A., 
Lothrop, David W., 
Lothrop, H. A., 
Lothrop, Thornton K. 
Lowell, John, 

Marcou, Mrs. J., 
Markoe, G. F. H., 



Marblehead. 

Dorchester. 

Chelsea. 

Maiden. 

Salem. 

Mt. Auburn. 

Boston. 

West Medford. 
Sharon. 
,Boston. 
Newton. 

Cambridge. 
Boston. 



370 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



May, F. W. G., 
McDermott, Andrew, 
Mcintosh, A. S., 
McLaren, Anthony, 
Mellen, George M., 
Merrill, J. Warren, 
Merrill, S. A., 
Minton, Peter J., 
Morandi, Francis, 
Morris, Thomas D., 
Morrison, Hugh, 
Morton, James H., 
Murray, Daniel D., 
Muzzey, Rev. A. B., 



Boston. 

Boston. 

Forest Hills. 

Brookline. 

Cambridgeport. 

Danvers. 

Forest Hills. 

Maiden. 

Boston. 

Bay View. 

Boston. 

Brookline. 

Cambridge. 



Ridler, Charles E., Kingston. 



Roberts, Edward, 
Rogers, John F., 
Ross, Charles W., 
Russell, George, 



Hyde Park. 
Cambridge. 
Newtonville. 
Boston. 



Nightingale, Crawford,Dorchester. 
Norton, Michael H., Boston. 
Norton, Patrick, " 

Noyes, George N., Auburndale. 
Nugent, James, Boston. 



O'Brien, James, 
Oldreive, Richard, 
Olney, Richard, 
Owen, John, 

Park, William D., 
Parker, John, 
Parsons, William, 
Patterson. James, 
Payson, Samuel R., 
Phillips, Nathaniel, 
Pickering, Mrs.E.C, 
Plimpton, W. P., 
Power, Charles J., 
Pratt, Mrs. Mary L , 
Pratt, Samuel, 
Prince, Thomas, 
Putnam, Charles A., 
Putnam, Henry W., 

Randall, Macey, 
Ranlett, S. A., 
Richards, John S., 
Richardson, E. P., 



Jamaica Plain. 

Newton. 

West Roxbury. 

Cambridge. 

Boston. 



Cambridge. 

Boston. 

Dorchester. 

Cambridge. 

West Newton. 

S. Framingham. 

Hingham. 

Chelsea. 

Boston. 

Salem. 



Sharon. 
Melrose. 
Brookline. 
Lawrence. 



SafFord, Fred'k M , Dorchester. 
Saunders, Miss M. T., Salem. 
Saville, George, Quincy. 

Sawtell, J. M , Fitchburg. 

Schlegel, Adam, Boston. 

Schmitt, Georg A., Brookline. 
Scott, A. E., Lexington. 

Scott, George H., Allston. 
Scudder, Samuel H., Cambridge. 
Shattuck, F. R., Boston. 

Shedd, Abraham B., Lexington. 
Shedd, Arthur B., " 

Shepherd, C. W., West Newton. 
Sheppard, Edwin, Lowell. 
Sherman, Japhet, Medford. 
Simpson, Michael H., Saxonville. 
Sleeper, John S., Boston. 
Snow, Eugene A , Melrose. 
Southworth, Edward, Quincy. 
Spooner, William H , Jamaica Plain. 
Sprague, Charles J., Boston. 
Squire, John P., Arlington. 

Starbird, Louis D., Maiden. 
Stevenson, Hamilton, Woburn. 
Stone, Eliphalet, Dedham. 

Stone, Samuel G., Charlestown. 
Storer, Charles, Natick. 

Story, Miss Sarah W., Brighton. 
Strahan, Thomas, Chelsea. 
Sullivan, J. L. D., Somerville. 
Swan, Charles W., Boston. 



Tailby, Joseph, 
Talbot, Josiah W., 
Tapper, Thomas, 
Tobey, Miss M. B., 
Todd, Jacob, 
Torrey, Bradford, 
Trautman, Martin, 



Wellesley. 

Norwood. 

Canton. 

Brookline. 

Boston. 



Boston. 



Richardson, Horace, Framingham. Turner, Nathaniel W., 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. 371 



Underwopd, Wm. J., Belmont. 

Van der Veur, P. W., New York. 
Vaughan, J. C, Chicago, 111. 

Vinton, Mrs. C. A., Boston. 

"Walker, Charles H., Chelsea. 
"Walker, Joseph T., Boston. 
Walker, W T illiam P., Somerville. 
Watson, David, Maiden. 

Webster, John, Salem. 

Wellington, Chas. A., E. Lexington. 
Wellington, Jos. V., Cambridge. 
Wells, Benjamin T., Boston. 
Weston, Mrs. L. P., Danvers. 
Wheatland, Henry, Salem. 
Wheeler, Miss Ann C.,Cambridgeport, 
Wheildon, Wm. W., Concord. 



W T hite, Nelson B., Norwood. 
Whitney, Joel, Winchester. 

Whiton, Starkes, Hingham Centre. 
Wilde, Hiram, Randolph. 

Williams, Dudley, Jamaica Plain. 
Wilmarth, H. D., " " 

Wilson, B. Osgood, Watertown. 
Wilson, George W., Maiden. 
Wiswall, Henry M., Watertown. 
Withington, Henry H., Jamaica Plain. 
Wolcott, Mrs. J.W., Boston. 
Wood, Mrs. Anna D., West Newton. 
Wood, Miss C. S., " " 

Wood, E. W., " " 

Woodford, Jos. H., Newton. 

Zirngiebel, Denys, Needham. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. 



SECTION XXVI.— Life Members. 

The payment of thirty dollars shall constitute a Life Membership, and 
exempt the member from all future assessments ; and any member having 
once paid an admission fee, may become a Life Member by the payment of 
twenty dollars in addition thereto. 

SECTION XXVII. — Admission Fee and Annual Assessment. 

Every subscription member, before he receives his Diploma, or exercises 
the privileges of a member, shall pay the sum of ten dollars as an admission 
fee, and shall be subject afterwards to an annual assessment of two dollars. 

SECTION XXIX. — Discontinuance of Membership. 

Any member who shall neglect for the space of two years to pay his annual 
assessment, shall cease to be a member of the Society, and the Treasurer shall 
erase his name from the List of Members. 



The attention of Annual Members is particularly called to Section XXIX. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



A * denotes the" member deceased. Correspondents of the Society and others will 
confer a favor by communicating to the Secretary information of the decease, 
change of residence, etc., of Honorary or Corresponding Members. 



♦Benjamin Abbott, LL. D., Exeter, N. H. 

*John Abbott, Brunswick, Me. 

*Hon. John Quincy Adams, LL. D., late President of the United States, 

Quincy. 
♦Prof. Louis Agassiz, Cambridge. 

♦William T. Aiton, late Curator of the Royal Gardens, Kew, England. 
Thomas Allen, Ex-President of the St. Louis Horticultural Society, St. 

Louis, Mo., and Pittsfield, Mass. 
*Hon. Samuel Appleton, Boston. 
*Hon. James Arnold, New Bedford. 
♦Edward Nathaniel Bancroft, M. D., late President of the Horticultural 

and Agricultural Society of Jamaica. 
♦Hon. Philip P. Barbour, Virginia. 

♦Don Angel Calderon de la Barca, late Spanish Minister at Washington. 
♦Robert Barclay, Bury Hill, Dorking, Surrey, England. 
♦James Beekman, New York. 
♦L'Abbe Berlese, Paris. 
♦Nicholas Biddle, Philadelphia. 
♦Dr. Jacob Bigelow, Boston. 
♦Mrs. Lucy Bigelow, Medford. 
♦Le Chevalier Soulange Bodin, late Secretaire General de la Societe 

d'Horticulture de Paris. 
Hon. George S. Boutwell, Groton. 
♦Josiah Bradlee, Boston. 
♦Hon. George N. Briggs, Pittsfield. 
♦Hon. James Buchanan, late President of the United States, Lancaster, 

Penn. 
♦Jesse Buel, late President of the Albany Horticultural Society, Albany, 

N. Y. 
♦Hon. Edmund Burke, late Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C. 
♦Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, Geneva. 
Hon. Horace Capron, Ex-U. S Commissioner of Agriculture, Washington, 

D. C 
♦Commodore Isaac Chauncey, U. S. Navy, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 373 

♦Ward Chipman, late Chief Justice of New Brunswick, St. John. 

*Lewis Clapier, Philadelphia. 

♦Hon. Hekry Clay, Lexington, Ky. 

H. W. S. Cleveland, Chicago, 111. 

♦Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, Bart., England. 

♦Zacciieus Collins, late President of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 
Philadelphia. 

♦Roswell L. Colt, Paterson. N. J. 

Caleb Cope, Ex-President of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, Phila- 
delphia. 

♦William Coxe, Burlington, N. J. 

♦John P. Ccshing, Watertown. 

♦Charles W. Dabney, late U. S. Consul, Fayal, Azores. 

♦Hon. John Davis, LL. D., Boston. 

♦Sir Humphry Davy, London. 

♦Gen. Henry Alexander Scammel Deareorn, Roxbury. 

♦James Dickson, late Vice-President of the Horticultural Society of London. 

♦Mrs. Dorothy Dix, Boston. 

♦Capt. Jesse D. Elliot, U. S. Navy. 

♦Hon. Stephen Elliot, LL. D., Charleston, S. C. 

♦Hon. Henry L. Ellsworth, late Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D C. 

♦Allyn Charles Evanson, late Secretary of the King's County Agricultural 
Society, St. John, N. B. 

♦Hon. Edward Everett, LL. D., Boston. 

♦Hon. Horace Everett, Vermont. 

♦F. Faldermann, late Curator of the Imperial Botanic Garden, St. Petersburg. 

♦Hon. Millard Fillmore, late President of the United States, Buffalo, N. Y. 

♦Dr. F. E. Fischer, late Professor of Botany at the Imperial Botanic 
Garden, St. Petersburg. 

♦Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen, late President of the American Agricul- 
tural Society, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

♦Joseph Gales, Jr., late Vice-President of the Horticultural Society, 
Washington, D. C. 

♦George Gibbs, New York. 

♦Stephen Girard, Philadelphia. 

♦Hon. Robert T. Goldsborough, Talbot County, Maryland. 

♦Ephraim Goodale, South Orrington, Maine. 

♦Mrs. Rebecca Gore, Waltham. 

♦Hon. John Greig, late President of the Domestic Horticultural Society, 
Canandaigua, N. Y. 

♦Mrs. Mary Griffith, Charlies Hope, N. J. 

♦Gen. William Henry Harrison, late President of the United States, 
North Bend, O. 

♦S. P. Hildreth, M. D., Marietta, O. 

♦Thomas Hopkirk, late President of the Glasgow Horticultural Society. 

♦David Hosack, M. D. late President of the New York Horticultural 
Society. 

17 



374 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

*Levvis Hunt, Huntsburg, O. 

*Joseph R. Ingersoll, late President of the Pennsylvania Horticultural 

Society, Philadelphia. 
*Gen. Andrew Jackson, late President of the United States, Nashville, 

Tenn. 
♦Mrs. Martha Johonnot, Salem. 

♦Jared Potter Kirtland, M. D., LL. D., East Rockport, 0. 
*Thomas Andrew Knight, late President of the Horticultural Society of 

London. 
*Gen. La Fayette, La Grange, France. 
♦Le Comte De Lasteyrie, late Vice-President of the Horticultural Society 

of Paris. 
L. A. H. Latour, M. P., 1396 St. Catherine street, Montreal, Canada. 
*Baron Justus Liebig, Giessen, Germany. 

*Prof. John Lindley, late Secretary of the Horticultural Society of London. 
Franklin Litchfield, U. S. Consul at Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. 
♦Joshua Longstreth, Philadelphia. 
*Nicholas Longworth, Cincinnati. 

* Jacob Lorillard, late President of the New York Horticultural Society. 
*John C. Loudon, London. 

*Hon. John A. Lowell, Boston. 

*Baron Charles Ferdinand Henry Von Ludwig, late Vice-President of 
the South African Literary and Scientific Institution, Cape Town, 
Cape of Good Hope. 

♦Hon. Theodore Lyman, Brookline. 

Col. Theodore Lyman, Brookline. 

*Hon. James Madison, late President of the United States, Montpelier, Va. 

*Mrs. Charlotte Marryatt, Wimbledon, near London. 

Joseph Maxwell, Rio Janeiro. 

D. Smith McCauley, U. S. Consul-General, Tripoli. 

*Hon. Isaac McKim, late President of the Horticultural Society of Mary- 
land, Baltimore. 

Rev. James H. Means, Dorchester, Mass. 

* James Mease, M. D., Philadelphia. 
♦Lewis John Mentens, Brussels, Belgium. 
♦Hon. Charles F. Mercer, Virginia. 
♦Francois Andre Michaux, Paris. 
Donald G. Mitchell, New Haven, Conn. 
♦Samuel L. Mitchill, M. D., LL. D., New York. 

♦Hon. James Monroe, late President of the United States, Oak Hill, Va. 
♦Alfred S. Monson, M. D., late President of the New Haven Horticultural 

Society, New Haven, Conn. 
*Hon. A. N. Morin, Montreal, Canada. 
♦Theodore Mosselmann, Antwerp, Belgium. 
Baron R. Von Osten Sacken, Heidelberg, Germany. 
Baron Ottenfels, Austrian Minister to the Ottoman Porte. 
John Palmer, Calcutta. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 375 

♦Hon. Joel Parker, LL. D., Cambridge. 

Samuel B. Parsons, Flushing, N. Y. 
♦Hon. Thomas H. Perkins, Broofcline. 

*A. Poiteau, late Professor in the Institut Horticole de Fromont. 
*Hon. James K. Polk, late President of the United States, Nashville, Tenn. 
*John Hare Powel, Powelton, Pa. 
*Henry Pratt, Philadelphia. 

* William Prince, Flushing, N. Y. 
♦Rev. George Putnam, D. D., Roxbury. 

♦Col. Joel Rathbone, late President of the Albany and Rensselaer Horti- 
cultural Society, Albany, N. Y. 
♦Archibald John, Earl of Roseberry, late President of the Caledonian Horti- 
cultural Society. 
♦Joseph Sabine, late Secretary of the Horticultural Society of London. 
*Don Ramon de la Sagra, Havana, Cuba. 

Henry Wintiirop Sargent, Fisbkill, N. Y. 
*Sir Walter Scott, Abbotsford, Scotland. 

♦John Shepherd, late Curator of the Botanic Garden, Liverpool, England. 
*Joiin S. Skinner, late Editor of the American Farmer, Baltimore, Md. 

George W. Smith, Boston. 
*Stephen H. Smith, late President of the Rhode Island Horticultural Society. 
♦Hon. Charles Sumner, Boston. 
*Hon. John Taliaferro, Virginia. 

*Gen. James Talmadge, late President of the American Institute, N. Y. 
*Gen. Zachary Taylor, late President of the United States, Baton Rouge, 
La. 

* James Thacher, M. D., Plymouth. 
John J. Thomas, Union Springs, N. Y. 

**ames W. Thompson, M. D., Wilmington, Del. 

*Grant Thorburn, New York. 

*M. Du Petit Thouars, Paris. 

*Le Vicomte Hericart de Thury, late President of the Horticultural 
Society of Paris. 

♦Mons. Tougard, late President of the Horticultural Society of Rouen, 
France. 

*Gen. Nathan Towson, late President of the Horticultural Society, Wash- 
ington, D. C 

*Hon. John Tyler, late President of the United States, Williamsburg, Va. 

*Rev. Joseph Tyso, Wallingford, England. 

♦Hon. Martin Van Buren, late President of the United States, Kinder- 
hook, N. Y. 

♦Federal Vanderburg, M. D., New York. 

♦Jean Baptiste Van Mons, M. D., Brussels, Belgium. 

♦Gen. Stephen Van Rensselaer, Albany, N. Y. 

♦Joseph R. Van Zandt, Albany, N. Y. 

♦Benjamin Vaughan, M. D., Hallowell, Me. 

♦Petty Vaughan, London. 



376 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

*Eev. N. Villeneuve, Montreal, Canada. 
*Pierre Phillippe Andre Vilmorin, Paris. 
*James Wadsworth, Geneseo, N. Y. • 

♦Nathaniel Wallich, M. D., late Curator of the Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 
*Malthus A. Ward, M. D., late Professor in Franklin College, Athens, Ga. 
*Hon. Daniel Webster, Marshfield. 
*Hon. John Welles, Boston. 
*Jeremiah Wilkinson, Cumberland, R. I. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, Boston. 
♦Frederick Wolcott, Litchfield, Conn. 
*Ashton Yates, Liverpool, England. 

♦Lawrence Young, late President of the Kentucky Horticultural Society, 
Louisville. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



A * denotes the members deceased. 

*John Adlum, Georgetown, D. C. 

Don Francisco Aguilar, U. S. Vice-Consul at Maldonado, Banda Oriental 
del Uruguay. 
♦Mons. Alfroy, Lieusaint, France. 

James T. Allan, Ex-President of the Nebraska State Horticultural Society, 
Omaha, Neb. 

A. B. Allen, New York. 

Rev. Thomas D. Anderson, South Boston. 
♦Thomas Appleton, late U. S. Consul at Leghorn, Italy. 
*Col. Thomas Aspinwall, late U. S. Consul at London, Brookline. 

P. M. Augur, State Pomologist, Middlefield, Conn. 
*Isaac Cox Barnet, late U. S. Consul at Paris. 

Patrick Barry, Chairman of the General Fruit Committee of the American 
Pomological Society, Rochester, N. Y. 
♦Augustine Baumann, Bolwiller, Alsace. 
♦Eugene Achille Baumann, Railway, N. J. 
♦Joseph Bernard Baumann, Bolwiller, Alsace. 

Napoleon Baumann, Bolwiller, Alsace. 

D. W. Beadle, St. Catherine's, Ontario. 

Prof. W. J. Beal, Lansing, Michigan. 
♦Noel J. Becar, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
♦Edward Beck, Worton College, Isleworth, near London. 

Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, Peekskill, N. Y. 

Louis Edouard Berckmans, Rome, Ga. 

Prosper J. Berckmans, Augusta, Ga. 
♦Alexander Bivort, late Secretary of the Societe Van Mons, Fleurus, Bel- 
gium. 
♦Tripet Le Blanc, Paris. 

♦Charles D. Bragdon, Pulaski, Oswego Co., N. Y. 
♦William D. Brinckle, M. D., Philadelphia. 

♦George Brown, late U. S. Commissioner to the Sandwich Islands, Beverly. 
♦John W. Brown, Fort Gaines, Ga. 

Dr. Nehemiah Brush, East Florida. 

Arthur Bryant, Sr., Ex-President of the Illinois State Horticultural 
Society, Princeton, 111. • 

♦Robert Buist, Philadelphia. 
♦Dr. E. W. Bull, Hartford, Conn. 

William Bull, Chelsea, England. m 



378 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Rev. Robert Burnet, Ex-President of the Ontario Fruit Growers' Associa- 
tion, Pictou, N. S. 

Alexander Burton, United States Consul at Cadiz, Spain 

Isidor Bush, Bushberg, Jefferson Co., Mo, 

George W. Campbell, Delaware, Ohio. 
*Francis G. Carnes, New York. 
*Col. Robert Carr, Philadelphia. 
*Rev. John O. Choules, D. D., Newport, R. I. 
*Rev. Henry Colman, Boston. 
* James Colvill, Chelsea, England. 

Benjamin E. Cotting, M. D., Boston. 
*Samuel L. Dana, M. D., Lowell. 

J. Decaisne, Professeur de Culture au Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Jardin 
des Plantes, Paris. 
*James Deering, Portland, Me. 
*H. F. Dickehut. 

*Sir C. Wentworth Dilke, Bart., London. 
*Hon. Allen W. Dodge, Hamilton. 

Rev. H. Honywood D'Ombratn, Westwell Vicarage, Ashford, Kent, Eng- 
land. 
*Andre\v Jackson Downing, Newburg, N. Y. 

Charles Downing, Newburg, N. Y. 

Parker Earle, Cobden, 111. 
*F. R. Elliott, late Secretary of the American Pomological Society, Cleve- 
land, O. 

George Ellwanger, Rochester, N. Y. 
*George B. Emerson, LL. D., Winthrop. 
*Ebenezer Emmons, M. D. Williamstown. 
*Andrew H. Ernst, Cincinnati, O. 
*Nathaniel Fellows, Cuba. 
*Henry J. Finn, Newport, R. I. 

*VV. C. Flagg, late Secretary of the American Pomological Society, Moro, 111. 
*Michael Floy, late Vice-President of the New York Horticultural Society, 

New York City. 
*John Fox, Washington, D. C. 
*Hon. Russell Freeman, Sandwich. 

Andrew S. Fuller, Ridge wood, N. J. 

Henry Weld Fuller, Roxbury. 

Hon. Robert W. Furnas, President of the Nebraska State Horticultural 
Society, Brownville, Neb. 
*Augustin Gande, late President of the Horticultural Society, Department 

of Sarthe, France. 
*Robert H. Gardiner, Gardiner, Me. 
*Benjamin G!fc*DNER, late U. S. Consul at Palermo, Sicily. 
*Capt. James T. Gerry, U. S. Navy. 

♦Abraham P. Gibson, late U. S. Consul at St. Petersburg. 
*R. Glendinning, filhiswick, near London. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. ^79 

Prof. George L. Goodale, Cambridge. 
Charles W. Gordon, U. S. Consul at Rio Janeiro. 
Prof. Asa Gray, Cambridge. 

O. B. Hadwen, Ex-President of tbe Worcester County Horticultural Society, 
Worcester. 
*Ciiarles Henry Hall, New York. 

♦Abraham Halsey, late Corresponding Secretary of tbe New York Horti- 
cultural Society, New York. 
*Dr. Charles C. Hamilton, late President of the Fruit Growers' Association 

and International Show Society of Nova Scotia, Canard. 
♦Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris, D. D., Dorchester. 
♦Thaddeus William Harris, M. D., Cambridge. 
♦John Hay, late Architect of the Caledonian Horticultural Society. 
♦Bernard Henry, late U. S. Consul at Gibraltar, Philadelphia. 

Shirley Hibberd, Editor of the Gardener's Magazine, London, 
*J. J. Hitchcock, Baltimore. 

Robert Hogg, LL. D., Editor of the Journal of Horticulture, London. 
♦Thomas Hogg, New York. 
Thomas Hogg, New York. 
J. C. Holding, Ex-Treasurer and Secretary of the Cape of Good Hope 

Agricultural Society, Cape Town, Africa. 
Rev. S. Reynolds Hole, Caunton Manor, Newark, Nottinghamshire, 

England. 
Fisher Holmes, Sheffield, England. 
Sir Joseph Hooker, K. C. S. I., Director of the Royal Botanic Garden, 

Kew, England. 
Josiah Hoopes, West Chester, Penn. 
Prof. E. N. Horsford, Cambridge. 
*Sanford Howard, Chicago, 111. 

*Dr. William M. Howsley, late President of the Kansas State Horticul- 
tural Society, Leavenworth. 
♦Isaac Hunter, Baltimore, Md. 
♦Isaac Kurd, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
George Husjiann, Professor of Horticulture in the University of the State 
of Missouri, Columbia. 
♦Prof. Isaac W. Jackson, Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. 
Thomas P. James, Cambridge. 
Edward Jarvis, M. D., Dorchester. 
J. W. P. Jenks, Middleborough. 
William J. Johnson, M. D., Fort Gaines, Ga. 
Samuel Kneeland, M. D., Boston. 
♦Mons. Laffay, St. Cloud, near Paris, France. 

♦David Landreth, late Corresponding Secretary of the Pennsylvania Horti- 
cultural Society, Bristol, Pa. 
C. C. Langdon, Mobile, Alabama. 
♦Dr. William LeBaron, late State Entomologist, Geneva, 111. 
G. F. B. Leighton, President of the Norfolk Horticultural and Pomological 
Society, Norfolk, Va. 



38Q MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

*E. S. H. Leonard, M. D., Providence, R. I. 

♦Andre Leroy, Author of the Dictionnaire de Pomologie, Angers, France. 

J. Linden, Ghent, Belgium. 

Hon. George Lunt, Scituate. 
*F. W. Macondray, San Francisco, Cal. 

* James J. Mapes, LL. D., Newark, N. J. 

*A. Mas, late President of the Horticultural Society, Bourg-en-Bresse, France. 
Dr. Maxwell T. Masters, Editor of the Gardeners' Chronicle, London. 

* James Maury, late U. S. Consul at Liverpool, England. 
T. C. Maxwell, Geneva, N. Y. 

*William Sharp McLeay, New York. 

* James McNab, late Curator of the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Scotland. 
Thomas'Meehan, Editor of the Gardener's Monthly, Germantown, Pa. 

*Allan Melvill, New York. 
John Miller, M. D., Secretary of the Horticultural and Agricultural 
Society of Jamaica. 

* Stephen Mills, Flushing, N. Y. 

♦Charles MTntosb, Dalkeith Palace, near Edinburgh. 

J. E. Mitchell, Philadelphia. 
♦Giuseppe Monarchini, M. D., Canea, Isle of Candia. 

Edouard Morren, Editor of the Belgique Horticole, Liege, Belgium. 
*Horatio Newhall, M. D., Galena, 111. 
♦David W. Offley, late U. S. Consular Agent, Smyrna, Turkey. 

James Ombrosi, U. S. Consul, Florence, Italy. 
♦John J. Palmer, New York. 
*Victor Paquet, Paris. 

♦John W. Parker, late U. S. Consul at Amsterdam, Holland. 
♦Andre Parmentier, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

William Paul, Waltham Cross, London, N. 
*Sir Joseph Paxton, M. P., Chatsworth, England. 
*John L. Payson, late U. S: Consul at Messina, Sicily. 
*Com. Matthew C. Perry, U. S. Navy, Charlestown. 

♦David Porter, late U. S. Charge d' Affaires at the Ottoman Porte, Con- 
stantinople. 
♦Alfred Stratton Prince, Flushing, N. Y. 
♦William Robert Prince, Flushing, N. Y. 

P. T. Quinn, Newark, N. J. 

Rev. Rushton Radclyffe, London, England. 
♦William Foster Redding, Baltimore, Md. 

D. Redmond, Ocean Springs, Miss. 

Dr. S. Reynolds, Schenectady, N. Y. 
♦John H. Richards, M. D., Illinois. 

Charles V. Riley, U. S. Entomological Commissioner, Washington, D. C. 
♦Mons. J. Rinz, Jr., Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. 
♦Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, Herts, England. 

William Robinson, Editor of The Garden, London. 
♦Dr. J. Smyth Rogers, New York. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 381 

♦Capt. William S. Rogers, U. S. Navy. 

Bernard Rosier, M. D., Athens, Greece. 
*Thomas Rotch, Philadelphia. 
*George R. Russell, Roxbury. 

John B. Russell, Newmarket, N. J. 
*Rev. John Lewis Russell, Salem. 

William Saunders, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 
♦William Shaler, late U. S. Consul-General at Havana, Cuba. 
♦William Shaw, New York. 
♦Ciller R. Smith, Burlington, N. J. 
*Daniel D. Smith, Burlington, N. J. 

♦Gideon B. Smith, late Editor of the American Farmer, Baltimore, Md. 
♦John Jay Smith, Germantown, Penn. 
*Horatio Sprague, late U. S. Consul at Gibraltar. 

Robert W. Starr, Port William, Nova Scotia. 

Dr. Joseph Stayman, Leavenworth, Kansas. 
*Capt. Thomas Holdup Stevens, U. S. Navy, Middletown, Conn. 

William Fox Strangewatj, British Secretary of Legation at Naples, Italy. 

Dr. J. Strentzel, Martinez, Cal. 
">Judge E. B. Strong, Rochester, N. Y. 
♦James P. Sturgis, Canton, China. 

William Summer, Pomaria, S. C. 

Francis Summerest. 
♦Prof. Michele Tenore, late Director of the Botanic Garden at Naples, 

Italy. 
♦James Englebert Teschemacher, Boston. 
♦Robert Thompson, Chiswick, near London. 
♦George C. Thorburn, New York. 

Prof. George Thurber, Editor of the American Agriculturist, New York. 
♦John Tilson, Jr., Edwards ville, Illinois. 

♦Cav. Doct. Vincenzo Tineo, Director of the Botanic Garden at Palermo. 
♦Luther Tucker, Editor of the Cultivator, Albany, N. Y. 

Carey Tyso, Wallingford, England. 
♦Louis Van Houtte, Ghent, Belgium. 
♦Alexander Vattemare, Paris. 

♦Emilien de Wael, late Secretary of the Horticultural Society, Antwerp, 
Belgium. 

John A. Warder, M. D., President of the Ohio State Horticultural So- 
ciety, North Bend, 0. ■ 

Anthony Waterer, Knapp Hill, near Woking, Surrey, England. 
♦J. Ambrose Wight, Editor of the Prairie Fanner, Chicago, 111. 

Benjamin Samuel Williams, Holloway, London, N. 

Prof. John Wilson, Edinburgh University, Scotland. 
♦William Wilson, New York. 
♦Hon. J. F. Winoatk, Bath, Me. 
♦Gen. Joshua Wingate, Portland, Me. 
♦Joseph Augustus Wintiikop, Charleston, S. ('. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Prefatory Note, . . . . . . . . . . 119 

Business Meeting, April 2, 1881 ; Proceedings of American Pomological 
Society presented, p. 121 ; Annual Appropriations, 121 ; Amendment to 
Constitution and By-Laws, ........ 121,122 

Business Meeting, May 7; Resolutions in memory of George B.Emerson, 
LL. D., Hon. John C. Gray, Henry Yandine, and E. Fred. Washburn, pp. 
122-124; Decease of Hon. Andrews Breed announced, 124; Election of 
members, .......... 125 

Business Meeting, June 4; Resolutions in memory of Hon. Andrews Breed, 
pp. 125, 12G; Letter from Mrs. Lucy B. Lowell, 126; Letter from John C. 
Gray, 127; Resignation of Treasurer, 127; Appointment of Treasurer, 127; 
Appointment of Librarian, ........ 127 

Business Meeting, July 2; No quorum, ...... 128 

Business Meeting, August G; Vote concerning eligibility of officers rescind- 
ed, p. 128; Report on repairs of building, 128; Nominating Committees 
appointed, 128; Election of members, ...... 129 

Business Meeting, September 3; Report of Nominating Committee, 120; 
Declination of C. O. Whitmore as Chairman of Finance Committee, 129; 
Delegates to American Pomological Society, 130; Report on services of 
former Treasurer, 130; Election of members, ..... 131 

Business Meeting, October 1 ; Annual Election, pp. 131, 136; Proposals for 
membership, 131 ; Services of Charles O. Whitmore, 131 ; Decease of Sam- 
uel Downer announced, 132; Address of Dr. John A. Warder on Arbori- 
culture, 132-136 ; Thanks from American Pomological Society, . . 136 

Business Meeting, November 5; Appropriations recommended, pp. 136, 137 ; 
Decease of Hon. John A. Lowell announced, 137; Resolutions in memory 
of Samuel Downer, 137, 138; Vote concerning Arnold Arboretum, 138; 
Election of members, . . . . . . . . . 138 

Business Meeting, December 3; Resolutions in memory of Hon. John A. 
Lowell, pp. 139, 140; Reports of Committees on Flowers, Fruits, Vegeta- 
bles, Publication and Discussion, and Library read, 141; Prospective 
Prize, 141 ; Report of Secretary and Librarian read, 141 ; List of Prizes for 
1882 reported, 141 ; Election of member, ...... 141 

Business Meeting, December 10; Proposal of member, p. 142; Report of 
Committee of Arrangements read, 142; Report of Committee on Gardens 
read, 142; Schedule of Prizes adopted, 142; Remarks on Reports, 142; An- 
nouncement of Meetings for Discussion, 142; Correspondence with the 
Royal Horticultural Society and the Imperial German Academy of Natu- 
ralists, . . . . • • • • • • 14 ; . 1 1 I 



11 CONTENTS. 

Page 
Business Meeting, December 17, .... . 145 

Meeting for Discussion; Native Plants for Winter Culture, by Mrs. T. L. 

Nelson, pp. 145-149; Discussion, ....... 149-154 

Business Meeting, December 24 ; Prospective Prize for Essay, . . 154, 155 

Meeting for Discussion; Ornamental Arboriculture, by John Robinson, 

pp. 155-170; List of Trees, 170-179; Discussion, ..... 179-183 

Business Meeting, December 31, ....... 183 

Meeting for Discussion; Ornamental Arboriculture, .... 183-189 

Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers ; New and Rare Plants 
and Flowers, pp. 190-198; Azalea and Rose Show, 198, 199; Rhododendron 
Show, 199-201; Rose Exhibition, 201-204; Annual Exhibition, 204-206; 
Chrysanthemum Show, 206; Miscellaneous Exhibits, 206-208 ; Prizes and 
Gratuities aAvarded, ......... 209-226 

Report of the Committee on Fruits, pp. 227-231 ; Notes on New Fruits, 

232; Prizes and Gratuities awarded, ...... 233-245 

Report of the Committee on Vegetables^ pp. 246-249; Prizes and Gra- 
tuities awarded, . . . . . . . . . 250-258 

Report of the Committee on Gardens; Residence of Hon. Francis B. 
Hayes, pp. 258-264; Thomas C. Thurlow's Peach Orchard, 265-267; Mar- 
shall Miles's Peach Orchard, 267; John B.Moore's Peach Orchard and 
Vineyard, 267, 268; Estate of B. Perley Poore, 268; Statement of Marshall 

Miles, 269, 270; The Yellows, 271,272 

Report of the Committee of Arrangements, ..... 273 

Meeting of the American Pomological Society; Introductory Exer- 
cises, pp. 274-278 ; The Banquet, 278, 279 ; Address of President Hayes. 
279, 280 ; Response of President Wilder, 281-283 ; Speech of Governor Long, 
283, 284; Speech of Collector Beard, 285; Other Speeches, 285-291 ; Hymn 

by John G. Whittier, 288, 289 

Report of the Committee on Publication and Discussion, . . 292, 293 

Report of the Library Committee, pp. 294-296; Library Accessions, . 296-313 
Report of the Secretary and Librarian, ..... 314, 315 

Report of the Treasurer, ........ 316-319 

Report of the Finance Committee, '...... 318 

Mount Auburn Cemetery, . . . . . . . . 320, 321 

List of Edible Fungi, by E. Lewis Sturtevant, ..... 322-348 

Date of Flowering of Trees and Shrubs in Eastern Massachusetts, 

by John Robinson, ......... 349 

Officers and Standing Committees for 1882, ..... 359, 300 

Members of the Society: Life, pp. 361-367; Annual, 368-371; Honorary, 

372-376; Corresponding 377-381 

Extracts from the Constitution and By-Laws, . • . . 371 



A HISTORY 



OF 



AMERICAN HORTICULTURE, 



The attention of Trustees and Librarians of Public Libraries, 
and of Horticulturists generally, is called to the History of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, for fifty years, from its 
foundation in 1829. This work will be found of general interest, 
as the introduction comprises a sketch, much fuller than exists else- 
where, of the History of Horticulture in the United States, from 
the settlement of the country to the foundation of the Society, and 
the history of the Society onward is, in the language of President 
Hovey, in his address at the dedication of the present Hall of the 
Societ} T , "the History of Horticulture in our country." It is 
handsomely printed, on an extra quality of paper, and embellished 
with a fine steel engraving of Gen. H. A. S.-Dearborn, the first 
president, and heliotypes of the two Halls erected b}- the Society. 
Among other interesting matters, it contains an account of the 
foundation by the Society, of Mount Auburn Cemetery, the parent 
of all similar cemeteries in the country. 

The work is furnished to members of the Society at cost, $2.50, 
and to others than members for $3, but will be supplied to public 
libraries and booksellers at the same price as to members. Please 
address the Secretaiy of the Societ\ T , at Horticultural Hall, Boston. 

ROBERT MANNING, 

Secretary.